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What is grit, and why is it important?

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  1. 1. Grit What is grit, and why is it important?
  2. 2. Grit • Grit was defined as, "perseverance and passion for long-term goals" – by psychologist Angela Duckworth and colleagues, who extensively studied grit as a personality trait.
  3. 3. Grit
  4. 4. Grit • Grit in psychology is a positive, non- cognitive trait based on an individual's perseverance of effort combined with the passion for a particular long-term goal or end state.
  5. 5. Grit, effort combined with the passion
  6. 6. Grit • This perseverance of effort promotes the overcoming of obstacles or challenges that lie on the path to accomplishment and serves as a driving force in achievement realization.
  7. 7. Perseverance Of Effort Promotes The Overcoming Of Obstacles Or Challenges
  8. 8. Grit • Distinct but commonly associated concepts within the field of psychology include "perseverance", "hardiness", "resilience", "ambition", "need for achievement" and "conscientiousness".
  9. 9. Perseverance
  10. 10. Hardiness
  11. 11. Resilience
  12. 12. Ambition
  13. 13. Need For Achievement
  14. 14. Conscientiousness
  15. 15. Grit • These constructs can be conceptualized as individual differences related to the accomplishment of work rather than talent or ability.
  16. 16. Grit
  17. 17. Grit • This distinction was brought into focus in 1907 when William James challenged the field to further investigate how certain individuals are capable of accessing richer trait reservoirs enabling them to accomplish more than the average person, but the construct dates back at least to Francis Galton, and the ideals of persistence and tenacity have been understood as a virtue at least since Aristotle.
  18. 18. William James
  19. 19. Francis Galton
  20. 20. Grit • They observed that individuals high in grit were able to maintain their determination and motivation over long periods despite experiences with failure and adversity. • They concluded that grit is a better predictor of success than intellectual talent (IQ).
  21. 21. Grit is a better predictor of success than intellectual talent (IQ)
  22. 22. Grit • Earlier studies of achievement often emphasized the notion that high-achieving individuals typically possess traits above and beyond that of normal ability. • Duckworth et al. emphasized that grit is a better predictor of achievement than intellectual talent (IQ), because grit serves as the overriding factor that provides the stamina required to "stay the course" amid challenges and setbacks.
  23. 23. Grit
  24. 24. Grit
  25. 25. What is grit, and why is it important? • Basic definition of grit, developed by Angela Duckworth, the psychologist and researcher who coined the term: Grit is passion and perseverance for long term and meaningful goals.
  26. 26. What is grit, and why is it important?
  27. 27. Grit is passion and perseverance for long-term and meaningful goals • It is the ability to persist in something you feel passionate about and persevere when you face obstacles. • This kind of passion is not about intense emotions or infatuation. It’s about having direction and commitment. When you have this kind of passion, you can stay committed to a task that may be difficult or boring. • Grit is also about perseverance. • To persevere means to stick with it; to continue working hard even after experiencing difficulty or failure.
  28. 28. Grit is passion and perseverance for long-term and meaningful goals
  29. 29. Why is grit important? • Grit is important because it is a driver of achievement and success, independent of and beyond what talent and intelligence contribute. • Being naturally smart and talented are great, but to truly do well and thrive, we need the ability to persevere. • Without grit, talent may be nothing more than unmet potential. It is only with effort that talent becomes a skill that leads to success .
  30. 30. Why is grit important?
  31. 31. Grit And Positive Psychology • Grit also ties in with positive psychology and in particular, with perseverance. • As mentioned earlier, the ability to stick with and pursue a goal over a long period is an important aspect of grit. • This area of positive psychology has been interested in the process of perseverance as a positive indicator of long term success.
  32. 32. Grit And Positive Psychology
  33. 33. Grit And Intelligence • One of the best predictors of future achievement has been intelligence. • This relationship has been found in scholastic achievement as well as in job performance. • As such, one might expect that grit would be strongly correlated with intelligence.
  34. 34. Grit And Intelligence
  35. 35. Grit And Intelligence • Somewhat surprisingly, in four separate samples, grit was found to be inversely correlated with intelligence. • This means that grit, unlike many traditional measures of performance, is not tied to intelligence. • The researchers suggested that this helps explain why some very intelligent individuals do not consistently perform well over long periods.
