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2011 Tōhoku Earthquake2011 Tōhoku Earthquake andand
Tsunami in JapanTsunami in Japan
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVbTOg...
Content
1. Basic Information
1.1 Earthquake
1.2 Tsunamis
2. Formation
2.1 Earthquake
2.2 Tsunamis
3. Short-term Impacts
4....
Basic information
Earthquake:
Date 11 March 2011
Time 14:46 JST
Epicenter East of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku, Japan
Ma...
Basic information
Tsunami:
wave height 40.5 m
Place along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands
Fig.1,2,3 Tsun...
Formation of Earthquake
• Location
• North American Plate + Pacific
Plate
• Destructive plate margin
• Perceived shaking l...
Convection
Current
Convection
Current
• Japan Trench
• Sinking convection current
• Compression Force
• Pressure
• Stress ...
Formation of Tsunami
Pacific Plate
North American Plate
• Earthquake
• Large amount of
energy released
• Water displacemen...
Tsunami Formation
Energy radiates from epicenter
Formation of Tsunami
Tsunami Formation
• Nears land
• Shallow water
• Wave height increases
• Waves pushed inland by water behind them
• Great ...
Fig.4 Japan's electricity distribution network
── Tōhoku Electric Power
── Kansai Electric Power
Short-term Impacts
Power ...
Dam failure
•Flooding
 At least 1.5 million households had lost access to
water supplies
Fire accidents
•Break down of oi...
Short-term Impacts
Fig.6 Damaged utility pole in Ishinomaki
Interruption of Telecommunications
•Undersea cable systems wer...
Short-term Impacts
Interruption of Transportation
1. Train and railway services
•23 stations on 7 lines were washed away
(...
Interruption of Transportation
2. Aviation
•A tsunami wave
flooded Sendai Airport
•Over 300 airlines were
canceled
Short-t...
Economic loss
1. Suspending of domestic industries
• Manufacturing industry (Sony, Toyota, etc.)
• Agriculture and fishery...
4. Increased Imports
• Thermal coal and liquefied natural gas imports
• raw materials for reconstruction
5. Economy of Ind...
Short-term Impacts
Damage of Cultural Properties
•549 Cultural Properties were damaged or toppled
e.g. Stone monuments at ...
Land subsidence
•Permanent
•More prone to flooding
during high tides
Short-term Impacts
Fig.12 Land subsidence and soil
li...
Basic Information of the Nuclear Station:
Name: Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
Operator(s): Tokyo Electric Power Co...
The Japan Nuclear Crisis
Worsen the problem of
radioactivity release
Worsen the problem of
radioactivity release
Lack of e...
Source of Radioactivity Release
1. Water inside the reactors
 turned into steam and rose in the atmosphere
2. Reaction tu...
Effect of the nuclear crisis -- Regional
Social
1.Casualties
•At least 2 TEPCO employees died from "disaster
conditions"
•...
3. Relocation and Evacuation
• people living 20km around the station must leave their
home to other safer place. Till now,...
Effect of the nuclear crisis -- Regional
Fig.13 Radioactivity around Fukushima
Environment Aspect
Environmental
1. Water contamination
• Tap water ( radioactive iodine, cesium, ruthenium,
tellurium con...
Economic
1. Food production
•Milk, agricultural product and seafood with radiation
higher than the standard cannot be sold...
Environmental Aspect
Environmental
1. Air contamination
•In Hong Kong, level of iodine-131 and cesium-137 exceeds
the norm...
Remedial measures
• Set up emergency management centre
• Send rescue team to the disaster area
• Establish 113 telemetry m...
☻☻THE ENDTHE END☻☻
Thank you!Thank you!
