Climate of Estonia
Estonia lies in the transition zone between
maritime and continental climate.
The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5.2 °C. The
average temperature in February is −5.7 °C and in July is 16.4
Low temperatures. Over the last five years the lowest recorded
temperature was ‒35.5 °C.
Snow cover usually lasts from mid-December to late March.
The duration of apple tree vegetation period is 170‒175 days
in South Estonia.
Precipitation during the vegetative growth cycles is 350‒400
Main problems in apple production
are short vegetation period and frequent
temperature fluctuations during the winter
lack of winter hardy apple cultivars with high
to evaluate newly bred apple cultivars from
neighbouring countries and find out cultivars which
are winter hardy, scab resistant and with high
Material and methods
An orchard trial was established in spring 2008 at
the Polli Horticultural Research Centre.
with 37 apple cultivars.
Trees were grafted on B396 rootstock.
Planting distance 4×2 m.
One replication, and it consisted of ten trees.
In the trial following characters was measured:
yield, fruit weight, trunk diameter.
Kallika, Kanni, Kastar, Katiliina, Kikitriinu, Liivika, Tiina Estonia
Dace*, Edite*, Gita*, Roberts*, Latvia
Rubinola* Czech Republic
Konsta, Talvikki Finland
Egeria, Lodel, Odra*, Ligolina, Medea, Wars* Poland
Yubilyar*, Kandil Orlovsky, Orlovskoye Polesye*,
Solnyshko*, Stroyevskoe*, Venyaminovskoye*
Alesya, Antey, Belorusskoye Sladkoye*, Imant*, Darunak*,
Pamyat Kovalenko*, Pospehh*, Nadzeiny*
Streifling Herbst Old European
* Scab resistant apple cultivar
Yield, kg per tree (2009-2012)
0 5 10 15 20 25
Average fruit size, g (2009-2012)
Fruit size Cultivar
Talvikki, Robets, Antey
Streifling Herbst, Yubilyar, Orlovski Polesye, Solnyshko, Kikitriinu,
Kastar, Pospehh, Kallika, Tiina, Gita
Nadzeiny, Pamyat Kovalenko, Imant, Alesya, Darunak,
Stroyevskoye, Konsta, Edite, Liivika, Kanni, Kandil Orlovski,
Egeria, Katiliina, Venyaminovskoye, Liberty, Priam, Wars,
Odra, Medea, Ligolina, Lodel, Yelena
Regarding winter hardiness, yield efficiency and
fruit quality ‘Antey’, ‘Alesya’, ‘Dace’ and ‘Liivika’
trees were similar than those on ‘Tiina’ and
‘Yelena’, ‘Pamyat Kovalenko’, ‘Kastar’, ‘Solnyshko’,
‘Kandil Orlovski’ and ‘Talvikki’ are winter hardy.
‘Nadzeiny’ and ‘Yelena’ are precocious cultivars.