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What Is GIS?
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My ppt on gis

  2. 2. A Free sample background from Slide 2 CONTENTS  Geographical Information System  GIS Capabilities  The Need For GIS  Components of GIS  Cross Disciplinary Nature of GIS  Creating GIS  How to combine Geographical Information© 2006 By Default!
  3. 3. A Free sample background from Slide 3 CONTENTS  How Does GIS Works  Information is organized into layers:  Why Is GIS Unique  Top Benefits Of GIS  GIS Applications© 2006 By Default!
  4. 4. A Free sample background from Slide 4 Introduction To Geographical Information System Geo:- EARTH Geography:- Study of earth and where things are. Information:- For capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding Information. System:- A set of Software, hardware and Data.© 2006 By Default!
  5. 5. A Free sample background from Slide 5 What Is GIS:-  Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system used to digitally represent and analyze the geographic features present on the Earth’s surface and the events that taking place on it.  Geographic Information Systems provide a method for integrating and analyzing spatial (digital map based) information such as "where is the nearest movie theater?"  Alongside related non-spatial information (what movies are playing there?).  Many people are becoming far more familiar with seeing the results both textually - for example when their phone shows them the nearest pub - and on open map systems such as Google Maps.© 2006 By Default!
  6. 6. A Free sample background from Slide 6 GIS Capabilities/ Analysis with GIS :  Location: What is at a particular location...? Where is it….?  Condition: identify a location where certain conditions exist..?  Trends: What has changed since...?  Patterns: What things are related..?  Modeling: What if…?© 2006 By Default!
  7. 7. A Free sample background from Slide 7 Example:- Fig:- Loc. of Giani Zail Singh College Of Engineering& Technology on Earth ..© 2006 By Default!
  8. 8. A Free sample background from Slide 8 The Need For GIS:  The real world has a lot of spatial data  manipulation, analysis and modeling can be effective and efficiently carried out with a GIS  the neighborhood of the intended purchase of house  location of historical sites to visit  The earth surface is a limited resource  rational decisions on space utilization  fast and quality information in decision making© 2006 By Default!
  9. 9. A Free sample background from Slide 9 Components of GIS:- A working Geographic Information System seamlessly integrates five key components:© 2006 By Default!
  10. 10. A Free sample background from Slide 10 Hardware:- • Computer • Digitizer • Scanner • Printer/Plotter Software :- GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze, and display geographic information. The Key components of GIS Software are:-  Tools for entering and manipulating geographic information such as addresses or political boundaries  A database management system (DBMS)  Tools that create intelligent digital maps you can analyze, query for more information, or print for presentation  An easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI)© 2006 By Default!
  11. 11. A Free sample background from Slide 11 Major GIS software  ARCGIS ( ArcView 10.1) ArcView: ESRI, the producer of ArcView, has been an industry leader in the production of GIS software and in the support of GIS education. Access ready-to-use ArcGIS for Desktop Basic (formerly known as ArcView), which allows one to view spatial data, create layered maps, and perform basic spatial analysis.  GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System)  Google Map  Google Earth© 2006 By Default!
  12. 12. A Free sample background from Slide 12 Data:-  GIS incorporates geographical features with tabular data in order to map, analyze, and assess real-world problems.  Data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features.  Geographic data and related tabular data can be produced by digitizing images from aerial photographs or published maps.  An example of this would be college. The actual location of the College is the spatial data.  Additional data such as the College name, specialization, capacity would make up the attribute data.© 2006 By Default!
  13. 13. A Free sample background from Slide 13 People:- GIS users range from technical specialists who design and maintain the system to those who use it to help them perform their everyday work. METHODS A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed plan and business rules, which are the models and operating practices unique to each organization© 2006 By Default!
  14. 14. A Free sample background from Slide 14 CROSS-DISCIPLINARY NATURE OF GIS© 2006 By Default!
  15. 15. A Free sample background from Slide 15 1. Digital Mapping:-  If you want to use already existed maps which are not in digital form, but in a form that can be recognized by computer can be used in GIS by converting them into Digital form so that they can be used.  Maps can be digitized by hand-tracing with a computer mouse on the screen or on a digitizing tablet to collect the coordinates of features.  Electronic scanners can also convert maps to digits.© 2006 By Default!
  16. 16. A Free sample background from Slide 16 2. Photogrammetry :- Photogrammetry is art, science, and technology of obtaining the geometric properties (of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space)of objects from photographic images. Photogrammetry is as old as modern photography. 3. Surveying :-  Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them(relative position of points or physical and cultural details).  These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps, boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes and cultural details about the area or land.© 2006 By Default!
