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In depth discussion on common psychological tests

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In depth discussion on common psychological tests

  1. 1. IN-DEPTH DISCUSSION ON COMMON PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Febby Kirstin L. Ibita
  2. 2. INTELLIGENCE  Alfred Binet (1916) defined it as the capacity to judge well, to reason well, and to comprehend well  Lewis Terman (1916) defined it as the capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance  Rudolf Pintner (1921) defined it as the ability of an individual to adapt well to new situations in life  Edward Thorndike (1921) defined it as the power of good responses from the point of view of truth or fact  L.L. Thurstone (1921) defined it as the capacity to inhibit instinctive response, imagine a different response, and realize the response modification into behavior
  3. 3.  Charles Spearman (1923) defined it as a general ability involving mainly the ability to see relations and correlates  David Wechsler (1939) defined it as the global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment  Jean Piaget (1972) defined it as referring to the superior forms of organization or equilibrium of cognitive structuring used for adaptation to the to the physical and social environment  Robert Sternberg (1985) defined it as the mental capacity to automatize information processing and to emit contextually appropriate behavior in response to novelty  Howard Gardner (1986) defined it as the ability to solve problems or fashion products valued within some setting.
  4. 4.  Termites Humorous reference to gifted children who participated in Lewis M. Terman's study of intelligence initiated in 1916  Ceiling effect A phenomenon or consequence arising from the fact that the items at the high end or the more difficult end of a test are not "high enough" or difficult enough to accurately gauge the variable being measured in persons who are at the very High end of the variable being measured
  5. 5.  Crystallized Intelligence  In Cattell’s two-factor theory of intelligence, acquired skills and knowledge that are very much dependent on formal and informal education  Culture-fair Test  A test or assessment process designed to minimize the influence of culture on various aspects of the evaluation procedures, such as the administration instructions, the item content, the responses required of the test-taker, and the interpretation
  6. 6.  Fluid Intelligence nonverbal abilities, less dependent on culture and formal instruction than crystallized intelligence
  7. 7.  Two-factor theory of intelligence Spearman's theory of general intelligence, which postulates the existence of a general intellectual ability factor (g) that is partially tapped by all other mental abilities  G factor In Spearman's two-factor theory of intelligence, the general factor of intelligence; the factor that is measured to greater or lesser degrees by all tests of intelligence; contrast with s and group factors
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF G- AND S- FACTORS  Characteristics of ‘G’ Factor: 1. It is universal inborn ability. 2. It is general mental energy. 3. It is constant. 4. The amount of ‘g’ differs from individual to individual. 5. It is used in every activity of life. 6. Greater the ‘g’ in an individual, greater is his success in life.
  9. 9.  Characteristics of ‘S’ Factor: 1.It is learned and acquired in the environment. 2.It varies from activity to activity in the same individual. 3.Individuals differ in the amount of ‘S’ ability.
  10. 10. GUILFORD’S STRUCTURE OF INTELLIGENCE (SI Model)  J.P. Guilford developed a model of intelligence (1966) using factor analysis. He outlines topography of the structure of intellect, providing an integrated rationale for describing the many dimension of intellectual performance. He suggests that there are three basic parameters along which any intellectual activity takes place. These are: 1. Operations – the act of thinking 2. Contents – the terms in which we think, and 3. Products – the ideas we come up with.
  11. 11. 1. Operations: It consists of five major groups of intellectual abilities. Cognition: It refers to discovery, rediscovery or recognition. Memory: Simply remembering what was once known. Convergent Thinking: This type of thinking, by reasoning, results in useful solution to problems. Divergent Thinking: This is thinking in different directions, seeking and searching some variety and novelty. Evaluation: It is reaching decisions or making judgments about information.
  12. 12. 2. Content: A Second way of classifying the intellectual factor is according to the kind of material or content involved. It involves five factors: Visual Content: It is concrete material which is perceived through our senses, i.e. size, form, colour, etc. Auditory Content: It consists of language, speech, sounds, music and words Symbolic Content: It is composed of letters, digits, and other conventional signs. Semantic Content: It is in the forms of verbal meanings or ideas which we get from others. Behavioural Content: It means social behaviour in society.
