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Rene rev1 technology awareness and operation of styroplastic densifier(3)

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a good technology for greener environment

Rene rev1 technology awareness and operation of styroplastic densifier(3)

  1. 1. THEINDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (ITDI) “Our Business is Industry”
  2. 2. Research & Research & Technology TechnologyDevelopmentDevelopment Transfer Transfer Technical Technical Services Services
  3. 3. Food Processing Materials National Metrology Laboratory, OD, Science Environment & Biotechnology ODD, PMISD, FMD, ADM ITDI Divisional Buildings at DOST Compound Chemicals & Energy Standards and Testing Information & DocumentationPackaging Technology Technological Services (TSD)
  4. 4. PILOT PLANTS & OTHER FACILITIES PILOT PLANTS & OTHER FACILITIES• Jatropha Processing andAnalytical /Testing Facilities• Activated Carbon Plant• Biomass-fed gasifier and bolier•Bioreactor facility• Biogas Digester• Food Enterprise Modules•Non-food Enterprise Modules•Centralized Hazardous WasteHandling Facility•Materials Processing (Ceramics,Polymers, Composites, InorganicMinerals)•Lab Scale Two Stage AerobicWastewater System
  5. 5. R&D LABORATORIES R&D LABORATORIES• Chemical Sensors Lab• Fuels /Petroleum Lab• Paints Lab• Microbiology Lab• Food Lab• Electronic Nose andTongue Lab• Plastics Testing &Processing Lab• Surface Coatings Lab• MaterialsCharacterization Lab•Inorganic & OrganicChemicals Labs•Pharmaceuticals Lab• Metrology Lab
  6. 6. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PRIORITY PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT ALTERNATIVE & NATURAL ENERGY BIOTECH RESOURCES Increased productivityAGRICULTURE Globally & FOOD SOCIO-ECONOMIC SECTORS competitive products & services MANUFACTURING HEALTH NANOTECHNOLOGY & PRODUCTION
  7. 7. TECHNOLOGYAWARENESS AND OPERATION OF DENSIFIER
  8. 8. PANGANGASIWA NG BASURA:ANG KAHALAGAHAN SA TAO AT KALIKASAN 8
  9. 9. MGA LAYUNIN NG PAGPAPAHAYAG • Pagpapaintindi na may mga malalaking dahilan para pangangasiwaan ang mga basura. • Pagpapahayag sa lawak ng problema ng basura at ang negatibong epekto nito sa tao at kalikasan. • Pagpapabago ng pananaw tungkol sa basura. • Pag-aaral sa mga simpleng paraan ng pangangasiwa ng basura. • Ang RA 9003 lokal na ordinansa at adhikain 9
  10. 10. Mga Dahilan ng Pagdami ng Basura• Paglaki ng populasyon• Pagdami at paglaki ng mga industriya at manufactura• Urbanisasyon• Modernisasyon• Pag-unlad ng teknolohiya at paglaki ng global na populasyon kung saan tumataas ang pangangailangan tulad ng pakain na siyang tumutumbas sa pagtaas ng basura na being generated daily by each household.
  11. 11. Mapang-abusongPaggamit ng natural resources
  12. 12. Laganap na paggamit ng mgabagay na di nabubulok!
  13. 13. PANGKARANIWANG RESULTA SA HINDI MAAYOS NA PAGTATAPON NG BASURA BACKYARD AND INDOOR DUMPING When burning plastic many toxic chemicals are emitted to the atmosphere.WATER/SEA DUMPINGMight have a worse effect on some marine mammals if theyswallowed whole or otherwise it might also choke waterwaysand small channels more. River Channels LITTERING CAN EFFECT BOTH ON LAND, AIR AND IN BODIES OF WATER - Will persist in the environment for hundreds of year - Chemical can leach from the plastic and enter water/animals which we both consume - Chemicals can then enter our bodies and persist there for many 13 years
  14. 14. BASURA, PANDAIGDIGANGPROBLEMA!