  17. 17. A Free sample background from Slide 17 4. Remote Sensing:-  Remote sensing is the technique of deriving information about objects on the surface of the earth without physically coming into contact with them but with the help of sensors like cameras scanners carried on airplanes, satellites.  These sensors collect data in the form of images.  These sensors are at a considerable height from the earth surface and recording the observations on a suitable medium (images on photographic films and videotapes or digital data on magnetic tapes).© 2006 By Default!
  18. 18. A Free sample background from Slide 18 5. Statistical databases:- There are many different designs of DBMS’s, but in GIS the relational design has been the most useful. In the relational design, data are stored conceptually as a collection of tables. Common fields in different tables are used to link them together.  Spatial relational databases  exactly the same as any other relational database (RDBS) except that at least some of the Tables consist of entities with a geographic location.  geographic information about Geographic objects in the Table.  Place name, longitude, latitude, Pin code, description..etc.© 2006 By Default!
  19. 19. A Free sample background from Slide 19 Spatial data • At a simple level a GIS may just form the graphical interface to a database Linked database table SQL Query Manager© 2006 By Default!
  20. 20. A Free sample background from Slide 20 6. Computer Aided Design:  CAD is an automated system for the design, drafting and display of graphically oriented information.  CAD is used with GIS and the benefit is CAD allows a user to create a very accurate drawing whether it is a map, site plan, profile, etc. All the above defined systems are used with GIS to make it more efficient.© 2006 By Default!
  21. 21. A Free sample background from Slide 21 CREATING GIS:  Essentially, geographic information states what is where.  So to create geographic information, we have to record these two elements somehow.  They can be captured through many different types of observations, measurements and surveys.  Data can be sourced from aerial photography, satellite images, field samples, land surveying, population censuses, global positioning systems (GPS) and government administrative records among others.© 2006 By Default!
  22. 22. A Free sample background from Slide 22© 2006 By Default!
  23. 23. A Free sample background from Slide 23 How To Combine Geographic Information..?  If we are combining a number of different geographic information themes together, they may be from different sources, in different formats and covering different study areas.  Therefore, we need to use a system to deal with the *disparate sources and organize them so that they can be combined.  A Geographic Information System does just that It is a tool for the input of different geographical information themes so that they can be stored, organized, displayed and analyzed.  It uses geography as the common denominator between separate themes so that they can be combined.  Its purpose is to provide answers to questions based on geographical data© 2006 By Default!
  24. 24. A Free sample background from Slide 24© 2006 By Default!
  25. 25. A Free sample background from Slide 25 How Does GIS Works : Relating info. from different sources Data capture Data integration Projection and registration Data structures Data modeling© 2006 By Default!
  26. 26. A Free sample background from Slide 26 1. Relating Information From Different Sources:- o The power of a GIS comes from the ability to relate different information in a spatial context and to reach a conclusion about this relationship. o Most of the information we have about our world contains a location reference, placing that information at some point on the globe. o A GIS, therefore, can reveal important new information that leads to better decision making.© 2006 By Default!
  27. 27. A Free sample background from Slide 27 2. Data Capture:  How can a GIS use the information in a map? If the data to be used are not already in digital form, that is, in a form the computer can recognize, various techniques can capture the information.  Maps can be digitized by hand-tracing with a computer mouse on the screen or on a digitizing tablet to collect the coordinates of features.  A GIS can be used to emphasize the spatial relationships among the objects being mapped.© 2006 By Default!
  28. 28. A Free sample background from Slide 28 Fig B. Collecting latitude and longitude coordinates with a GPS Receiver. Fig A. Scanning paper maps to produce digital data files for input into a GIS.© 2006 By Default!
  29. 29. A Free sample background from Slide 29  Data capture—putting the information into the system —involves identifying the objects on the map, their absolute location on the Earths surface, and their spatial relationships.  Software tools that automatically extract features from satellite images or aerial photographs.  A computer-aided mapping system may represent a road simply as a line, a GIS may also recognize that road as the boundary between wetland and urban city.© 2006 By Default!
  30. 30. A Free sample background from Slide 30 3. Data Integration:  A GIS makes it possible to link, or integrate, information that is difficult to associate through any other means.  Thus, a GIS can use combinations of mapped variables to build and analyze new variables. FIG:- Data integration is the linking of information in different forms through a GIS.© 2006 By Default!
