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Student teacher relationships and learning outcomes


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This slideshow aims to provide teachers and pre service teachers with an understanding on student teacher relationships and learning outcomes through theories, research, a research proposal, recommendations and strategies for improving student teacher relationships in the classroom.

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Student teacher relationships and learning outcomes

  1. 1. Teachers professional development day Focus: student teacher relationships and student learning outcomes How do student teacher relationships have an impact on student learning outcomes? By Eloise Rose Grillo (Kelly Fraas, 2014).
  2. 2. Teacher Professional Development The next slide is a teacher professional development video. This video focuses on teacher student relationships and student learning outcomes. I have recorded it with two pre service teachers and I have incorporated all the slides within this slideshow.
  3. 3. Welcome! Good afternoon teachers, in today's professional learning team meeting we will be discussing the importance of developing positive student teacher relationships and how they effect student learning outcomes From this session I want to hear your perspective on this issue, we will discuss its importance, research studies and theories along with strategies and recommendations for improving student teacher relationships within your classroom.
  4. 4. Positive student teacher Relationships (Chuck north, 2014) (Alberta Schools, 2014)
  5. 5. Your Perspective So firstly to begin with Why do you think positive student teacher relationships are important and how do they effect learning outcomes?
  6. 6. The link between student teacher relationships and learning outcomes. Student teacher relationships are very important. When I was researching about student teacher relationships and student learning outcomes the question how do student teacher relationships have an impact on student learning outcomes emerged. Research has found that there is a link between student teacher relationships and student learning outcomes. Students that have positive relationships with their teachers have been found to be highly motivated, focused on their task, and have greater overall learning outcomes
  7. 7. Your perspective Why have student teacher relationships become an educational issue?
  8. 8. Teaching styles •Professional experiences and professional knowledge has demonstrated to me that there are two types of teaching styles. •Student-Centric Teaching: “ An instructor-centered approach where the instructor demonstrates and models what is expected (skills and processes) and then acts as a coach or guide to assist the students in applying the knowledge” (Penn State Learning design 2012, para 5). This style encourages student participation and positive student teacher relationships •Formal Authority Teaching: “An instructor-centered approach where the instructor feels responsible for providing the flow of content which the student is to receive” (Penn state learning design, 2012 para 4). This teaching style discourages positive student teacher relationships (Yay images, 2012)
  9. 9. Your Perspective Which teaching style do you think has a positive impact on students overall learning outcomes? And why?
  10. 10. Relationship effect on student learning outcomes The formal authority teaching style has negative implications on students learning outcomes whilst the student centric teaching style has a positive impact on students learning outcomes. Student Centric teaching style outcomes: The immense level of interaction with students and interest in student’s needs drives students to complete their work, and increases students levels of engagement. Formal Authority teaching style outcomes: The distant relationship between the teacher and the students in this class caused a lack of student engagement, interest and motivation to complete their tasks.
  11. 11. Your Perspective What skills and qualities do you think a teacher must possess in order to promote positive student teacher relationships and improve student overall learning outcomes?
  12. 12. Teacher skills & qualities Immediacy: Immediacy is based on the belief that “people are drawn toward persons and things they like, evaluate highly, and prefer, and they avoid or move away from things they dislike, evaluate negatively or do not prefer” (Merhrabian, `1969, p.1). Immediacy comes in two forms: Verbal and Non-Verbal. Verbal Immediacy: Occurs when teachers recognise “individual students and their viewpoints, by incorporating student input into course and class design, by communicating availability and willingness to engage in one to one interactions and by enhancing their ‘humanness via humour and self disclosure” (Gorham, 1988 p. 52). Non-verbal Immediacy: “Approach behaviours which increase or product sensory stimulation, interpersonal closeness and signal warmth and friendliness defines as non-verbal immediacy behaviours” (Kearney, Plax & Wendt-Wasco, 1985 p. 64). Teacher caring: Students determine a teacher’s level of caring by the way a teacher “moves, stands, gestures, uses eye contact vocal inflection and self-discloses”(Ramsey, 1979, p.110). Teacher clarity: Is the process by which as instructor “effectively stimulates the desired meaning of course content and progress in the minds in students through the use of appropriately structured verbal and non-verbal messages” (Chesbro&McCroskey, 1998, p. 447).
  13. 13. Building positive student teacher relationship theories Altman and Taylor’s relationship theory “holds that the relationships increase in intimacy over time when a duo of members discloses more information about themselves” (McNally, 2003 p. 13). Altman and Taylor conveyed that the levels breadth and depth that people share with others has an impact of the relationship they establish. (Creative commons, 2012). Following Atlman and Taylors relationship theory M.L knapp (1978) created a five stage relationship model in order to increase the levels of breadth and depth in relationships. The stages include “ initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integration and bonding “ (McNally, 2005 p. 13).