  15. 15. BASURA AT KAHIRAPAN BASURA AT KARANGYAAN
  16. 16. NEGATIBONG EPEKTO NGBASURA…•SA KAPALIGIRAN•SA PAGBABAGO NG KLIMA•SA HAYOP•SA KALUSUGAN NG TAO 16
  17. 17. Landfill/Open dumpsites Methane and other greenhouse gasses … sa Kapaligiran• Ang pagbuo ng methane gas, isa sa mga greenhouse gases, resulta ng kemikal reaksyon ng basura sa lupa• Pagbabago ng klima at pagkasira ng ozone layer dala ng patuloy na pagtaas ng carbon dioxide at ibang greenhouse gases• Nagpaparumi at sumisira sa kapaligiran dahilan sa hindi maayos na pagtatapon; Leaching: ay isang prosesso kung saan ang basura ay sumasama sa lupa at tubig na siyang dahilan ng kontaminasyon• Polusyon at kontamindong water systems 17
  18. 18. Increasing the greenhouse gases are causing the temperatureto rise and are likely to increase the frequency and severity ofweather such as heat wave and heavy rainfall 18
  19. 19. GLOBAL WARMING AT PAGBABAGO NG KLIMA Sobrang init ay maaring maging sanhi ng kasiraan at kamatayan.Tamang init ay mahalagapara sa mundo• Minimize the amount of carbon and other greenhouse gases like methane,tropospheric ozone and nitrous oxide• Carbon dioxide found in the air can be prevented if there are enough trees toabsorb these harmful gases 19
  20. 20. Methane and other greenhouse gassesLandfill/Open dumpsites 20
  21. 21. Greenhouse gasses 21
  22. 22. Sa taas ng temperaturaposibleng maranasan natin angsobrang init, kakulangan ngoxygen, tag-tuyot, taglamig atiba pang-kalamidad 22
  23. 23. …sa Kalusugan ng Tao• Paghinga ng nakakalasong kemikal• Ang hindi nakolektang basura ang bumabara sa pagdaloy ng tubig na siyang dahilan ng pagbaha• Mababang birth weight• Kanser• Congenital malformations• Neurological disease
  24. 24. …sa mga Hayop• Pagtaas ng mercury level sa mga anyong tubig dala ng di maayos na pagtapon ng mga mercury• Pagdami ng plastic sa karagatan at pagkabulok nito ay nagkakalat ng mga toxic particles na lumalason sa lupa at sa katubigan at aksidenteng nakakain ng mga ibon, isda at iba pang kahayupan.• Pagtaas ng algal polusyon na lumalason sa mga ilog at sa mga hayop.• Pagkasira ng mga tirahan ng hayop mapa-tubig at lupa 24
  25. 25. Ang pagkabulok ng plastic ay nagkakalat ng mga toxicparticles na lumalason sa lupa at sa katubigan, ataksidenteng nakakain ng mga kahayupan. Daan-daang libong hayop-dagat ay namamatay taon- taon dahil sa pagkain ng mga tinatapon na basura.
  26. 26. Tambak na basura sa PacificOcean
  27. 27. Mga peste na nagdadala ng mga sakit dahil sabasura at maduming kapaligiran… Lamok Ipis Langaw Daga 27
  28. 28. LAMOK Malaria EncephalitisYellowFever Dengue Fever Elephantiasis 28
  29. 29. LANGAW Typhoid Fever Poliomyelitis Cholera Intestinal Worms Dysentery OphthalmiaSummer Diarrhea Anthrax Tubercolosis 29
  30. 30. DAGA Trichinosis Bubonic plagueChorio-Lepto SepticaemicMeningitis plague Pnuemonic plagueFood Poisoning Sylvatic plagueInfectious Jaundice or Murine Tuphus Weil’s Disease Fever 30
  31. 31. IPIS Can cause asthmaHarbor Can be a carrier of bacteria-viruses such salmonella,as polio virus staphylococcus and streptococcus Typhoid Dysentery leprosy 31
  32. 32. WASTE BEING HARMFUL ADVERSE HEALTH BURNTH SUBSTANCE EFFECTSAll waste including Particulate matter- LONG TERMplastic airborne particles that • Respiratory disease can be taken up by the • Heart problems lungs • Damage to nervous and reproductive system • Damage to kidney and liver • Cancer SHORT TERM • Headache • Nausea •Dizziness 32
  33. 33. WASTE BEING HARMFUL ADVERSE HEALTH BURNTH SUBSTANCE EFFECTSPolyvinyl Chloride Dioxin and HYDROCHLORIC ACID(PVC) hydrochloric acid • Burn your lungsFound in bottles and •Fluid build up in lungsjugs, children’s toys, •Ulceration of yourcosmetic products respiratory tractand householdproducts DIOXIN • Cancer • Immune dysfunction • IQ deficit • Reproductive effects 33