  31. 31. A Free sample background from Slide 31  For example, using GIS technology, it is possible to combine agricultural records with hydrography (The science of the measurement and description and mapping of the surface waters of the earth with special reference to navigation) data to determine which streams will carry certain levels of fertilizer runoff.  Agricultural records can indicate how much pesticide has been applied to a parcel of land.  By locating these parcels and intersecting them with streams, the GIS can be used to predict the amount of nutrient runoff in each stream.© 2006 By Default!
  32. 32. A Free sample background from Slide 32 4. Projection & Registration:  Projection is a fundamental component of mapmaking. A projection is a mathematical means of transferring information from the Earths three-dimensional, curved surface to a two-dimensional medium—paper or a computer screen.  Different projections are used for different types of maps because each projection is particularly appropriate for certain uses.  Since much of the information in a GIS comes from existing maps, a GIS uses the processing power of the computer to transform digital information, gathered from sources with different projections, to a common projection© 2006 By Default!
  33. 33. A Free sample background from Slide 33 FIG:- An elevation image The elevation image has been classified from a satellite image re-projected to match the of Minnesota (state) exists in a projection and scale of the different scale and projection State and province boundaries than the lines on the digital file of the State and province boundaries.© 2006 By Default!
  34. 34. A Free sample background from Slide 34 5. Data structures :  Can a property ownership map be related to a satellite image, a timely indicator of land uses? Yes, but, because digital data are collected and stored in various ways, the two data sources may not be entirely compatible. So a GIS must be able to convert data from one structure to another.  Data restructuring can be performed by a GIS to convert data into different formats  For example, a GIS may be used to convert a satellite image map to a vector structure by generating lines around all cells with the same classification, while determining the cell spatial relationships, such as adjacency or inclusion.© 2006 By Default!
  35. 35. A Free sample background from Slide 35 Figure 13a. Magnified view of the Figure 13b. Magnified views of the same GIS data file, shown in raster same GIS data file. converted into format. vector format.© 2006 By Default!
  36. 36. A Free sample background from Slide 36 6. Data Modeling: o It is impossible to collect data over every square meter of the Earths surface. Therefore, samples must be taken at distinct locations. o A GIS can be used to depict two- and three- dimensional characteristics of the Earths surface, subsurface, and atmosphere from points where samples have been collected. o GIS Spatial Data Model :- • Traditionally spatial data has been stored and presented in the form of a map. Three basic types of spatial data models have evolved for storing geographic data digitally. These are referred to as:  Vector Data Model  Raster Data Model© 2006 By Default!
  37. 37. A Free sample background from Slide 37 • Vector Data  Map features • Points, lines, polygons • Feature attributes  Every feature has attributes • (e.g. name, area, population) Shape Name Class Pop2000 State Point New York City 8,008,278 NY Point Los Angeles City 3,694,820 CA Point Chicago City 2,896,016 IL • Raster Data  Stored electronic image or picture taken as an aerial photograph or satellite image.  Composed of a rectangular array of square cells, called pixels, with a number in each cell representing the solid color fill of that cell.© 2006 By Default!
  38. 38. A Free sample background from Slide 38 In Vector model: as geometric Fig:- Raster model as image objects: points, lines, Polygons files composed of grid-cells (pixels) • A new hybrid method of storing data is that of identifying point clouds, which combine three-dimensional points with RGB information at each point, returning a "3D color image". • GIS thematic maps then are becoming more and more realistically visually descriptive of what they set out to show or determine.© 2006 By Default!
  39. 39. A Free sample background from Slide 39 Figure:- Raster, Vector n Real Model© 2006 By Default!
  40. 40. A Free sample background from Slide 40 Information is organized into layers: GIS organizes information in many layers. Each layer represents a particular theme or feature of map.© 2006 By Default!
  41. 41. A Free sample background from Slide 41© 2006 By Default!
  42. 42. A Free sample background from Slide 42 Lakes Roads States© 2006 By Default!
  43. 43. A Free sample background from Slide 43 Rivers Cities© 2006 By Default!
  44. 44. A Free sample background from Slide 44 WHY IS GIS UNIQUE..? • GIS handles SPATIAL information - information referenced by its location in space. • GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity. • GIS stores related geographic features in separate collections of files called map layers • Map layers can be reused easily and assembled into any number of map compositions and overlaid for analysis© 2006 By Default!
