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Chapter 4 Computer Science :: Computer Ethics and Security

this is an obsolete chapters, but still the content is still viewable and presentable

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Chapter 4 Computer Science :: Computer Ethics and Security

  1. 1. Why ? At the end of this chapter, student should be able to : ● defining ; ○ computer ethics, computer security risks ● list areas of computer ethics. ● identify types of security risks. ● identify different ways to overcome security risks ● identify types of Intellectual Property ● describe the importance of Intellectual Property why peoples, especially students who enrolled SC015 need to acquire the knowledge of - Computer Ethics & Security ?
  2. 2. Ethics and Society Ethics, standards determine whether an action is good or bad Computer Ethics, moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 581
  3. 3. Ethics and Society cont' Seven (7) frequently discussed areas of computer ethics are :- 1. unauthorized use of computers & networks. 2. software theft (piracy). 3. information accuracy. 4. intellectual property rights. 5. codes of conduct. 6. information privacy, and 7. green computing. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 581
  4. 4. Ethics and Society cont' Seven (7) frequently discussed areas of computer ethics are :- 1. unauthorized use of computers & networks. 2. software theft (piracy). 3. information accuracy. 4. intellectual property rights. 5. codes of conduct. 6. information privacy, and 7. green computing. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 581 We discuss about these list later, :)
  5. 5. Computer Security Risks Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 556 Computer Security Risks any event or action that could cause a loss or damage to computer Computer Crime any illegal act involving a computer. Cybercrime online or Internet-based illegal acts.
  6. 6. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 556 *Perpetrators of cybercrime fall into seven (7) basic categories :- hacker, cracker, script kiddie, corporate spy, unethical employee, cyberextortionist and cyberterrorist. perpetrators - someone who has committed a crime
  7. 7. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 556 #1. Hacker ● a computer *enthusiast. ● accessing computer or network illegally. ● the intention of their security breaches is to improve security. ● advanced computer & network skills. enthusiast - person who is highly interested in a particular activity or subject.
  8. 8. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 556 #2. Cracker ● illegally accessing computer with intention to, ● destroy data, stealing information and attempting several malicious act. ● advanced computer & network skills.
  9. 9. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 556 #3. Script Kiddie ● same intention with cracker BUT, ● lack technical skills knowledge. ● depends on prewritten hacking and cracking programs to break into computers. enthusiast - person who is highly interested in a particular activity or subject.
  10. 10. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 556 #4. Corporate Spy ● excellent computer & networking skills. ● hired to break & steals *proprietary data & informations in a computers, OR ● to help identify security risks in own companies. proprietary - relating to an owner or ownership.
  11. 11. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 556 #5. Unethical Employee ● exploiting a security weakness. ● seeking financial gains from selling confidential information. ● unsatisfied employees may want to revenge. proprietary - relating to an owner or ownership.
  12. 12. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 557 #6. Cyberextortionist ● uses e-mail for extortion. ● threatening (if they are not paid with money) actions such as :- ○ exposing confidential information ○ exploit security flaw ○ launch an attack (compromising the organization's network)
  13. 13. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 557 #7. Cyberterrorist ● uses Internet or network to, ● destroy or damage computers for, ● political reasons ● targetting :- ○ nation's air traffic control system ○ electricity-generating companies ○ telecommunications infrastructures.
  14. 14. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 557 The more common computer security risks include :- Internet and Networks Attacks, Unauthorized Access and Use, Hardware/Software/Information Theft and System Failure
  15. 15. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 557 The more common computer security risks include :-
  16. 16. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 557 The more common computer security risks include :- Internet and Networks Attacks, Unauthorized Access and Use, Hardware/Software/Information Theft and System Failure
  17. 17. after completing this section you will be able to Describe various types of Internet and network attacks (computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, rootkits, botnets, denial of service attacks, back doors, spoofing), and Identify ways to safeguard (safety/security measures) against these attacks, including using firewalls, intrusion detection software and honeypots. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 555 Common Internet/Network Attacks
  18. 18. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 558 Internet and networks attacks that *jeopardize security includes :- jeopardize - put (someone or something) into a situation in which there is a danger of loss, harm, or failure ● rootkits; ● botnets; ● denial of service attacks; ● spoofing ● computer viruses, ● worms, ● Trojan horses
  19. 19. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Computer Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Rootkits Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 558 ● Every unprotected computer is susceptible to the first type of computer security risk ● Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and rootkits are classified as malware (short for malicious software). ● Malware - program that act without user's knowledge and deliberately alter the computer's operation.