  34. 34. WASTE BEING HARMFUL ADVERSE HEALTH BURNTH SUBSTANCE EFFECTSPolystyrene Styrene, benzene, STYRENE •Readily absorbed into the skin,Found in toluene, xylene and respiratory tract andStyrofoam carbon monoxide gastrointestinal tractproducts such as • High doses can cause unconsciousness and deathcups and egg • Vapor can damage the eyecartons, plastic and mucus membraneutensils, and some •Long term exposure can affect the central nervous systempackaging products causing: 1.Headaches 2.Fatigue 3.Weakness 4.Depression 34
  35. 35. WASTE BEING HARMFUL ADVERSE HEALTH BURNTH SUBSTANCE EFFECTS BENZENE •Supression of one or more elements of the hematopoietic system (blood components) and malignant transformation of these elements into leukemia or possibly lymphoma. •At high exposures, may cause depression of the central nervous system: 1.Dizziness 2.Headache 3.Loss of consciousness 4.Convulsions which may ultimately lead to death 5.Cancer
  36. 36. WASTE BEING HARMFUL ADVERSE HEALTH BURNTH SUBSTANCE EFFECTS TOLUENE •Predominant effect is on the central nervous system: 1.Depression 2.Headache 3.Dizziness 4.Incoordination at 400 ppm 5.Staggering gait 6.Nausea 7.Confusion 8.Skin paresthesias 9.Dilatation of the pupils 10.Impaired light accommodation 11.Insomnia 12.Collapse 13.Coma
  37. 37. WASTE BEING HARMFUL ADVERSE HEALTH BURNTH SUBSTANCE EFFECTS 14. Death at 10,000 to 30,000 ppm •Liver toxicity •Renal toxicity CARBON MONOXIDE * Hypoxia – carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin (in red blood cells) to form carboxyhemoglobin, which is in effective in the transport of oxygen to body tissues and may eventually result to:
  38. 38. WASTE BEING HARMFUL ADVERSE HEALTH BURNTH SUBSTANCE EFFECTS •CNS effects: 1.Confusion 2.Disorientation 3.Loss of consciousness 4.Headache 5.Dizziness 6.Damage to the globus pallidus in the brain--- loss of voluntary movement of the body •May have severe effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman 1.Seizures 2.Coma 3.Death
  39. 39. Mga Abnormalidad sa Tao at sa Hayop.. 39
  40. 40. GUSTO BA NATING MANGYARI ITO?BE AWARE AND PREPARED 40
  41. 41. KATANGIAN AT PAKINABANG SA IBA’T-IBANG URI NG BASURABenepisyo ng pagreresiklo ng papel Sa kada 500 libro na nareresiklo, tayo’y nakakabawas: • 7,000 gallons ng tubig • 3.3 cubic yards ng landfill space • 17 hanggang 31 na puno • 4,100 kw ng elektrisidad, maaring makapagpa-ilaw ng isang bahay ng humigit sa 6 buwan 41
  42. 42. PAGRERESIKLO NGBOTE • conserves natural resources because every ton of recycled glass saves • 1,300 lbs sand • 410 lbs soda ash • 380 lbs limestone. • Saves energy - free from heating sand to 2300 deg F, creates no pollution, glass cullets (crushed glass) saves energy (40%) since it melts faster. Minimize or reduce the mining activities of lime stone, sand soda ash, bauxite ore A glass bottle can take up to 1 million years to breakdown. 42
  43. 43. PAGRERESIKLO NG BAKALMetal recycling conserves natural resources.Recycling one ton of steel conserves 2,500 lbs of iron ore 1,400 lbs of coal 120 lbs of limestoneRecycling a ton of aluminum conserves up to 8 tons of bauxite ore 14 megawatt hours of electricity 43
  44. 44. RELASYON NG TAO AT KALIKASANECOSYSTEM is a place where living andnon-living things exist and interact withone another (carbon dioxide and oxygen) BUHAY AT MASAGANANG KARAGATAN ANG MUNDO BILANG ISANG PARAISOGULPO AT KARAGATAN HABITAT, SURVIVE 44