  36. 36. Grit And Intelligence
  37. 37. Grit And Personality Measures • The grit measure has been compared to the Big Five personality traits, which are a group of broad personality dimensions consisting of openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
  38. 38. Grit And Personality Measures
  39. 39. Grit And Personality Measures
  40. 40. Grit And Personality Measures
  41. 41. Grit And Personality Measures
  42. 42. Comparison With Related Psychological Constructs • Traditional constructs in this area include perseverance, hardiness, resilience, ambition, self-control, and need for achievement. • Grit has been argued to be distinguishable from each of these in the following ways
  43. 43. Comparison With Related Psychological Constructs • Perseverance is the steadfast pursuit of a task, mission, or journey in spite of obstacles, discouragement, or distraction. In contrast, grit is argued to be a trait of perseverance. • Grit enables an individual to persevere in accomplishing a goal despite obstacles over an extended period. • When compared with the construct of persistence, grit adds a component of passion for the goal
  44. 44. Perseverance
  45. 45. Comparison With Related Psychological Constructs • Hardiness is defined as a combination of attitudes that provide the courage and motivation to do the hard, strategic work of turning stressful circumstances from potential disasters into growth opportunities. • While grit is primarily a measure of an individual's ability to persist in obtaining a specific goal over an extended time period, hardiness refers to an individual's ability to persist through difficult circumstances and does not address the individual's long term persistence toward a specific goal.
  46. 46. Hardiness
  47. 47. Comparison With Related Psychological Constructs • Resilience is a dynamic process in which an individual overcomes significant adversity, usually in the form of a life changing event or difficult personal circumstances. Resilience can be conceptualized as an adaptive response to a challenging situation. • Grit involves maintaining goal focused effort for extended periods of time, often while facing adversity but does not require a critical incident. Importantly, grit is conceptualized as a trait while resilience is a dynamic process. Finally, resilience has been almost exclusively studied in children who are born into "at-risk" situations
  48. 48. Resilience
  49. 49. Comparison With Related Psychological Constructs • Ambition is broadly defined as the desire for attainment, power, or superiority. • In contrast to ambition, grit is not associated with seeking fame or external recognition for achievements. Ambition is often associated with a desire for fame. • Unlike ambitious individuals, gritty individuals do not seek to distinguish themselves from other people, but to obtain personal goals.
  50. 50. Ambition
  51. 51. How To Measure Grit ? • Grit Scale • The Grit Scale is a set of measures designed to measure trait-level perseverance and passion for long-term goals •
  52. 52. Grit in Education • Developing Grit In Our Students • Why do most individuals make use of only a small percentage of their resources, whereas a few exceptional individuals push themselves to their limits? • Why do some individuals accomplish more than others of equal intelligence? • One personal quality that is shared by most high achieving and successful people is grit.
  53. 53. Developing Grit In Our Students
  54. 54. Grit in Education • There has been a lot of talk recently about grit and how to develop it within our students. • Grit is the quality that enables individuals to work hard and stick to their long-term passions and goals. It makes sense that this would be important for students, both in school and in life. • Can one learn to have grit? • How do you teach it?
  55. 55. Grit in Education
  56. 56. Grit in Education • According to leading researcher, Angela Duckworth, grit can probably be taught. • "Kids may have the wrong beliefs and have misunderstandings about skill development...beliefs that stand in the way of tapping into performance traits." • When students struggle with a task, they may believe that they lack the ability to solve the problem and, therefore, give up. • It is important for students to understand that it is ok to feel confused when learning something new, and actually, it is expected. We can teach students that making mistakes or taking a long time to complete an assignment is a normal part of learning, nota sign of failure.
  57. 57. According to leading researcher, Angela Duckworth, grit can probably be taught
  58. 58. Definition of Grit • According to researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, grit is defined as "perseverance and passion for long-term goals.” • Grit involves working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress.
  59. 59. Definition of Grit
  60. 60. Definition of Grit • The gritty individual approaches achievement as a marathon; his or her advantage is stamina. While disappoint mentor boredom may lead most people to change trajectory, the gritty individual stays the course" (Duckworth et al,2007).