  20. 20. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Computer Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Rootkits Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 558 ● Virus or computer virus is a program (computer program) ● create to infects a computer, and gives negatives effects (damaging files, system software, and operating system) ● altering the operation of a computer without user's knowledge or permission.
  21. 21. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Computer Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Rootkits Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 558 ● Worm is also a program (computer program) ● create to copy itself in a computer, and gives negatives effects (using up resources and possibly shutting down a computer or network) ● repeatedly copies and resides in memory of a computer, or even in the network.
  22. 22. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Computer Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Rootkits Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 558 ● Trojan horse is also a program (computer program) ● looks like a legitimate program, and gives negatives effects when being triggered (damaging files, system software, and operating system) ● does not replicate such as worms.
  23. 23. Who ? who creates - Computer Viruses, Worms, Trojan horse ? Why ? why they creates these malicious program ? What ? What is the similarities of Computer Viruses, Worms and Trojan horse ? and what about Rootkits ? How ? .. how does a viruses, or a worm infected computer ?
  24. 24. img src : http://www.microsoft.com/security/pc-security/conficker. aspx
  25. 25. What ? What are the symptoms if a computer has been compromised by a virus, worm, trojan horse How ? .. to secure (safeguards) computer from all threats (Computer Virus, Worm, Trojan horse and rootkits - and all of their siblings ? (spyware, back door) Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Computer Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Rootkits
  26. 26. What ? What are the symptoms if a computer has been compromised by a virus, worm, trojan horse ● operating system (OS) run much slower than usual ● available memory is less than expected ● files becomes corrupted ● screen displays unusual message or image ● musics or unusual sounds play randomly ● existing programs and files disappear ● system properties change ● OS does not start-up ● OS shuts down unexpectedly
  27. 27. How to safeguards a computer from viruses ? Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 560
  28. 28. ● by using any antivirus program, user can safeguards a computer system from viruses and other malware. ● Antivirus program - a program that protects computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media or on incoming files. ● Popular antivirus program ; ○ Kaspersky Anti-Virus ○ avast! antivirus ○ CA Anti-Virus ○ McAfee VirusScan ○ AVG Anti-Virus Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 560 Safeguards against Computer Viruses and other Malware
  29. 29. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 562 Internet and networks attacks that jeopardize security includes :- jeopardize - put (someone or something) into a situation in which there is a danger of loss, harm, or failure ● rootkits; ● botnets; ● denial of service attacks; ● spoofing ● computer viruses, ● worms, ● Trojan horses
  30. 30. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Botnets; Denial of Services (DoS) Attacks; and Spoofing. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 562 ● group of compromised computers in a network. ● compromised computers also known as zombies - a computer that being controlled remotely by an outsider. ● used as a part of network to attack other networks, usually for *nefarious purposes. nefarious - wicked or criminal: "the nefarious activities of the organized-crime syndicates". .
  31. 31. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Botnets; Denial of Services (DoS) Attacks; and Spoofing. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 562 ● an assault to an Internet services (example of Internet services : web e-mails). ● purpose to disrupt computer access to an Internet services ● variant of DoS is distributed DoS or DDoS (using zombies).
