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3.2.1 The Internet

The Internet

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3.2.1 The Internet

  1. 1. Chapter Three 3.2 The Internet 3.2.1 Overview of the Internet 3.2.1.1 Introduction to the Internet At the end of this topic, students should be able to: Explain about the Internet
  2. 2. What to cover? • Definition of Internet • Advantages and disadvantages of Internet • Intranet & extranet 2
  3. 3. The Internet • The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals Discovering Computers : Chapter 2 3 Page 74 Figure 2-1
  4. 4. Evolution of the Internet 1969 ARPANET becomes functional 1984 ARPANET has more than 1,000 individual computers linked as hosts 1986 NSF connects NSFnet to ARPANET and becomes known as the Internet 1995 NSFNet terminates its network on the Internet and resumes status as research network 1996 Internet2 is founded Today More than 550 million hosts connect to the Internet Discovering Computers : Chapter 2 4 Pages 75 - 76
  5. 5. 5 • Vast amounts of data can be stored and processed quickly and efficiently • Information is available 24 hours a day through access on the Internet or home computer files or office/ workshop servers and computer facilities Advantages of Internet Accessibility
  6. 6. 6 • Decreases in storage costs and increases in Internet connection speeds persuade more users to use cloud storage for their data. • Web application hosts often store users’ data and information on their servers, which sometimes is called cloud storage. • Cloud storage also provides users with the convenience of accessing their files from almost anywhere. Storage Advantages of Internet
  7. 7. 7 • You don’t need to leave home to shop – you can shop online and deal with bank transactions and book holidays – an advantage if your are disabled and cannot easily get out. • You can work from home and use video conferencing/ forum or chat to people across the other side of the world. ( all of which saves money and time) Online activity Advantages of Internet
  8. 8. 8 • Information is readily available, however confidential information may be accessed unless properly password controlled • In many instances, where personal and confidential records were not protected properly, individuals have found their privacy violated and identities stolen. Disadvantages of Internet Violation of Privacy
  9. 9. 9 • Adults, teens, and children around the world are using Internet to share publicly their photos, videos, journals, music, and other personal information. Some of these unsuspecting, innocent computer users have fallen victim to crimes committed by dangerous strangers. • Protect yourself and your dependents from these criminals by being cautious in e-mail messages and on Web sites. Public Safety Disadvantages of Internet
  10. 10. 10 • Prolonged or improper computer use to access to the Internet can lead to injuries or disorders of the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, neck, and back. • Computer users can protect themselves from these health risks through proper workplace design, good posture while at the computer, and appropriately spaced work breaks. • Two behavioral health risks are computer addiction and technology overload Health Risks Disadvantages of Internet
  11. 11. Networks An intranet is an internal network that uses Internet technologies An extranet allows customers or suppliers to access part of its intranet Discovering Computers : Chapter 9 11 Page 477
  12. 12. Intranet versus Extranet Discovering Computers : Chapter 9 12 Page 477 Accessibility Intranet Information accessible to employees and facilitate collaboration within an organization Extranet Allow customers and suppliers to access part of intranet
  13. 13. Chapter Three 3.2 The Internet 3.2.1 Overview of the Internet 3.2.1.2 The Internet Connection At the end of this topic, students should be able to: Describe different types of Internet connection
  14. 14. 1. Dial-up Connection 2. Broadband Internet Connection 14 Types of Connection and Internet Access
  15. 15. 1.Dial-up Connection 15
  16. 16. 1. Dial-up o PC has to dial via a phone line to connect o Conventional dial-up  Slower, but cheaper  Ties up phone lines  Relatively secure from hackers 16
  17. 17. 2. ISDN o Also transfer data over ordinary telephone lines o Typically uses two phone lines to transfer data o ISDN requires a special ISDN modem  Faster, but pricey  Doesn’t tie up phone line  Used by businesses and individuals 17
  18. 18. Advantages Disadvantages • Security • Include inexpensive hardware • Ease of setup and use • Widespread availability • Slow connection speed (max of 56Kbps) • Inconvenience • Telephone line will be tied up while accessing the Internet 18 Advantages & disadvantages of Dial-up Connection
  19. 19. • Also refer to Direct Connection or always-on connections. • Many home and small business users connect to the Internet via high-speed broadband Internet service • PC is continually connected to the Internet • Used in the home and office • Because you are always connected, it is important to protect your computer from hackers 19 2. Broadband Internet Connection
