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Identification from skeletal remains

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Forensic Medicine

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Identification from skeletal remains

  1. 1. Identification from skeletal remains
  2. 2.  Age  Sex  Race  Stature
  3. 3. Race  Race can be determine from the examination of : 1. Skull 2. Mandible 3. Teeth 4. Limb bones.
  4. 4. Skull Certain differences exist between  Negroid (Black )  Caucasoid ( Europeans ).  Mongoloid ( Native Americans, Koreans, Japanese, Chinese, South east Asians )
  5. 5. Race can be determine by: 1. Cephalic index. ( breadth index ). 2. Height index. 3. Nasal index.
  6. 6. Cephalic index  The cephalic index is calculated as maximum breadth divided by maximum length of the skull multiplied by 100.
  7. 7.  Breadth is measured above the mastoid process.  Length is measured between the glabella and the occipital protrobrance with caliper.
  8. 8. Type of skull Cephalic index Race Dolico cephalic ( long headed ) 70 -74.9 Aryans, Black . Mesati cephalic ( medium headed ) 75 – 79.9 Europeans, Brachy cephalic ( round headed) 80 or > Mongolians
  9. 9. Height index  The height index is calculated as height of the skull divided by length of the skull, multiplied by 100.
  10. 10. Nasal index  The nasal index is calculated as width of nasal aperture divided by height of nasal aperture multiplied by 100.
  11. 11. Blacks Europeans Mongols Cephalic index ( CI ) 70 – 74.9 75 – 79.9 80 and above Height index ( HI ) 72 71 75 Nasal index ( NI ) 55 46 50
  12. 12. Other differences in different races Blacks European Mongols Orbits Square Triangular Rounded Nasal opening Broad Narrow and elongated Rounded Palate Rectangular Triangular Rounded
  13. 13.  The cheek bones or zygomatic arches are prominent in mongols.  in mongols, unlike other groups, the face width generally exceeds the head width.
  14. 14. Mandible and teeth In Blacks  lower jaw is strongly prognathic .  Third molar is bigger than the first two molars.
  15. 15. In Mongols:  Shovel shaped of upper central incisors.  Enamel pearls: are small nodules of enamel on the tooth surface.  Taurodontism ( bull tooth ): these are common in Mongols. The pulp cavity is wide and deep and roots are fused.  Congenital lack of third upper molar is common.
  16. 16. In white Races  Carbelli`s cusp: Small nodules on lingual surface of maxillary molar is common.
  17. 17. Limb Bones  Radio-humeral index (Brachial index): Length of RADIUS divided by length of HUMERUS multiplied by 100. Europeans Blacks Radio- humeral index Below 75 Above 80
  18. 18. Tibio-femoral index ( Crural index ): Length of tibia divided by length of femur multiplied by 100. Europeans Blacks Tibio-femoral index Below 83 Above 83
  19. 19. Sex determination from skeleton
  20. 20. General features Males Females 1 Skeleton comparatively bigger and stouter, weight = 4.5 kg Skeleton comparatively smaller and slender, weight = 3.00 kg 2 Muscular ridges, depressions and processes more prominent. Muscular ridges, depressions and processes less prominent. 3 Shaft of long bones relatively rough & articular surfaces & ends larger Shaft of long bones relatively smooth & articular surfaces & ends smaller.
  21. 21. Male pelvis Female pelvis 1 Bony framework massive Bony framework less massive 2 Inlet: deep & narrow Inlet: shallow & wide 3 Ant. Superior iliac spines not widely seperated Ant. Superior iliac spines widely separated 4 Ilium less expanded Ilium more expanded 5 Subpubic arch narrow, V shaped, angle= 70 degree Subpubic arch wide, U shaped, angle>90 degree 6 Ischial tuberosities = inverted Ischial tuberosities = everted
  22. 22. 7 Obturator foramen = ovoid Obturator foramen = triangular 8 Greater sciatic notch narrow, deep, & less then right angle Greater sciatic notch wide, shallow & almost right angle. 9 Sacrum long & narrow, has five or more segments. Well marked promontory Sacrum wide & short, has five segments. Promontory less marked. 10 Acetabulum wider & deeper Acetabulum narrower & shallower 11 Pelvic brim heart shaped Pelvic brim circular, elliptical