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2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 1 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 2 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 3 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 4 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 5 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 6 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 7 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 8 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 9 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 10 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 11 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 12 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 13 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 14 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 15 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 16 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 17 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 18 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 19 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 20 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 21 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 22 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 23 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 24 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 25 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 26 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 27 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 28 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Slide 29
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2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan

The whole view of the catastrophic disaster that happened in Japan, in terms of its formation, impacts and remedial measures

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2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan

  1. 1. 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake2011 Tōhoku Earthquake andand Tsunami in JapanTsunami in Japan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVbTOgF2N90&feature=relate
  2. 2. Content 1. Basic Information 1.1 Earthquake 1.2 Tsunamis 2. Formation 2.1 Earthquake 2.2 Tsunamis 3. Short-term Impacts 4. The Japan Nuclear Crisis 5. Remedial Measures 6. Q & A
  3. 3. Basic information Earthquake: Date 11 March 2011 Time 14:46 JST Epicenter East of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku, Japan Magnitude 9.0 Max. intensity IX Duration 6 minutes Occurrence Convergence force between Pacific plate and North American plate Foreshocks 7 Aftershocks 1,235 Casualties 15,854 deaths, 26,992 injured, 3,155 people missing Destroyed house 1,168,453 Economic loss About US$ 122-235 billion (2.5%-4% of Japan GDP)
  4. 4. Basic information Tsunami: wave height 40.5 m Place along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands Fig.1,2,3 Tsunamis in Japan
  5. 5. Formation of Earthquake • Location • North American Plate + Pacific Plate • Destructive plate margin • Perceived shaking level
  6. 6. Convection Current Convection Current • Japan Trench • Sinking convection current • Compression Force • Pressure • Stress > strength • Fracture • Pressure released (subduction zone) • Seismic wave • Earthquake Formation of Earthquake
  7. 7. Formation of Tsunami Pacific Plate North American Plate • Earthquake • Large amount of energy released • Water displacement • Tsunami
  8. 8. Tsunami Formation Energy radiates from epicenter Formation of Tsunami
  9. 9. Tsunami Formation • Nears land • Shallow water • Wave height increases • Waves pushed inland by water behind them • Great energy • Destructive Formation of Tsunami http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=zA1wKF6zGoI&feature=bf_prev&list=PLD9DF609CFE10315B&lf=results_video
  10. 10. Fig.4 Japan's electricity distribution network ── Tōhoku Electric Power ── Kansai Electric Power Short-term Impacts Power shortage •Damage of nuclear and conventional power plants Around 4.4 million households were lack of electricity • Unable to share electricity (∵ 2 different systems of national power supply) (Fig.4) Worsen the problem of insufficient power supply
  11. 11. Dam failure •Flooding  At least 1.5 million households had lost access to water supplies Fire accidents •Break down of oil storage tanks Short-term Impacts Fig.5 Fire at the Cosmo Oil refinery in Ichihara
  12. 12. Short-term Impacts Fig.6 Damaged utility pole in Ishinomaki Interruption of Telecommunications •Undersea cable systems were damaged •On 11/3 , American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with working phone or Internet
  13. 13. Short-term Impacts Interruption of Transportation 1. Train and railway services •23 stations on 7 lines were washed away (Fig.7,8), with damage or loss of track in 680 locations •Near-paralysis ( 近乎癱瘓 ) (e.g. Tōhoku Expressway)  People are unable to go to work or get home  Transportation of food, medicine and fuel supply were hindered Fig.7 Remains of Shinchi Station Fig.8 Train washed away uphill from Onagawa Station
  14. 14. Interruption of Transportation 2. Aviation •A tsunami wave flooded Sendai Airport •Over 300 airlines were canceled Short-term Impacts Fig.9 Before (above) and during (bottom) the tsunami of Sendai Airport
