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19 t. univer eesti 2013


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19 t. univer eesti 2013

  1. 1. EVALUATION OF SOME INTRODUCED APPLE CULTIVARS IN ESTONIA Toivo Univer Estonian University of Life Sciences
  2. 2. Polli: 58°7’ N 25°32’ E
  3. 3. Climate of Estonia  Estonia lies in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate.  The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5.2 °C. The average temperature in February is −5.7 °C and in July is 16.4 °C.  Low temperatures. Over the last five years the lowest recorded temperature was ‒35.5 °C.  Snow cover usually lasts from mid-December to late March.  The duration of apple tree vegetation period is 170‒175 days in South Estonia.  Precipitation during the vegetative growth cycles is 350‒400 mm.
  4. 4. Main problems in apple production  are short vegetation period and frequent temperature fluctuations during the winter period.  lack of winter hardy apple cultivars with high fruit quality.
  5. 5. Objective  to evaluate newly bred apple cultivars from neighbouring countries and find out cultivars which are winter hardy, scab resistant and with high fruit quality.
  6. 6. Material and methods  An orchard trial was established in spring 2008 at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre.  with 37 apple cultivars.  Trees were grafted on B396 rootstock.  Planting distance 4×2 m.  One replication, and it consisted of ten trees.  In the trial following characters was measured: yield, fruit weight, trunk diameter.
  7. 7. Apple cultivars Cultivar Origin Kallika, Kanni, Kastar, Katiliina, Kikitriinu, Liivika, Tiina Estonia Dace*, Edite*, Gita*, Roberts*, Latvia Rubinola* Czech Republic Konsta, Talvikki Finland Egeria, Lodel, Odra*, Ligolina, Medea, Wars* Poland Priam* France Liberty* USA Yubilyar*, Kandil Orlovsky, Orlovskoye Polesye*, Solnyshko*, Stroyevskoe*, Venyaminovskoye* Russia Alesya, Antey, Belorusskoye Sladkoye*, Imant*, Darunak*, Pamyat Kovalenko*, Pospehh*, Nadzeiny* Belarus Streifling Herbst Old European landrace * Scab resistant apple cultivar
  8. 8. Tree survival rate, % (2009-2012) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Darunak Priam Liberty Yubilyar Roberts Medea Ligolina Wars Gita Lodel Nadzeiny Pospehh Imant Antei Edite Egeria Odra Rubinola Alesya Dace Kandil Orlovsky Kastar Kikitriinu Liivika Orlovskoye Polesye Pamyat Kovalenko Solnyshko Stroyevskoye Venyaminovskoye Yelena
  9. 9. Trunk diameter, cm (2009-2012) 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Gita Roberts Alesja Imant Dace Lodel Konsta Pamyat Kovalenko Medea Yelena Egeria Streifling Herbst Edite Tiina Kastar Ligolina Kanni Pospehh Yubilyar Liberty Liivika Nadzeiny Wars Kikitriinu Antei Kallika Odra Talvikki Venyaminovskoye Strojevskoye Katiliina Rubinola Kandil Orlovsky Solnyshko average
  10. 10. Yield, kg per tree (2009-2012) 0 5 10 15 20 25 Talvikki Kanni Edite Konsta Liberty Medea Darunak Priam Egeria Kallika Stroyevskoye Katiliina Wars Lodel Gita Imant Roberts Ligolina Venyaminovskoye Streifling Herbst Orlovskoye Polesye Odra Yelena Rubinola Nadzeiny Kikitriinu Pospehh Jubilyar Tiina Dace Liivika Solnyshko Kandil Orlvsky Pamyat Kovalenko Alesya Kastar Antey 2009 2010 2011 2012
  11. 11. Average fruit size, g (2009-2012) Fruit size Cultivar Very large (>200 g) Talvikki, Robets, Antey Large (151‐200 g) Streifling Herbst, Yubilyar, Orlovski Polesye, Solnyshko, Kikitriinu,  Kastar, Pospehh, Kallika, Tiina, Gita Average (111‐150 g) Nadzeiny, Pamyat Kovalenko, Imant, Alesya, Darunak,  Stroyevskoye, Konsta, Edite, Liivika, Kanni, Kandil Orlovski,  Egeria, Katiliina, Venyaminovskoye, Liberty, Priam, Wars,  Rubinola Small (<110 g) Odra, Medea, Ligolina, Lodel, Yelena
  12. 12. Conclusions  Regarding winter hardiness, yield efficiency and fruit quality ‘Antey’, ‘Alesya’, ‘Dace’ and ‘Liivika’ trees were similar than those on ‘Tiina’ and ‘Streifling Herbst’.  ‘Yelena’, ‘Pamyat Kovalenko’, ‘Kastar’, ‘Solnyshko’, ‘Kandil Orlovski’ and ‘Talvikki’ are winter hardy.  ‘Nadzeiny’ and ‘Yelena’ are precocious cultivars.
  13. 13. ‘Dace’ (BM41497 × ’Eksotika’)
  14. 14. ‘Liivika’ (L8 × L25)
  15. 15. ‘Pamyat Kovalenko’ (’Belorusskoye malinovoje’ × BM41497)
  16. 16. ‘Rubinola’ (’Prima’ × ’Rubin’)
  17. 17. Thank you for listening!