  45. 45. A Free sample background from Slide 45 GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. There is a growing awareness of the economic and strategic value of GIS. Better Decision Making: GIS is the go-to technology for making better decisions about location. Common examples include real estate site selection, route selection. Making correct decisions about location is critical to the success of an organization. Improved Communication: GIS-based maps and visualizations greatly assist in understanding situations and in storytelling. They are a type of language that improves communication between different teams, departments, disciplines, professional fields, organizations, and the public.© 2006 By Default!
  46. 46. A Free sample background from Slide 46 Better Recordkeeping: Many organizations have a primary responsibility of maintaining authoritative records about the status and change of geography and GIS provides a strong support. GIS provides a strong framework for managing these types of records with full transaction support and reporting tools. Managing Geographically: GIS is becoming essential to understanding what is happening—and what will happen—in geographic space.  Geospatial data are better maintained in a standard format.  Revision and updating are easier.  Geospatial data and information are easier to search, analysis and represent.  Geospatial data can be shared and exchanged freely.  Time and money are saved.© 2006 By Default!
  47. 47. A Free sample background from Slide 47 Crime mapping:- • It is used on police crime maps. Collection of data regarding incidences and arrests on geographical areas which in turn helped increase police patrols to reduce crimes. • For Example :- In the case where there is a kidnapping and the perpetrators (committers) of crime call to demand something then this technology can be used to locate the individual exactly where he or she is calling from.© 2006 By Default!
  48. 48. A Free sample background from Slide 48© 2006 By Default!
  49. 49. A Free sample background from Slide 49 Media and Press: Journalists and editors use GIS in a number of ways: • Creating valuable graphic images that help tell compelling stories. • Researching in depth information for articles. Example:- Mapping The Medals In Olympic :- Sport Gold Silver Bronze Total 0 2 4 6 Badminton 0 0 1 1 + Boxing 0 0 1 1 + Shooting 0 1 1 2 + Wrestling 0 1 1 2 + Fig : Database of the medals India has Won in Olympics.© 2006 By Default!
  50. 50. A Free sample background from Slide 50 Fig: Keep up to date on Olympic medals distribution across the world using GIS.© 2006 By Default!
  51. 51. A Free sample background from Slide 51 Census:- Integration of GIS technology in Census Mapping  GIS introduced in Indian Census in 1992.  Such software, as, ArcInfo, ArcView and ArcGIS have been extensively used.  About 60 skilled professionals are engaged in GIS related work in 17 centers located in different parts of the country.© 2006 By Default!
  52. 52. A Free sample background from Slide 52 H.P ARUNACHAL PARDES Fig:- show the states which have population less than© 2006 By Default! 1crore.
  53. 53. A Free sample background from Slide 53 Uttaranchal Jharkhand Chhattisgarh Fig:- In India Newly Created States During 1991-2001© 2006 By Default!
  54. 54. A Free sample background from Slide 54 Real Estate:-  Residential Real Estate:- A single map lets your customer compare multiple properties and their respective proximity to desired amenities such as schools, parks, and shopping centers  Commercial Real Estate:- Evaluate and analyze key factors when sating new premise for restaurants, stores, warehouses, corporate offices etc.: * Location of potential competitors * Crime rates * Transportation infrastructure * Regional labor pool characteristics * Environmental risk factors (i.e., flood plains, toxic sites, and others)© 2006 By Default!
  55. 55. A Free sample background from Slide 55 Fig:- Colleges NEAR Namdev Marg, Bathinda, Punjab, India© 2006 By Default!
  56. 56. A Free sample background from Slide 56 GIS in Tourism :- • Visualization of tourist sites through digital images or videos • Valuable information on tourist locations • Selective information like route planning, accommodation, cultural events, special attractions etc. • Easily accessible information over the internet. • Interactive maps that respond to user queries. • They will find all information on click, measure distance, find hotels and restaurants and even navigate to their respective links.© 2006 By Default!
  57. 57. A Free sample background from Slide 57 Fig: Bathinda map© 2006 By Default!
  58. 58. A Free sample background from Slide 58 Fig:- Mittal Mall To Peninsula Mall© 2006 By Default!
  59. 59. A Free sample background from Slide 59© 2006 By Default!
  60. 60. A Free sample background from Slide 60© 2006 By Default!
  61. 61. A Free sample background from Slide 61 What makes data spatial...??? Grid co-ordinate Placename Postcode Description Distance & bearing Characteristics of spatial data The shape of a building or county The course of a river, the route of a road Back 1 The shape of the landscape.© 2006 By Default!
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