  14. 14. • Building positive student teacher relationship research studies Nussbaum and Scott (1980) conducted a study that examined student “teacher solidarity as a potential variable that mediates the relationship between student learning and a teacher’s communication behaviour in the classroom” (p.99). Communicator style was operationalised in ten areas of “dominant, dramatic, contentious, animated, impression leaving, relaxed, attentive, open, friendly and communicator image” (Norton 1978, p. 99). In order to investigate this classroom relationship Nussbaum and Scott (1980) employed “five measures student teacher solidarity, including instructor communicator style, affective learning, behavioural learning and cognitive learning” (Martin, 1994 p. 25). Results “revealed that there are significant differences in affective, behavioural and cognitive learning among high, moderate and low levels of perceived student teacher solidarity “ (Martin, 1994 p. 25).
  15. 15. Building positive student teacher relationship research studies Christophel (1990) “claims that when teachers use immediacy behaviours to modify student motivation and increase student learning, there is significant impact upon students in the classroom” (Martin, 1994, p. 29). Student perceptions of immediacy, cognitive learning and humour were examined by Gorham and Christophel (1990). Results “indicate that there is a strong co-relation between an instructor’s humour and student’s cognitive learning” (Martin, 1994, p. 30). Chesebro and McCroskey (2001) examined the relationship of teacher clarity and immediacy with student cognitive learning. Findings indicated that students who have teachers that are clear and immediate are less likely to experience anxiety when processing their teacher’s messages thus increasing student learning (McNally, 2005, p.26).
  16. 16. Building positive student teacher relationship research studies Rawlins (2000) “stated that caring for our students does not mean diminished commitment to academic standard. When we care about students, out standards may be raised, including what we expect of ourselves in teaching them and evaluating their work” (p.7). Teven and McCroskey found that “student perception of teacher caring were substantially associated with the students evaluation of their teachers, their affective learning and their perceptions of their cognitive learning” (McNally, 2005 p. 27). (Daily telegraph, 2011) (Arbolita school, 2014)
  17. 17. . Curriculum Research Along with these studies the Australian institute for teaching and school leadership limited has demonstrated that positive teacher student rapport has a significant impact upon students’ attitude towards learning. If a teacher has positive rapport with their students it can promote behavioural engagement with all students including at risk students (DEED, 2013). 2003 PISA data “shows that Australian students had emotional engagement levels not significantly different from the OECD average on measure of participation and belonging, scoring 495 on the index of belonging and 502 on the index of participation (the oecd average is standardised to 500)” Australian Institute for teaching and school leadership limited, 2014 p. 4). Among the “OECD countries, 25% of students were considered to have a low sense of belonging and 20 % were regularly absent from school” (Australian Institute for teaching and school leadership limited 2014, p.4). Therefore a student sense of belonging and participation can be influenced by the type of teacher student rapport.
  18. 18. Observational study & Questionnaire In the coming weeks I want you to take part in an observational study where you are to go to each others classes when you have planning time and observe each other student teacher relationships. Along with that I want you to fill out a questionnaire that is based on student teacher relationships. (, 2014).
  19. 19. Questionnaire- ‘The positive relationship between teachers- students increases students learning’ Q.1 Do students learn with high interest, if a teacher uses a polite attitude with them? Agree to some extent Disagree Q.2 Do Cooperative teachers have a high influence on their students learning outcomes? Agree to some extent Disagree Q.3 Does teaching the hidden curriculum help the development of teacher student relationships? Agree to some extent Disagree Q.4 Does an emotional attachment between the teacher and student increase students learning outcomes? Agree to some extent Disagree Q.5 Do you think that students learning improve rapidly if there is a positive relationship between teacher and students? Agree to some extent Disagree (Urooj, 2013 p. 620-621)
  20. 20. Your Perspective What are some ways we can improve student teacher rapport in the classroom? What are some strategies you use in your classroom to build student learning outcomes ?
  21. 21. Recommendations and Strategies 1. Disclose information about yourself and let students know more about your life outside of school. – what you did on the weekend. 2. Create a classroom culture where students are comfortable and relaxed to talk about their interests, concerns, and life outside of school – create a student shout out box, how I am feeling poster, and a morning routine poster. 3. Playing getting to know you games- two truths one fib, me bags. 4. Using motivational charts- Target goals. 5. Initiating responsibility- class jobs, its my turn to talk, student pledge, being a good listener, give a compliment . Ramon Lewis’ study on classroom discipline and student responsibility demonstrates that students who are “ given responsibility for their self and others in the class have a greater interest in their work, they find learning important and are less likely to misbehave in contract to teachers who use various forms of discipline such as hint, discussion, involvement recognition punishment and aggression” (Lewis, 2001 p. 311).
  22. 22. Recommendations and Strategies in pictures (Pinterest, 2012, student shout outs). (Gibb, & Collis, 2007, p. 13-63). (Gibb, & Collis, 2007, p. 13-63).