  45. 45. SOLUSYON…ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT of 2000• COMPLIANCE WITH RA 9003 Closure and Conversion to Open Dumpsite to CDFs - Controlled Disposal Facilities - Final Disposal System• SEGREGATION AT SOURCE• SEGREGATED COLLECTION• MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY (MRF)• RECYCLING – PACKAGING MATERIALS ARE RECYCLABLE• SANITARY LANDFILL RA 9003 Approval : January 26, 2001 IRR Effectivity: January 06, 2002
  46. 46. Institutional Structure National Solid Waste DENR-EMB-NSWMC/SManagement Commission (Technical Support and (Policy Making) Enforcement) •Provide technical and other capability building assistance •Support to LGUs and private sector Ecological and Solid •Exercise visitorial and Waste Management Act enforcement power to ensure strict compliance •Issue rule and regulation •Responsible for the implementation and enforcement of the Local Government provision of this act Waste Units within their respective Generators/Citizens (Implementation) jurisdiction •Municipality/City shall be responsible for the collection •Barangay level shall conduct segregation 46
  47. 47. 17 PARTNERS AT THE NSWMCGovernment Sector: DENR (Chairman) PIA DILG MMDA DOST League of Provinces DPWH League of Cities DOH League of Municipalities DTI Liga ng mga Barangay DA TESDANon-Government Sector: 1 – Representative from the NGO Sector 1 – Representative from the Recycling Industry 1 – Representative from the Manufacturing/Packaging Industry 47
  48. 48. Special wastes Clay Lined Landfill 4%Recycling Recyclables BiodegradablesTechnologies 40% 56%• plastics BioreactorEcoshops/Buying Centers Biogas digester 48
  49. 49. PLASTICS…Identified as the worse in mixed waste dumped indifferent place BASURA AT KAHIRAPAN BASURA AT KARANGYAAN BASURA SA 49
  50. 50. The first step in eliminating the harmfuleffect of plastic is to:•Reduce – avoid using plastic products and purchase items withless plastic packaging•Reuse – when possible buy items such as metal and glass thatcan be reuse longer and do not leach chemical•Recycle – if your community does not have a recycling program,start one or collect them on your own 50
  51. 51. ITDI has an Integrated Approach to ITDI and PolystyreneSolid Waste Management which Packaging Councilincludes development of of the Philippinestechnologies on:FEATURES :• Steel casserole with cover, double jacketed body with a melting capacity of 50 kgs per batch• A motorized blunger for homogeneous mixing.• A cylindrical steel downspout - to facilitate the discharge of melted plastic during casting into the metal molds.• The exhaust/chimney is installed with a charcoal stack to absorb smoke emission during melting.• The temperature recorder measures the melting temperature• LPG fired with three-line burner.• Portable unit, mobile. DENSIFIER 51
  52. 52. Description of the TechnologyThe technology mainly involves densification of“waste Styro” or “plastic bags” by melting themin a vegetable cooking oil at a controlled heatingtemperature; converting the waste styro/plasticbags into rigid functional products.Simple, affordable, environment-friendlyand able to generate livelihood;decentralizing plastics recycling (communitylevel). 52
  53. 53. Recycling Process Waste Styro/Plastic Bags Size Reduction (Shredding/Grinding) Melting/Densification Densified Products (functional, novelty) 53
  54. 54. OPERATION/PRODUCTION PROCESS1. PREPARATION Shredding/GrindingCan GRIND:• plastic sando bags (PE, PP)• styropor/styrofoam ( FPS, EPS)• HDPE, PET bottles trays and containers• Aluminum foil packs ( sachet, pouch) 54
  55. 55. 2. MELTING PROCESS POURING OF USED OIL 55