  61. 61. Definition of Grit
  62. 62. Grit in Education • We all can identify people in our lives who have big ideas and a lot of enthusiasm for many projects, only to drop them within a few weeks. • Individuals with a lot of grit tend to set very long-term objectives and do not lose sight of them, even when they are not getting any positive feed-back.
  63. 63. Individuals with a lot of grit tend to set very long-term objectives and do not lose sight of them
  64. 64. Research Supporting the Importance of Grit • So why should we pay so much attention to grit? • Duckworth and Seligman (2005, 2007) have demonstrated that grit, perseverance and self- discipline are better predictors of success in college than the SAT or IQ tests. • These standardized tests serve an important function, but are limited in their ability to measure important traits such as grit and self- control.
  65. 65. Research Supporting the Importance of Grit
  66. 66. Research Supporting the Importance of Grit • Angela Duckworth and Deborah Perkins-Gough conducted a study at West Point Military Academy in order to look at how well grit would predict who would stay fort he entire program. • Although West Point has a rigorous admissions process, about 1 in 20 cadets drop out be-fore the first academic year begins. • As part of the study, the cadets each took a short grit questionnaire when they first arrived. • This score was actually abetter predictor of who would stay than any other measure West Point looked at.
  67. 67. Research Supporting the Importance of Grit
  68. 68. Grit Versus Talent • At one time or another, we all have been impressed by an athlete, a student or a musician whom we would label as "talented." Talent, however, is only part of the picture.
  69. 69. Grit Versus Talent
  70. 70. Grit Versus Talent • In his book, Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell talks about the 10,000 hours of practice required to excel at a particular skill. • "I believe ability can get you to the top, "says coach John Woodin, "but it takes character to keep you there.
  71. 71. In his book, Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell talks about the 10,000 hours of practice required to excel at a particular skill
  72. 72. 10000 Hour Rule: Malcolm Gladwell
  73. 73. Grit Versus Talent • It's so easy to begin thinking you can just turn it on automatically, without proper preparation. It takes real character to keep working as hard, or even harder once you are there. • When you read about an athlete or a team that wins over and over and over, remind yourself that more than ability, they have character" (Carol Dweck, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success).
  74. 74. Carol Dweck, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success
  75. 75. Grit Versus Talent • In terms of academics, if students are just trying to reach the threshold of getting an A, and they also hap- pen to be very talented, they may do their homework or study for a test in just a few minutes. Once they reach a certain level of proficiency, then they stop. • They actually work less hard than their peers for whom the work is challenging. If, on the other hand, they are not just trying to reach a certain cut point, but are trying to learn as much as possible by doing as well as they can, then there is no limit to what can be accomplished.
  76. 76. Grit in Academics
  77. 77. Grit Versus Talent • According to Galton (1892) who collected biographical information about highly successful people, "ability alone did not bring about success in any field. Rather, successful high achievers also possessed zeal and the capacity for hard labor”
  78. 78. Grit Versus Talent
  79. 79. Grit Versus Talent • According to Carol Dweck in Mindset: • The New Psychology of Success, "After seven experiments with hundreds of children, we had some of the clearest findings I've ever seen. Praising children's intelligence harms their motivation and it harms their performance. • Children love praise, and especially for their intelligence and talent. It really does give them a boost, a special glow - but only for that moment. The minute they hit a snag, their confidence goes out the window and their motivation hits rock bottom. If success means they are smart, then failure means they are dumb. That's the fixed mindset."
  80. 80. Grit Versus Talent • Children who have more of a growth mindset tend to be grittier. • The attitude that "I can get better if I try harder, "most likely results in the development of a tenacious, hardworking person. "In theory, the work that Carol Dweck has done to show that you can change your mindset would also be relevant to changing your grit."
  81. 81. Grit Versus Talent
  82. 82. Grit Versus Talent • Duckworth and her colleagues at University of Pennsylvania are developing an intervention, based on Dweck's work, to look at making students aware of the value of deliberate practice. • The intervention requires teachers to tell kids that practice is not easy, that they are going to be confused, frustrated. • Teachers explain that when you are learning, you have to make mistakes and do things over and over again which can be boring.