  23. 23. 12 Anterior curvature is equally distributed along its length. Anterior curvature is straight in upper half & sharply curved in lower half. 13 Articular surface of sacrum extends to 2 ½ to 3 vertebral bodies Articular surface of sacrum extends to 2 to 2 ½ vertebral bodies
  24. 24. Femur Male femur Female femur 1 Head of femur is larger Head of femur is smaller 2 Articular surface forms more then two thirds of sphere Articular surface forms less then two thirds of sphere 3 Neck forms obtuse angle with shaft (125 degree) Neck forms right angle with shaft
  25. 25. Skull Male Female 1 Bigger, heavier & rough. Smaller, lighter, & smooth. 2 Cranial capacity almost 10 % more Cranial capacity almost 10 % less 3 Frontal sinuses more developed Frontal sinuses less developed 4 Fronto-nasal angulation distinct Fronto-nasal angulation smoothly curved
  26. 26. Male skull Female skull 5 Glabella, supra-orbital rigdes, zygomatic arch, mastoid process, occipital protuberance, occipital condyle & muscular attachments are more pronouced. Glabella, supra-orbital rigdes, zygomatic arch, mastoid process, occipital protuberance, occipital condyle & muscular attachments are less pronouced. 6 Orbital opening comparatively big & rectangular Orbital opening comparatively small & rounded 7 Facial bones more massive & not delicate in texture. Facial bones less massive & delicate in texture.
  27. 27. Spinal column Male Female 1 Mean breadth of first cervical vertebra 83 mm Mean breadth of first cervical vertebra 72mm 2 Lumbar lordosis less marked Lumbar lordosis more marked
  28. 28. Mandible Male Female 1 Lower jaw more massive Lower jaw less massive 2 Chin - square Chin – pointed or rounded 3 Symphyseal height more Symphyseal height less 4 Ramus – more broad Ramus – less broad 5 Angle region - everted Angle region – not everted
  29. 29. Thorax Male Female 1 Thoracic cage – longer & narrower Thoracic cage – shorter & wider 2 The ribs have a less pronounced curvature The ribs have a more pronounced curvature 3 Body of sternum is bigger & more then twice the length of manubrium Body of sternum is shorter & less then twice the length of manubrium 4 Upper border of sternum at level of body of 2nd thoracic vertebra Upper border of sternum at level of body of 3nd thoracic vertebra
  30. 30. Sacral index  Sacral index ( SI ): calculated as breadth of base divided by anterior length of sacrum multiplied by 100. Male Female Sacral index 112 116
  31. 31. Ischio-pubic index  Ischio-pubic index ( IPI ): calculated by ischial length divided by pubic length multiplied by 100. Male Female Ischio-pubic index 73 - 94 91 -115
  32. 32. According to Krogman, degree of accuracy to determine sex from bone Entire skeleton 100 % Pelvis & skull 98 % Pelvis alone 95 % Skull alone 90 % Long bones alone 80 %
  33. 33. Age determination from skeleton
  34. 34. Mandible Features Infancy Adult Old age 1 Angle b/w ramus & body Obtuse right angle obtuse 2 Body Shallow & small Thin & elongated Shallow & big 3 Ramus Short & oblique Stunted Long & oblique 4 Condylar process at lower level than coronoid process Above the level of coronoid process Neck is bent backward
  35. 35. 5 Mental formamen Placed near to the lower border Midway b/w upper & lower border Near the alveolar margin
  36. 36. Spinal column  In youth : upper and lower surfaces of bodies of the vertebrae bear radial markings, at age of 10 years.  By the age of 30 years, they begin to fade and disappear.  The osteophytic outgrowths from the anterior and lateral margins of the intervertebral discs become visible by 40 years.
  37. 37.  The disc undergoes atrophic changes by about 40 – 45 years.

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