  13. 13. 3. Products: When a certain operation is applied to certain kind of content as many as six kinds of products may be involved. Units: Understanding the meaning of words, visual, auditory and symbolic units. Classes: It means classification of words and ideas. Relations: It implies discovering relations of words and ideas. Systems: The ability to structure objects in space and to structure symbolic elements and to formulate problems. Transformation: The ability to look into the future lines of development or to suggest changes in the existing situations. Implications: The ability to utilize present information for
  14. 14. THURSTON’S GROUP FACTOR THEORY  Louis Thurston came out with the group factor theory (1937) saying that Intelligence is a cluster of abilities. These mental operations then constitute a group. A second group of mental operations has its own unifying Primary factor; a third group has a third Primary factor and so on. Each of them has its own primary factor. Each of these primary factors is said to be relatively independent of others.
  15. 15.  He pointed out that there were Seven Primary Mental Abilities and later on added two more. They are:  Verbal comprehension Factor. This factor involves a person’s ability to understand verbal material. It is measured by tests such as vocabulary and reading comprehension.  Verbal fluency Factor. This ability is involved in rapidly producing words, sentences, and other verbal material. It is measured by tests such as one that requires the examinee to produce as many words as possible beginning with a particular letter in a short amount of time.  Numerical Factor. This ability is involved in rapid arithmetic computation and in solving simple arithmetic word problems.  Perceptual speed Factor. This ability is involved in proofreading and in rapid recognition of letters and numbers. It is measured by tests such as those requiring the crossing out of As in a long string of letters or in tests requiring recognition of which of several pictures at the right is identical to the picture at the left.
  16. 16.  Inductive reasoning Factor. This ability requires generalization—reasoning from the specific to the general. It is measured by tests, such as letter series, number series, and word classifications, in which the examinee must indicate which of several words does not belong with the others.  Spatial visualization Factor. This ability is involved in visualizing shapes, rotations of objects, and how pieces of a puzzle fit together. An example of a test would be the presentation of a geometric form followed by several other geometric forms. Each of the forms that follows the first is either the same rotated by some rigid transformation or the mirror image of the first form in rotation. The examinee has to indicate which of the forms at the right is a rotated version of the form at the left, rather than a mirror image.  Memory Factor. It means the ability to recall and associate previously learned items effectively or
  17. 17. STERNBERG’S TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE  Componential — analytical subtheory[edit]  Sternberg associated the componential subtheory with analytical giftedness. This is one of three types of giftedness that Sternberg recognizes. Analytical giftedness is influential in being able to take apart problems and being able to see solutions not often seen. Unfortunately, individuals with only this type are not as adept at creating unique ideas of their own. This form of giftedness is the type that is tested most often (Sternberg, 1997).
  18. 18.  Experiential — creative subtheory[edit]  Sternberg’s 2nd stage of his theory is his experiential subtheory. This stage deals mainly with how well a task is performed with regard to how familiar it is. Sternberg splits the role of experience into two parts: novelty and automation.  A novel situation is one that you have never experienced before. People that are adept at managing a novel situation can take the task and find new ways of solving it that the majority of people would not notice (Sternberg, 1997).  A process that has been automated has been performed multiple times and can now be done with little or no extra thought. Once a process is automatized, it can be run in parallel with the same or other processes. The problem with novelty and automation is that being skilled in one component does not ensure that you are skilled in the other (Sternberg, 1997).
  19. 19.  Practical — contextual subtheory[edit]  Sternberg’s third subtheory of intelligence, called practical or contextual, “deals with the mental activity involved in attaining fit to context” (Sternberg, 1985, p. 45). Through the three processes of adaptation, shaping, and selection, individuals create an ideal fit between themselves and their environment. This type of intelligence is often referred to as "street smarts."
  20. 20. INTELLIGENCE: ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES
  21. 21. FLYNN EFFECT  In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points.