  56. 56. 3. MOLDING/PRODUCT RESULT THE PRODUCT • The resulting molten waste plastic is easily molded by CASTING INTO THE METAL MOULDS which displayed potential uses for tabletops, planters, blocks for pathways, floorings, and other valuable functional products. Molding by CastingAT 180-200 DEGREE PREPARE THE METAL CENTIGRADE MOLDS AND SETMATERIALS/PLASTIC BENEATH THE SANDO BAG IS DENSIFIER ALREADY AT ITS HOMOGENOUS STAGE OPEN THE EXHAUST AND DRAIN PLUG AND REMOVE THE CLOGGED MATERIALS COOLING OF MOLDED PRODUCTS 56
  57. 57. Products ProducedPlastic Planters 57
  58. 58. Functional Products Table tops School chair Catwalk blocks 58
  59. 59. Table Tops 59
  60. 60. Cat Walk 60
  61. 61. Other ProductsBoards Synthetic timber plank Bricks 61
  62. 62. Styro/Plastic Rigid Paving Blocks ( Product of Payatas Pilot Testing Project) Sample Modulus of Compressive Rupture (MOR), Strength (CS), kg/cm2 kg/cm2Pure Styro 46.79 99.37Styro/Plastic Mix 36.35 52.60Plastic Shreddedmetallized 9.63 42.08wrapper mixStyro/Plastic withless oil 38.55 58.57 62
  63. 63. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTCLEANER GAS EMISSION/SMOKE AND GAS ANALYSIS •Tested by the Environmental Division, ITDI-DOST and DOLE 63 •Occupational Safety and Health Center*
  64. 64. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTCLEANER GAS EMISSION/SMOKE AND GAS ANALYSISFEBRUARY 22, 2012 AREA SAMPLING Concentration, ppm Area/Measuring Point Styrene Toluence Xylene EvaluationRooftop (Styro Plastic Densifier Area)Left side <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 PassedRight side <0.001 <0.001 <0.001TLV based on OSHS, DOLE 100 ppm 100 ppm 100 ppm*Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average •Tested by the DOLE 644 6 •Occupational Safety and Health Center*
  65. 65. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTCLEANER GAS EMISSION/SMOKE AND GAS ANALYSISFEBRUARY 22, 2012 CARBON MONOXIDEWorkarea/Measuring Points Carbon Monoxide Evaluation (Center of the room) Concentration, ppmRooftop (Styro Plastic Densifier Area)Left side 5 PassedRide side 2 TLV based on OSHS, DOLE 50 ppm 65
  66. 66.  Styro/Plastic Melt Densifier and fuel (LPG ) Trained operator/workers or Project Team Shredding/Grinding Machine for plastic materials Metal molds and accessories Raw materials: waste styropor/plastic bags and used cooking oil Appropriate working space with shade (min.50m2) (Materials Recovery Facility - MRF) Proper exhaust system 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. PS BLOCKS ON PATHWAYSand FLOOR TILES inBgy. Balabag,Boracay 68
  69. 69. Dipolog –LGU,Zamboanga del Norte Thru DOST 9 – PSTD- Dipolog October 27-29, 2009 69
  70. 70. PLASTIC RECYCLINGin Sta Cruz, Laguna 70
  71. 71. Pilot Testing in Payatas, Quezon City Controlled Disposal FacilityDensifier – electrically heated –tapping electric power generatedby biogas power plant in Payatas 71
  72. 72. Styrofoam Shredding Machine Storage Area 72
  73. 73. “ Plastic Sando Bags Recycling”1st Place Likha Award (OutstandingCreative Research) National Inventors WeekNovember 2006, PTTC, Pasay 73
  74. 74. Technology adaptors 74
  75. 75. Technology adaptors 75
  76. 76. Technology Adaptors……… Non-Government Org. Date of Acquisition a. ZKK Corporation March 2005 Taytay, Rizal b. Mirriam College August 2006 (thru Quezon City PPCP/PPIA) Plastics Industry Date of Acquisition a. Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines August 2006 (PPCP) b. Philippine Plastic Industry December 2007 Association (PPIA) 76
  77. 77. DOST-ITDI Accredited Fabricators DOST-ITDI Accredited FabricatorsNCR Region 4• I.M. Bongar & Co., Inc. • L. Angeles Machineries Corp. Las Pinas City, Metro Manila (LAMACO) Tel: (02) 801-3943 / 801-3341 Bacoor, Cavite Tel.: (02) 887-6596 / (046) 970-5672• Markell Machineries Manufacturing Region 9 Blk. 2 Lot 6 Phase 1 • Pimentel Creative Builders & Gen. Natividad Subdivision Services Deparo, Caloocan City Balukot, Tambulig, Zamboanga del Sur Tel: (02) 425-6982• Raymac, Inc. Mobile: 0910-672-9634 Caloocan City, Metro Manila Email: pimentel.builders@yahoo.com Tel.: (02) 366-7342 Region 11 • Davao NCG Services, Inc. Agdao, Davao City, Davao del Sur Tel.: (082) 227-4462