  32. 32. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Botnets; Denial of Services (DoS) Attacks; and Spoofing. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 563 ● technique that make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network. ● spoofing variants includes ; ○ e-mail spoofing ○ IP-spoofing
  33. 33. Common Computer Security Risks #1 Internet and Networks Attacks Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 562 Internet and networks attacks that *jeopardize security includes :- jeopardize - put (someone or something) into a situation in which there is a danger of loss, harm, or failure ● rootkits; ● botnets; ● denial of service attacks; ● spoofing ● computer viruses, ● worms, ● Trojan horses
  34. 34. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 560 How to safeguards a computer from .. Botnets, DoS, DDoS, Spoofing - and all of their siblings ? (rootkit, back doors)
  35. 35. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 563 Safeguards against Botnets, DoS/DDoS Attacks, Back Doors and Spoofing some of the latest antivirus programs include provisions to protect a computer from DoS/DDoS attacks. user also can ; ● use firewall solutions, ● install an *intrusion detection software, and ● setup *honeypots
  36. 36. Firewall ; ● is a hardware and/or software ● protect a network’s resources from intrusion by users on another network (i.e Internet) ● should be implemented in all networked computer. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 563 Safeguards against Botnets, DoS/DDoS Attacks, Back Doors and Spoofing
  37. 37. Personal Firewall ; ● is a utility program (firewall software) ● detects and protects personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions. ● constantly monitor transmissions and inform user of any attempted intrusion. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 563 Safeguards against Botnets, DoS/DDoS Attacks, Back Doors and Spoofing Stand-Alone Personal Firewall Software ● Norton Personal Firewall ● CA Personal Firewall ● McAfee Internet Security ● Webroot Desktop Firewall ● ZoneAlam Pro ● *Windows Firewall * included with the installation of Windows-based operating system
  38. 38. example concept, the uses of Firewall ; Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 563 Safeguards against Botnets, DoS/DDoS Attacks, Back Doors and Spoofing
  39. 39. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 564 The more common computer security risks include :- Internet and Networks Attacks, Unauthorized Access and Use, Hardware/Software/Information Theft and System Failure
  40. 40. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 564 Common Computer Security Risks #2 Unauthorized Access and Use ● Unauthorized access - the use of a computer without permission. ● Unauthorized use - the use of computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal act. ○ illegal act includes; ■ sending personal e-mail messages. ■ accessing to a bank computer and perform unauthorized transfer, ■ etc
  41. 41. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 565 How to safeguards a computer from .. Unauthorized Access and Use
  42. 42. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 565 Safeguards against Unauthorized Access and Use ● organizations should use access control to minimize the chance of a perpetrator intentionally accessing confidential information on a computer. ● Access control - a security measure that defines who can access computer, what actions they can take while accessing the computer. ● Two-phases process in implementing access-control is ; ○ identification , ■ process to verifies the validity of a user. ○ authentication ■ process to verifies the individual is the person he or she claims to be.
  43. 43. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 566 Safeguards against Unauthorized Access and Use ● Identification and Authentication Methods ○ user name ○ password ● User name or user ID (identification), is a unique combination of characters (alphanumeric) that identifies one specific user. ● Password, private combination of characters associated with the user name that allow access to certain computer resources.
  44. 44. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 570 The more common computer security risks include :- Internet and Networks Attacks, Unauthorized Access and Use, Hardware/Software/Information Theft and System Failure
  45. 45. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 570 Common Computer Security Risks #3 Hardware/Software/Information Theft ● hardware theft - act of stealing computer equipment. ● software theft's variants act includes; ■ steals software media ■ intentionally erases programs ■ illegally copies a programs, OR/AND ■ illegally registers and/or activates program ● information theft - act of stealing personal or confidential info.
  46. 46. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 570 How to safeguards a computer from .. Hardware, Software, Information Theft
  47. 47. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 570 Safeguards against Hardware Theft ● using physical access controls such as ; ○ locked doors and windows ● installing alarm systems for additional security. ● attach physical security devices such as cables that lock ○ equipment to desk. ○ mobile computer to a stationary object.