  22. 22. Measured Intelligence may vary dues to the following:  Author’s definition of intelligence  Diligence of test taker  Amount of feedback the examiner gives the examinee  Amount of previous practice  Competence of person interpreting the data  Family environment  Gender
  23. 23. Common Intelligence Tests  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Originally developed in 1916 Currently in the 5th edition  Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC) For children 6-16 years Currently in the 5th edition (2015)  Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) For children 3 years to 7 years, 3 months  Ottis-Lenon School Ability Test (OLSAT)  Ravens Progressive Matrices
  24. 24. TWO IMPORTANT TESTS Standford-Binet Wechsler asked to identify intellectually limited children so they could be removed from the regular classroom and put in special education Responded to perceived shortcomings of the Binet test thirty years later
  25. 25. STANDFORD BINET  Ages 2 to 85 (or older)  Now 5 main factors, each tested in verbal & nonverbal domains  Fluid Reasoning  Knowledge  Quantitative Reasoning  Visual-Spatial Processing  Working Memory
  26. 26.  Employs “Adaptive Testing” technique Maximum amount of info Rapport Not to tire out test taker Most of the subtests are not timed to  Basal Level  Ceiling Level  Testing the Limit Maximum amount of info Rapport Not to tire out test taker
  27. 27. WESCHLER TESTS  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- III Measure Intelligence of Adults 1930’s Bellevue; to measure multilingual, multinational and multicultural clients Latest version WAIS-III updated and colored materials. Norms expanded including range 74-89
  28. 28. It’s been longer than we think…  1949: The Beginning of time (WISC)  1974: WISC-R  1991: WISC-III  WISC-IV (2003)
  29. 29. What is the Process Approach?  How a child performs tasks is as important, and often even more important, than the score obtained.  Understanding performance on individual items, including the kinds of errors a child makes, can provide rich clinical information.  Describing the strategies a child employs when performing tasks provides a basis of interpretation that resonates deeply with parents, teachers, and even with the child.
  30. 30. Processing Speed Subtests CODING (CD) Individuals copy symbols that are paired with simple geometric shapes or numbers within a specific time limit. SYMBOL SEARCH (SS) Individuals scan a search group (of abstract symbols) and indicate if a target symbol/s matches any of the symbols in the search group within a specific time limit. CANCELLATION (CA) (Supplemental subtest) Individuals scan both a random and structured arrangement of pictures and marks target pictures within a specific time limit.
  31. 31.  Remember that while instruments like the WISC- IV can be a source of valuable information about an individuals cognition and to a lesser extent learning style, IQ tests are not designed to identify dyslexia or diagnose general or specific learning difficulties. They are tests of cognitive functioning and any link between any part of a WISC-IV ‘result’ and a learning issue needs careful consideration.
  32. 32. Which is better? SB can assess much younger & older clients Both published in 2003 Both takes more or less an hour to admin SB has short form, WISC assessors make use of aftermarket publications Both have child-friendly materials Both have optional software for scoring and report writing Norming for 6 to 16 y.o. was 2,200 people WISC included parent education as stratifying variable, SB none SB included SES & test taker education as stratifying variable, WISC none.
