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SURFUCTANT BY ZAGROS A UMAR

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SURFUCTANT BY ZAGROS A UMAR

  1. 1. Surfactants PRESENTING BY: ZAGROS A.OMAR SUPERVISE: Dr, ROONAK Soran University Faculty of Science 2015-2016
  2. 2. Outline HISTORY OF SURFACTANT  DEFINATION OF SURFACTANT  TYPES OF SURFACTANT  STRECTURAL AGGREGATES  MICELLES  APLICATION OF SURFACTANT  SEFETY AND INVIRONMENTAL RESK  REFRENCE
  3. 3. HISTORY OF SURFACTANT the first discovery of surfactant In 1929 Kurt von Neergaard, a German-born physiologist working in Switzerland
  4. 4. Is a surface-active agent, a wetting agent, a substance, is Natural or synthetic, substance such as a detergent, that can reduce the surface tension of a liquid and thus allow it to foam or penetrate solids. D efinition:
  5. 5. Surfactant classification according to the composition of their head: nonionic, anionic, cationic, amphoteric
  6. 6. Anionic surfactants In these surfactants the hydrophilic group is negatively charged. They are the most widely used type of surfactants for laundering, dishwashing liquids and shampoos. They are particularly good at keeping the dirt. Four anionic surfactants are used: a)alkylbenzene sulfonates b) alkyl sulfates c) alkyl ether sulfates d) soaps
  7. 7. Cationic surfactants With these surfactants, the hydrophilic head is positively charged. there are several types, each used for a specific purpose. (a) Mono alkyl quaternary systems b) Esterquats
  8. 8. Nonionic surfactants These surfactants do not bear an electrical charge and are often used together with anionic surfactants. An advantage is that they do not interact with calcium and magnesium ions in hard water.
  9. 9. Amphoteric surfactants Amphoteric (or zwitterionic) surfactants are so called because the head-group carries both a negative and positive charge. A range of methods is used to produce such materials, which contain ammonium ion (a cation). The negatively charged group can be carboxylate, -CO2 - , sulfate, -OSO3 - or sulfonate, -SO3 - . A long-chain carboxylic acid reacts with a diamine to form a tertiary amine. On further reaction with sodium chloroethanoate, a quaternary salt is formed:
  10. 10. 4 nm Unimers Normal micelles spherical cylindrical Bilayer lamella Reverse micelles Inverted hexagonal phase Surfactant Aggregates
  11. 11. Micelles Direct micelles Surfactant Solubilized organic molecules (oil) H2 O Reverse micelles H2 O n-decane C10 H22 Surfactant H2 O
  12. 12. Micelle
  13. 13. Applications
  14. 14. Safety and environmental risks Most anionic and nonionic surfactants are nontoxic.
  15. 15. REFERENCE  http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/surfactanthttp://dictionary.reference.com/browse/surfactant  http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2003/July/amphiphiles.asphttp://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2003/July/amphiphiles.asp  http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/humanbody/cardiovascular/Capillaries.hthttp://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/humanbody/cardiovascular/Capillaries.ht mm  http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/materials-and-applications/surfactants.html.http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/materials-and-applications/surfactants.html.  Mayer, Robert G.Mayer, Robert G. Embalming: History, Theory, and Practice.Embalming: History, Theory, and Practice. New York:New York: Mcgraw-Hill Medical, 2012. Print.Mcgraw-Hill Medical, 2012. Print.

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