  48. 48. ● to protect software media from being stolen owners should keep .. ○ original software boxes and media in secure location (i.e media cabinets with lock). ● to protect from software piracy, software manufacturers should .. ○ issue users license agreement, ■ the right to use the software ● (single user license/end-user license agreement) Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 571 Safeguards against Software Theft
  49. 49. ● to protect information on the Internet and networks, organizations and individuals use a variety of encryption techniques. ○ encryption - converting readable data (plaintext) into unreadable characters (ciphertext), preventing unauthorized access. ○ decryption - converting unreadable data (ciphertext) to its original state/data (plaintext) ○ the study of encryption and decryption process (to promote a secure communication) is often known as a cryptography. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 573 Safeguards against Information Theft
  50. 50. Computer Security Risks cont' Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 575 The more common computer security risks include :- Internet and Networks Attacks, Unauthorized Access and Use, Hardware/Software/Information Theft and System Failure
  51. 51. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 570 Common Computer Security Risks #4 System Failure ● System failure is a prolonged malfunction of a computer. ● It can cause loss of ; ○ hardware, software, data and information. ● Cause ; ○ aging hardware ○ natural disasters (fires, flood, hurricanes, earthquake) ○ random events (*electrical power problems) ○ error in computer program * the most common cause of system failure
  52. 52. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 570 How to safeguards a computer from .. System Failure ?
  53. 53. ● to protect against electrical power variations, use ■ surge protector (also called surge- protector) ● uses special electrical components to ; ○ stabilize current flow, and keep out overvoltage from reaching computer/electronic equipment. ■ uninterruptable power supply (UPS) ● a device that contains surge protection circuit and a batteries - that provide temporary power during loss of power. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 571 Safeguards against System Failure
  54. 54. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 577 How to safeguards a computer from .. ALL OF THE ABOVE ? Common Security Risk ; #1 Internet & Network Attacks #2 Unauthorized Access & Use #3 Theft (Hardware/Software/Information) #4 System Failure
  55. 55. ● to protect against all computer security risk, computer user should ; ■ back-up (duplicates files,program or disk) so it can be used (restore) if the original is lost, damage or destroyed. ● to back-up is to make a copy of files, program or disk ○ manually back-up - copy data to any available storage media. ○ back-up program/software Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 577 Ultimate Safeguards - Back-up
  56. 56. Ultimate Safeguards - Human Aspects : Awareness previous CS015 Computer Security Risk slideshow ● expose employees or staff to computer security through continuously security training, courses. ● make a systematic routine check to update (security patches, virus definition,other malicious code) a computer system - early preventing a threat/risks. ● proper handling of computer and information
  57. 57. Objectives check ! ● defining ; ○ computer ethics, computer security risks ● list areas of computer ethics. ● identify types of security risks. ● identify different ways to overcome security risks ● identify types of Intellectual Property ● describe the importance of Intellectual Property
  58. 58. Ethics and Society cont' Seven (7) frequently discussed areas of computer ethics are :- 1. unauthorized use of computers & networks. 2. software theft (piracy). 3. information accuracy. 4. intellectual property rights. 5. codes of conduct. 6. information privacy, and 7. green computing. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 581 OK let’s discuss, :)
  59. 59. Ethics and Society Ethics, standards determine whether an action is good or bad Computer Ethics, moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 581
  60. 60. Ethics and Society cont' Seven (7) frequently discussed areas of computer ethics are :- 1. unauthorized use of computers & networks. 2. software theft (piracy). 3. information accuracy. 4. intellectual property rights. 5. codes of conduct. 6. information privacy, and 7. green computing. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 581
  61. 61. Ethics and Society cont' Information Accuracy Terminologies and their meaning ; ● Intellectual Property (IP) - unique and original works (i.e ideas, inventions,art,writing,product,logos) ○ Intellectual property rights - rights to which creator are entitled for their work. ■ Copyright - exclusive rights given to author/artist for their materials. ● copyright infringement is piracy ○ infringement is a violation (an act that disregard an agreement of a right) ● Code of Conduct - written guideline that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 582