  33. 33. Concepts in Personality Testing
  34. 34. ACQUIESCENCE  A test response style characterized by agreement with whatever is presented
  35. 35. CRITERION  The standard against which a test or a test score is evaluated; this standard may take many forms, including a specific behaviour or set of behaviours
  36. 36. CRITERION GROUP  A reference group of testtakers who share characteristics and whose responses to test items serve as a standard by which items will be included or discarded from the final version of a scale; the shared characteristic of the criterion group will vary as a function of the nature and scope of the test being developed
  37. 37. EMPIRICAL CRITERION KEYING  The process of using criterion groups to develop test items, wherein the scoring or keying of items has been demonstrated empirically to differentiate among groups of testtakers
  38. 38. FORCED-CHOICE FORMAT  A type of item sometimes used in personality tests wherein each of two or more choices has been predetermined to be equal in social desirability
  39. 39. GENEROSITY ERROR  Less than accurate rating or evaluation by a rater due to that rater's general tendency to be lenient or insufficiently critical; also referred to as leniency error; contrast with severity error
  40. 40. HALO EFFECT  A type of rating error wherein the rater views the object of the rating with extreme favor and tends to bestow ratings inflated in a positive direction; a set of circumstances resulting in a rater's tendency to be positively disposed and insufficiently critical
  41. 41. IDENTIFICATION  A process by which an individual assumes a pattern of behavior that is characteristic of other people; (2) thoughts, feelings, or behavior on the part of one person that resonates in some familiar way with the experiences of another person
  42. 42. WELSH CODE  A shorthand summary of a testtaker's scores on the MMPI clinical and validity scales
  43. 43. TRAITS  Personality Traits can be viewed as the distinguishing characteristics or qualities possessed by the individual.  Traits are “dimensions” of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts,
  44. 44. STATES  Personality States refer to a temporary behavioural tendency. (Eg. A student may be described as being in an anxious state before finals.)  Whereas trait refers to an enduring personality characteristic, state usually refers to a temporary
  45. 45. RIASEC  John Holland - forwarded that people can be categorized as one of the following: Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional
  46. 46. TYPE A PERSONALITY  In Friedman and Rosenman's typology, a personality characterized by competitiveness, haste, restlessness, impatience, feelings of being time pressured, and strong needs for achievement and dominance
  47. 47. TYPE B PERSONALITY  In Friedman and Rosenman's typology, a personality characterized by traits that are opposite of the Type A personality; "mellow" and "laid-back,"
  48. 48. WHO IS BEING ASSESSED? – Self as primary referrant a. Self Report b. Self Concept – Another person as referrant a. Leniency/Generosity Error & Severity Error b. Error of Central Tendency c. Halo Effect
  49. 49. WHAT IS BEING ASSESSED? Insights, thoughts, traits. Response Style – Social desirable responding – Acquisence – Non-Acquisence – Deviance – Extreme – Overly Positive
  50. 50. Two Main Personality Theories 1. Trait theory: people differ based on stable attributes (called “traits”) – characteristics lie on a continuum – e.g., the Big Five 2. Type theory: people can be sorted into categories (either one type or the other) - There are many different personality inventories that measure traits or types
  51. 51. Personality Tests – Using Traits  NEO – Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI- R, 1992) – Unaware of the Big Five, Costa & McCrae built the NEO Inventory in 1978 – Assessed Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience – Added Agreeableness and Conscientiousness – Items are behavioral statements
  52. 52. Examples of Items: Neuroticism - Frightening thoughts sometimes come into my head. Extroversion - I don’t get much pleasure from chatting with people. Openness - I have a very active imagination Agreeableness - I believe that most people will take advantage of you if you let them. Conscientiousness - I pay my promptly and in
  53. 53. Personality Tests – Using Traits California Psychological Inventory (CPI) Gough (1957) “sane person’s MMPI” revised in 1987 based on 20 concepts to predict behavior in social/interpersonal situations 13 special purpose scales (e.g., leadership, managerial potential)
  54. 54. CPI - one of the most popular personality inventory Measures: various facets of normal personality; helps to make predictions about behaviours Gough’s theory (3 assumptions): Important characteristics in all societies and cultures Understandable and useful for both sides Valid predictors of future behavior in similar
  55. 55. 462 true-false items covers 20 scales: – Dominance, Social Presence, Sociability, Self- Acceptance, Self-Control, Responsibility, Well- Being, Achievement vs. Conformity, Achievement vs. Independence, Psychological Mindedness, Flexibility, Capacity for Status, Empathy, Tolerance, Femininity vs. Masculinity, Independence, Good Impression, Socialization, Communality – 3 scales provide measures of test-taking attitudes