  23. 23. Recommendations and Strategies in pictures (A love for teaching ideas, 2012, para 1). (Gibb, & Collis, 2007, p. 13-63).
  24. 24. Questions and Feedback What strategy do you think you will implement in your classroom? If you have any other ideas or ways we can improve student teacher relationships on a whole school level please do let me know so I consider and implement them in the near future.
  25. 25. Thankyou! Thankyou for taking part in this weeks professional learning team session. I hope you all have developed an understanding about the importance of establishing positive student teacher relationships and how it has an effect on student learning outcomes Hope to see some of the strategies and recommendations used in your class Don't forget to observe each others student teacher rapports and complete the questionnaire over the next few weeks.
  26. 26. (Search associates, 2014). (Hub pages, 2014)
  27. 27. Referencing list About Education (2014, October 23). Student teacher observation. [image]. Student teacher observation checklist. Retrieved from Altman and Taylor (2014, October 25). Altman & Taylor’s Social Penetration Model. [Image]. Creative Commons. Retrieved from html Altman, L. & Taylor, D. (1973). Social Penetration: the development of interpersonal relationships. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Alberta Schools (2014, October 23). Positive student teacher relationships. [image]. Key element 1: positive relationships Retrieved from Arbolita School (2014, October 23). Caring teachers. [image] Arbolita school. Retrieved from Chesebro, J, & McCroskey, J. C (2001). The relationship of teacher clarity and teacher immediacy with student state receiver apprehension, affect, and cognitive learning. Communication Education,50, 59-68. Christophel, D.M. (1990). The relationship among teacher immediacy behaviours, student motivation and learning.Communication Education, 29, 323-340. Chuck, N( 2014, October 23).Student relationships all year long. [Image]. Chuck North: student relationships all year long. Retrieved from Daily Telegraph (2014, October 23). Principal Rita Porteous and students of Lynwood Park .Public School Caring teachers improve results. [Image]. Caring teachers improve results. Retrieved from improve-results/story-fn6b3v4f-1226016407828 Department of Early Education and Early childhood Development (2013).‘Principles of Learning and Teaching p-12 Unpacked’. Retrieved from .
  28. 28. Gibb, T & Collis, K. (2007). At Your Fingertips Behaviour Guidance Ages 8-10: Timesaving Charts for Busy Teachers. MacMillian Education Australia Gorham, J. Christophel, D. M. (1990).The relationship of teachers’ use of humour in the classroom to immediacy and student learning. Communication Education, 30, 46-62. Hub pages (2014, October 23). Quotes about teachers. [image]. Hub pages. Retrieved from Katerina (2014, October 23). All about me bags. [image]. A love for teaching. Retrieved from Kelly Fraas (2014,October 23). Live laugh grow. [image]. Kelly frass, live laugh grow. Retrieved from Kearney, P., Plax &Wednt-Waski, N. J. (1985).Teacher immediacy for affective learning in divergent college classes. Communication quarterly, 33, 61-74. Knapp, M. L. (1984). Interpersonal communication and human relationships. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Lewis, R (2001). Classroom discipline and student responsibility: the students. Teaching and Teacher education, 17, 307-319. Martin, J. (1994). A comparison of instructor and student perceptions of Immediacy over the course of a semester (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma USA. McNally, J. (2005). Teacher-student relationships: the effects of student motives relationship development & communication on student learning. (Unpublished doctorial dissertation. Kent State University, Kent USA. Mehrabian, A. (1969). Some referents and measures of nonverbal behaviour. Behavioural research methods and instruments, 1, 213- 217
  29. 29. Naussbaum, J. F., & Scott, M. D. (1980).Student learning as a relational outcome to teacher student interaction.Communication Yearbook, 4, 553-564. Nussbaum, J. F & Scott, M. D (1979).Instructor communication behaviours and their relationship to classroom communication.Communication Yearbook, 3, 561-583. Norton, (1978). Foundation of a communicator style construct. Human communication Research, 4 213-217. OECD (2009) ‘Creative Teaching and Learning Environments: first results from TALIS’. Office of Communities Commission for Children and Young People (NSW) (2011) ‘Engagement in school’. Retrieved from Pininterest. (2012). Student Shout outs. Retrieved from Rawlins, W.k (2000). Teaching as a mode of friendship. Communication theory, 10, 5-26. Search Associates (2014, October 23). Exciting teaching opportunities [image]. Search Associates. Retrieved from The Pennsylvania state University (2008). Penn state learning design community hub: Teaching styles. Retrieved from Thweatt, K. S &McCroskey, J. C (1996). Teacher no immediacy and misbehaviour: Unintentional negative communication. Communication Research Reports, 13, 198-204. Urooj, S. (2013). Effects of positive teacher- students relationship on students learning. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 4, 616-624. Yay Images (2014, October 23). [Image]. Yay images students in class reading books with teacher. Retrieved from