  78. 78. Cost of the TechnologyOne(1) unit of Styro Plastic Densifier Features: Batch Type Process 50kg capacity Steel Casserole with cover Hopper Motorized Blunger Temperature Gauge Exhaust system packed with activated carbon/charcoal Metal Moulders Gas Burner with regulator hoseUnit Price: P180,000.00 FOB Metro Manila/Luzon P185,000.00 Visayas/Mindanao Training chargeable against: Technology End-user78
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. You may also address yourrequest to any : 80
  81. 81. MARAMING SALAMAT! 81
  82. 82. ECONOMIC EVALUATION General Statement and Assumptions1. Plant Operation  • 8 hrs/shift • 25 days/month2. Production Capacity • 2 batches / day • 49 kg/batch - output * 98 kg production output per day
  83. 83. General Statement and Assumptions1. Plant Operation  • 8 hrs/shift • 25 days/month2. Production Capacity • 2 batches / day • 49 kg/batch - output * 98 kg production output per day
  84. 84. General Statement and Assumptions3. Raw Materials 50 kg input  98% recovery Plastic  25 kg/batch Used Cooking Oil  25 kg/batch @ 15php/kg
  85. 85. General Statement and Assumptions1. Plant Operation  • 8 hrs/shift • 25 days/month2. Production Capacity • 2 batches / day • 49 kg/batch - output * 98 kg production output per day
  86. 86. General Statement and Assumptions4. Direct Labor One Skilled Worker Two Unskilled5. Utilities Electricity  298 kwhr/mo Water  13 cu.m. LPG  2kg/batch
  87. 87. General Statement and Assumptions5. Useful life of equipment  10 yrs6. Repair and Maintenace  3.0% of initial cost7. Contingency  5.0 % of initial cost
  88. 88. Cost of Equipment ITEMS QTY COST/ UNIT TOTAL (Equipment (pcs) COSTStyro/Plastic 1 P 185,000.00 P 185,000.00DensifierShredder 1 P 185,000.00 P 185,000.00Pots Molder 49 P 1,000.00 P 49,000.00Weighing Scale 1 P 2,500.00 P 2,500.00Total P 421,500.00
  89. 89. Monthly Production Cost (2450 kg) ITEMS QTY COST/ TOTAL (Materials) (kg) UNIT COSTUsed Cooking 1250 P 15.00 P 18,750.00OilPlastic 1250 - -Total - P 18,750.00
  90. 90. Monthly Production Cost (2450 kg) ITEMS QTY COST/ TOTAL (Direct Labor) UNIT COSTSkilled 1 P 325 P 8,125.00Unskilled 2 P 275 P 13,750.00Total P 21,875.00
  91. 91. Monthly Production Cost (2450 kg) ITEMS QTY COST/ TOTAL (Utilities) UNIT COSTLPG 100 kg P 68.18 P 6,818.00Electricity 298 kwh P 30.00 P 8,940.00Water 13 cu.m. P 28.00 P 364.00Total P 16,122.00
  92. 92. Total Capital Investment ( Php 519,376 ) ITEMS COSTEquipment P 421,500.00Pre-operating Expenses P 20,000.00Working Capital P 57, 751.00Contingency P 20, 075.00Total P 519,376.00
  93. 93. Unit Cost ITEMS TOTAL Price / Tiles Pots COST kg ( 1kg) (2kg)Raw Materials P 18,750.00 P 7.65 P 7.65 P 15.30Laborers P 21,875.00 P 8.93 P 8.93 P 17.86Utilities P 16,122.00 P 6.58 P 6.58 P 13.16Depreciation P 3,775.00 P 1.54 P 1.54 P 3.08Repair & Maint. P 1,004.00 P 0.41 P 0.41 P 0.82Total P 61,526.00 P 25.11 P 25.11 P 50.22
  94. 94. HighlightsProduct (No. of Decorative Pots/Tiles per Month 2450 kg1225 pcs ( pots ) or2450 pcs ( tiles )
  95. 95. HighlightsTotal Project Cost  Php 519,376.00Unit Cost of Production /kg  Php 25.11Revenue = Total Sales – Annual CostPayback Period = Total Investment Revenue
  96. 96. MARAMING SALAMAT! 96
  • nuwematsikodonchris

    Aug. 28, 2018
  • Abufathelrahman

    Apr. 27, 2017
  • marializadiaz3

    Aug. 5, 2013

a good technology for greener environment

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