  20. 20. • Types of broadband connection Discovering Computers : Chapter 2 20 Page 76 DSL Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) Fixed wireless Cellular Radio Network Cable Internet service Wi-Fi Satellite Internet Service
  21. 21. 21 • DSL – Digital Subscriber Line • Broadband delivered over telephone lines o Must be less than 3 miles from a switching station o Transmits over telephone lines but does not tie up the line • Fast, direct Internet access via standard telephone line • ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the more popular types of DSLs. DSL
  22. 22. How the Internet Operate How might data travel the Internet using a telephone line connection? Step 1. Request data from a server on Internet Step 5. Regional ISP uses leased lines to send data to a national ISP Step 6. National ISP routes data across the country Step 8. Server sends data back to you Step 2. Modem converts digital signals to analog signals Step 3. Data travels through telephone lines to a local ISP Step 4. Data passes through routers Step 7. National ISP passes data to local ISP 22
  23. 23. • Also known as Broadband over Fiber (BoF) • Delivers over fiber-optic cabling all the way to the building o Available in limited areas o Fast but expensive • Uses fiber-optic cable • Provide high-speed Internet access to house and business users. 23 Fiber to the Premises (FTTP)
  24. 24. • Uses radio transmission towers rather than satellites • Not available in all areas. • Expected to use Worldwide Interoperbility for Microwave Access (WiMAX) • Provides high-speed Internet connections using a dish-shaped antenna to communicate via radio signals. 24 Fixed wireless
  25. 25. • Also known as Mobile wireless • Access via mobile phone or mobile device • Offers high-speed Internet connections to devices with built-in compatible technology or computers with wireless modems. • Categories : 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G. 25 Cellular Radio Network
  26. 26. • Cable: Most widely used home broadband connection • Provides high-speed Internet access through the cable television network via a cable modem. • A new technology in Malaysia 26 Cable Internet Service/ Cable Modem
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. • Data is transmitted through radio waves. • Public wireless networks o Both free and fee-based are available o Currently Wi-Fi for short range, but WiMAX may soon be an option • Provide high-speed Internet connections to compatible or properly equipped wireless computers and device. 28 Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
  29. 29. • WiFi hotspots are places that provide a user with free or paid Internet services. Eg: Airport, Café, Hotel, hostel, Offices and other public buildings. Wi-Fi Hotspot 29
  30. 30. • Broadband option for rural areas o Slower and more expensive than cable or DSL o Available in many areas other broadband options are not • Provides high-speed Internet connections via satellite. • A satellite dish communicates with a satellite modem. 30 Satellite Internet service
  31. 31. Common Types of Internet Connections 31
  32. 32. Difference between dial-up and broadband • Dial up connection speed is generally 56k (sometimes slower). Basic entry level speed to Broadband is 256k. The obvious difference here is that the Broadband connection speed is almost 5 times faster than Dial up (Refer to ‘Broadband Speeds’). 32
  33. 33. Chapter Three 3.2 The Internet 3.2.1 Overview of the Internet 3.2.1.3 Internet Service Provider At the end of this topic, students should be able to: 1. Explain the Internet Service Provider. 2. List examples of Internet Service Provider in Malaysia
  34. 34. • Access Providers is a business that provides individuals and organizations access to the Internet for free or for a fee • Access providers are categorized as  regional or national ISPs  online service providers  wireless Internet service providers Access Providers 34
  35. 35. • An ISP (Internet service provider) is a regional or national access provider. ISP (Internet service provider) 35 Regional ISPs provide Internet access to a specific geographical area National ISPs provide Internet access in cities and towns nationwide
  36. 36. Responsibilities of an ISP • Providing and maintaining a connection to the Internet • Support the hardware and software needed to service that connection • To protect their site and network from external threats such as viruses, hacker attacks and other illegal activities • Provide 24-hour customer service and technical support 36
  37. 37. Examples of ISP in Malaysia 37 • TMNet • TIME • Maxis • Celcom • Jaring • Digi • Packet One Network • Umobile • YTL