  15. 15. Economic loss 1. Suspending of domestic industries • Manufacturing industry (Sony, Toyota, etc.) • Agriculture and fishery • Logistic 2. Reconstruction • Estimated at ¥10 trillion ($122 billion) 3. Decreased Exports • High-tech electronics and components Short-term Impacts
  16. 16. 4. Increased Imports • Thermal coal and liquefied natural gas imports • raw materials for reconstruction 5. Economy of India • long term investment into India could suffer since Japan is a major source of foreign direct investment into the country Short-term Impacts
  17. 17. Short-term Impacts Damage of Cultural Properties •549 Cultural Properties were damaged or toppled e.g. Stone monuments at the UNESCO World Heritage Site: Shrines and Temples of Nikkō Fig.10 Damage to a traditional lantern at Tokiwa shrine Fig.11 Shrines and Temples of Nikkō before the earthquake
  18. 18. Land subsidence •Permanent •More prone to flooding during high tides Short-term Impacts Fig.12 Land subsidence and soil liquefaction near an elevator shaft *Soil liquefaction ( 土壤液化 ) = a saturated soil loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, causing it to behave like a liquid •In areas of reclaimed land around Tokyo  Sudden loss of support and structural damage, including cracking of foundations
  19. 19. Basic Information of the Nuclear Station: Name: Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Operator(s): Tokyo Electric Power Company Commission date: March 26, 1971 Fig.13 Unit 1 before and after the explosion The Japan Nuclear Crisis
  20. 20. The Japan Nuclear Crisis Worsen the problem of radioactivity release Worsen the problem of radioactivity release Lack of electricityLack of electricity Reactors of the nuclear station become overheated Reactors of the nuclear station become overheated Accumulation of gas and high temperatureAccumulation of gas and high temperature Old design of Fukushima I cannot defend a huge tsunami and an earthquake having a magnitude 7 Old design of Fukushima I cannot defend a huge tsunami and an earthquake having a magnitude 7 Cooling system failed to operateCooling system failed to operate Leakage of hydrogen gas inside unit 1-4 Leakage of hydrogen gas inside unit 1-4 Units 1, 2 and 3 automatically shutdown and stop generating electricity Units 1, 2 and 3 automatically shutdown and stop generating electricity EXPLOSION!EXPLOSION!
  21. 21. Source of Radioactivity Release 1. Water inside the reactors  turned into steam and rose in the atmosphere 2. Reaction tubes  high temperature cause it to melt and released radiation to the place nearby 3. Seawater  pouring of seawater to lower melting speed of reactors
  22. 22. Effect of the nuclear crisis -- Regional Social 1.Casualties •At least 2 TEPCO employees died from "disaster conditions" •45 patients died due to lack of food, water and medical care •14 senior citizens died 2. Public Health •Over 160,000 people were screened for radiation exposure •30 workers conducting operations at the plant had exposure levels greater than 100 mSv •People may easily get cancer, born abnormal babies, and gene mutation
  23. 23. 3. Relocation and Evacuation • people living 20km around the station must leave their home to other safer place. Till now, they cannot get back home • people living 20km-30km around the station were asked to stay at home Effect of the nuclear crisis -- Regional
  24. 24. Effect of the nuclear crisis -- Regional Fig.13 Radioactivity around Fukushima
  25. 25. Environment Aspect Environmental 1. Water contamination • Tap water ( radioactive iodine, cesium, ruthenium, tellurium contamination) • Pipe tunnel water ( more than 1000 mSv radiation) • Seawater ( iodine-131 which was the 7.5 million times the standard value ) 2. Air contamination • Radioactivity release ( 43 µSv /h, i.e. a normal person receive only 0.274µSv/h ) 3. Marine ecology • Alter marine ecology since water is contaminated Effect of the nuclear crisis -- Regional
  26. 26. Economic 1. Food production •Milk, agricultural product and seafood with radiation higher than the standard cannot be sold  Food industries is hit Effect of the nuclear crisis -- Regional
  27. 27. Environmental Aspect Environmental 1. Air contamination •In Hong Kong, level of iodine-131 and cesium-137 exceeds the normal level* •In the Northern America and Europe, some radioactive iodine- 131 was dissolved in the rainwater, radioactive sulphur is also found in the air* *it will not necessarily harm human Diplomatic( 外交 ) 1.China, South Korea, America and Russia were discontent about the release of a total 11,500 tons of low-radioactive wastewater into the Pacific Ocean 2.Global nuclear renaissance is blocked 3.Shortage of salt supply (e.g. Salt panic in Hong Kong) Effect of the nuclear crisis -- International
  28. 28. Remedial measures • Set up emergency management centre • Send rescue team to the disaster area • Establish 113 telemetry monitor ( 遙測監視器 ) in Fukushima detect the radiation • Stop people to enter nuclear power plant in Fukushima avoid from receiving radiation • Pour sea water inside reactors of nuclear plants lower melting speed and temperature of the reactors • Increase capacity over railway gradually relieve passenger congestion
  29. 29. ☻☻THE ENDTHE END☻☻ Thank you!Thank you!
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The whole view of the catastrophic disaster that happened in Japan, in terms of its formation, impacts and remedial measures

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