  56. 56. Advantages: 1. Looks at interpersonal relating well 2. Predicts underachieving, potential delinquency, job performance 3. Has good norming sample
  57. 57. 16PF FACTOR Raymond Cattell developed the Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Test (1949) Revised 4 times (1956, 1962, 1968, 1993) Survey all words in the the English language that described personal characteristics (approx. 4000) Designed to measure more personality traits and conflicts than psychopathology 185 items across 16 scales 3 Point Likert Scale
  58. 58.  Suggests Personality is made up of 16 independent traits - Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional Stability,Dominance, Liveliness, Rule- Consciousness, Social Boldness, Sensitivity, Vigilance, Abstractedness, Privateness, Apprehension, Openness to Change, Self- Reliance, Perfectionism, Tension  Each item is scored a between 0,1, or 2 depending if the item is scored correctly  Raw score are changed to standard scores know as
  59. 59. Supports: 1. Less time to give than MMPI-2 2. Has 5 global factors than correspond to the BIG FIVE 3. Reliability and Validity Criticisms: 1. Overeducated sample 2. New version more complicated to score 3. Converts raw scores to “stens”- hard for people to understand
  60. 60. 16PF Applications Research and Clinical Settings Vocational Psychology Personnel selection and placement With adults or adolescents (16-yearolds) and 5th grade reading level
  61. 61. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Myers-Briggs: based on Jungian theory of personality – Classifies individuals along 4 theoretically independent dimensions.  Uses: – Career counseling – Team building – Family counseling  Criticisms: – Profiles generally positive – Barnum effect – Validation evidence is sticky – Factor analysis shows Big Five solution
  62. 62. MMPI  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory  MMPI-II – most widely used psychological test  10 clinical scales and several Auxiliary
  63. 63.  Items on the clinical scales of the original MMPI were selected on the basis of their ability to discriminate between normal and clinical groups.  Clinical groups were comprised of depressed, paranoid, schizophrenic, hypomanic, hypocrondriacal  Normal groups were comprised of University of Minnesota students  Initially items were selected from various sources – clinical cases, textbooks, and previous tests
  64. 64.  MMPI-II was normed on a nationally representative sample – 1138 men and 1462 women  MMPI added several content and supplementary scales  A high score on a particular scale indicates the likelihood that the individual possesses those characteristics
  65. 65. Appropriateness of the MMPI-2  For Adolescents persons 14 to 18 years old MMPI- A  It is not recommended that the MMPI – 2 be used with adolescents, although it may be more appropriate than MMPI-A for 18 year old living independently of their parents
  66. 66. Sources of Inaccuracy in Personality Testing Personality assessment largely depends on self- report Response sets may affect personality results
  67. 67. Social Desirability  Some test takers choose socially acceptable answers or present themselves in a favourable light  People often do not attend as much to the trait being measured as to the social acceptability of the statement  This represents unwanted variance
  68. 68. Example items: – Friends would call me spontaneous. – People I know can count on me to finish what I start. – I would rather work in a group than by myself. – I often get stressed-out in many situations.
  69. 69. FAKING Faking -- some test takers may respond in a particular way to cause a desired outcome – may “fake good” (e.g., in employment settings) to create a favourable impression – may “fake bad” (e.g., in clinical or forensic settings) as a cry for help or to appear mentally disturbed – may use some subtle questions that are difficult to fake because they aren’t clearly face valid
  70. 70. FAKING BAD – People try to look worse than they really are Common problem in clinical settings – Reasons: Cry for help Want to plea insanity in court Want to avoid draft into military Want to show psychological damage – Most people who fake bad overdo it
  71. 71. Random Responding  Random responding may occur when test takers are unwilling or unable to respond accurately. – likely to occur when test taker lacks the skills (e.g., reading), does not want to be evaluated, or lacks attention to the task – try to detect by embedding a scale that tends to yield clear results from vast majority such that a different result suggests the test taker wasn’t
  72. 72. – Detection: Duplicate items: “I love my mother.” “I hate my mother.” Infrequency scales: “I’ve never had hair on my head.” “I have not seen a car in 10 years.”
  73. 73. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT – Mitigating IM: Use positive and negative impression scales (endorsed by 10% of the population) Use lie scales to “flag” those who score high (e.g., “I get angry sometime”). Inconsistency scales (e.g., two different responses to two similar questions) (Use multiple assessment methods (other than `` self-report)

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