  38. 38. Discovering Computers : Chapter 2 38 Page 78 • In addition to providing Internet access, an online service provider (OSP) also has many members-only features such as instant messaging or their own customized version of a Web browser. • A wireless Internet service provider, sometimes called a wireless data provider, is a company that provides wireless Internet access to desktop and notebook computers and mobile devices, such as smart phones and portable media players, with built-in wireless capability (such as Wi-Fi) or to computers using wireless modems or wireless access devices. OSP & Wireless ISP
  39. 39. Online service provider (OSP) Has many members-only features Popular OSPs services include Wireless Internet service provider Provides wireless Internet access to computers and mobile devices May require a wireless modem Discovering Computers : Chapter 2 39 Page 78
  40. 40. Chapter Three 3.2 The Internet 3.2.1 Overview of the Internet 3.2.1.4 The Internet Address At the end of this topic, students should be able to: 1. Identify the structure of IP address 2. Describe the purpose of an IP address and its relationship to a domain name
  41. 41. Internet Address The protocol that provides for addressing and routing Internet packets from one computer to another IP (Internet Protocol) 41 A standard that outlines characteristics of how two network devices communicate is called a protocol. • your computer must have an IP address (Internet Protocol address) to connect to the Internet or another computer that has an IP address. • IP address has four parts number, separated by periods • First portion of each IP address identifies the network • Last portion identifies the specific computer • The number in each group is between 0 and 255
  42. 42. A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet Definition of IP address A unique 32-bit number assigned to network devices that use Internet Protocol 42 **These all-numeric IP addresses are difficult to remember and use. Thus, the Internet supports the use of a text name that represents one or more IP addresses, known as Domain Name.
  43. 43. 0.0.0.0 (default network) 127.0.0.1 (for testing as a loopback address) 255.255.255.255 (network broadcast) Special reserved IP addresses10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (private networks) 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (private networks) 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (private networks) 43
  44. 44. Domain name • The text version of an IP address • The text in the domain name up to the first period identifies the type of Internet server. • Every domain name contains a top-level domain (TLD), which is the last section of the domain name. It is used usually to identify the type of organization associated with the domain. • You register for a domain name from a registrar, which is an organization that sells and manages domain names. Domain Name System (DNS) • Method that the Internet uses to store domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. • translates the domain name into its associated IP address. Domain Name System (DNS) Server A server on the internet that usually is associated with an ISP. 44
  45. 45. 45 173.194.78.103
  46. 46. Top-level domain (TLD) The last section of the domain name Example : my – Malaysia au – Australia sg – Singapore Purpose of Top-level domain (TLD) Country Code Top- level domain (ccTLD) 46 Identifies the type of organization associated with the domain
  47. 47. 47 How IP address, domain name and Domain name Server works
  48. 48. Examples of Top Level Domain 48
  49. 49. TLD for music and online broadcasting • .fm • .ikim • .astro 49
  50. 50. Version 4 of Internet Protocol, the most widely used version of IP Version 6 of Internet Protocol, has more capabilities than IPv4, including providing for far more IP address IPv4 IPv6 50
  51. 51. Currently, two versions of IP addresses exist: IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4) and IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6). An IPv4 address has two parts that identify a specific computer: one part to identify the network where that computer resides and a second part to pinpoint the specific computer or host within that network. Because each of the 8 bits can be 1 or 0, the total possible combinations per octet are 28, or 256. Combining the four octets of an IP address provides a possible 232 or 4,294,967,296 unique values. 51
  52. 52. 52 Billions of IP addresses sounds like a lot. But, because so many computers and other devices connected to the Internet need unique IP addresses, a growing shortage of IP addresses exists. An IPv6 address has three parts: a global prefix to identify the network, a subnet to identify the location within the network, and the interface ID to identify the specific computer or host. IPv6 will use 216 (hexadecimal) is 128 bits address. Combining the eight octets of an IP address provides a possible 2128 which will provide 3.4 x 1038, or 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IP addresses.

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