  62. 62. Ethics and Society cont' Importance of Intellectual Property The importance of Intellectual Property ; ● to protect the original creation from individuals. ● to preserve features and process that make thing work ( inventor will therefore benefits - get a profit , from their work) previous CS015 Computer Security Risk slideshow
  63. 63. Ethics and Society cont' Type of Intellectual Property http://www.myipo.gov.my/home A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a product or a process that provides a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A trade mark is a sign which distinguishes the goods and services of one trader from those of another. A mark includes words, logos, pictures, names, letters, numbers or a combination of these. A copyright exclusive rights given to author/artist for their materials (literary works; musical works; artistic works; films; sound recordings; broadcasts; and derivative works)
  64. 64. http://www.myipo.gov.my/home
  65. 65. Ethics and Society cont' Code of Conduct Code of Conduct - written guideline that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical. The sample of IT Code of Conduct ; Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 583
  66. 66. Ethics and Society cont' Information Privacy Terminologies and their meaning ; ● Information Privacy - right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them. ○ Risk relating to privacy of information ; ■ Spam ■ Phishing ■ Pharming ■ Spyware and Adware Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 582
  67. 67. Ethics and Society cont' Information Privacy : Risk#1 Spam Spam (also known as Internet junk mail) ● Spam - unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroup at once. ○ *unsolicited - not asked for, given or done voluntarily : “unsolicited junk mail” ● content of spam ranges from ○ selling product or service ○ promoting business opportunity ○ advertising offensive material Safeguard your privacy from Spam ! 1. use e-mail filtering - a service that block e-mail messages from designated sources 2. purchase and use anti-spam program - help to remove spam before it reaches your inbox Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 587
  68. 68. Ethics and Society cont' Information Privacy : Risk#1 Spam example (spam e-mail message) Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 587
  69. 69. Ethics and Society cont' Information Privacy : Risk#2 Phishing Phishing (also known as Scam) ● Phishing - a scam in which perpetrator sends and official looking e-mail message that attempt to obtain individuals personal and financial information. ● method of operations ; ○ an e-mail asking to reply a personal information, or ○ an e-mail with a link that direct individuals to a phony (fake) Web to collect the information. Safeguard your privacy from Phishing ! 1. if an e-mail looks legitimate, it is recommend to visit the official site directly (never click the link provided in the e-mail) 2. use phishing filter (available in some Web browsers) - a program that warns or block user from potentially fraudulent (fake) or suspicious sites. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 587
  70. 70. Ethics and Society cont' Information Privacy : Risk#3 Pharming Pharming (also known as Scam, similar to Phishing) ● Pharming - a scam in where perpetrator attempts to get individuals personal and financial information via spoofing process ● method of operations ; ○ user type in a Web address in the Web browser, user will redirected to a phony Web sites that looks legitimate. ○ the phony (fake) Web sites is use to collect the victim information. Safeguard your privacy from Pharming ! 1. if an e-mail looks legitimate, it is recommend to visit the official site directly (never click the link provided in the e-mail) 2. use phishing filter (available in some Web browsers) - a program that warns or block users from potentially fraudulent (fake) or suspicious sites. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 588
  71. 71. Ethics and Society cont' Information Privacy : Risk#4 Spyware & Adware Spyware ● a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge. ● the program secretly collect information about the user. ● method of operations ; ○ collect information regarding user’s Web browsing habits by hiding spyware in adware - a program display an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up windows on Web page, e- mail messages, or other Internet services. Safeguard your privacy from Spyware & Adware ! 1. use spyware and adware remover - a program that helps to detect and remove/delete spyware and adware. 2. some operating systems and Web browsers include spyware removers. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 588
  72. 72. Chapter 11 - Manage Computing Securely. Safely and Ethically page 584 Ethics and Society cont' Green Computing ● involves reducing the electricity and environmental waste while using a computer
  73. 73. Conclusion This chapter identified some potential computer security risks and the safeguards (security measure) that organizations and individuals can implement to minimize the risks.

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