  83. 83. Grit Versus Talent • Tim Elmore recently wrote a blog about building perseverance in students based on the findings that students in Singapore are far more persistent in problem solving than American students. • He explains that although we live in a world of speed and convenience, this speed has diminished perseverance and work ethic in our kids. • He recommends the following strategies to encourage per-severance in students:
  84. 84. Tim Elmore, wrote a blog about building perseverance in students
  85. 85. Grit Versus Talent • Talk about the power of attitude and persistence. • Singapore teachers repeatedly talk to their students from a young age about attitude and persistence. They underscore how valuable this trait is for success in life.
  86. 86. Grit Versus Talent • Turn the problem into a picture or puzzle. • Singapore teaching methods include "model drawing." • Students turn math problems into a picture and the graphic helps them solve the problem by engaging both sides of the brain
  87. 87. Turn the problem into a picture or puzzle
  88. 88. Grit Versus Talent • Start with smaller problems they can more easily solve and help them get some quick wins. • Share the "why" before the "what." We often fail to inspire kids because we don't share the relevance of the problem.
  89. 89. We often fail to inspire kids because we don't share the relevance of the problem
  90. 90. Grit Versus Talent • When possible, place students in communities to work together. • Students learn best in communities where they can solve problems in cooperation with peers. They often give up when they feel alone and inferior. • Make it a game or competition.
  91. 91. When possible, place students in communities to work together
  92. 92. Make it a game or competition
  93. 93. Grit Versus Talent • Reward hard work and delayed gratification. • What gets rewarded gets repeated. Affirm hard work and actually reward completion in the end.
  94. 94. Action Steps for Teachers and Schools • In order to build character and grit in students, it is essential to also develop a school culture that emphasizes character and grit.
  95. 95. Conclusion • Though there are many interventions and strategies that can be implemented in order to develop grit, it is the quality of interactions and interventions - not the strategies themselves - that matter most. • "Human change occurs more readily in the context of caring and trusting relationships"
  96. 96. Human change occurs more readily in the context of caring and trusting relationships
  97. 97. Conclusion • We must remember the importance of providing social emotional support to our students.
  98. 98. Conclusion • Schools should devote more - not less – intentional effort to developing grit in students. • Teaching grit means helping students understand how to set and achieve their goals. When we teach students how to regulate their attention, emotions and behavior, we empower them to pursue goals that are most important to them.
  99. 99. Schools should devote more - not less – intentional effort to developing grit in students
  100. 100. Famous People Who Became Successful Through Perseverance And Grit • Henry Ford • His name is synonymous with one of the most famous American automobile companies. Henry Ford invented the assembly line and forever changed production in industries. He is well known for his success. • However, before his motor company took off, Henry had tried out other types of businesses and failed miserably. As a matter of fact, he had gone bankrupt a total of 5 times before finally making it with the Ford Motor Company.
  101. 101. Henry Ford
  102. 102. Albert Einstein • No other name in human history has been associated with intellectual achievement like Albert Einstein's. Widely regarded as the father of physics, Albert is a scientific celebrity all over the world. In his early days, nobody thought he would grow into a genius. Albert did not talk until he was 4 years old. He also could not read until he was 7. • His parents and teachers thought he was mentally handicapped. He was once expelled from school for the same reason and also denied entry into the Zurich Polytechnic School. • Through enterprise and interest in science, he found a place in the educational institutions and rose to become the scientist we know today.
  103. 103. Albert Einstein
  104. 104. Steven Spielberg • He is a legendary Hollywood director whose movies gross millions at the box office. Interestingly, Steven was rejected from the Southern California School of Theater, Film and Television a total of three times. He did not give up. • He went on to enroll at California State University in Long Beach. After some time, he dropped out and decided to teach himself how to direct. Today, we enjoy breathtaking cinematic pieces directed by him.
  105. 105. Steven Spielberg
  106. 106. Stephen King • If you faced rejection multiple times, would you give up? Stephen did. • His first novel was rejected by the publishers 30 times and in frustration, he threw it in the bin. His wife Tabitha picked it up and encouraged Stephen to finish it. • He agreed and the first novel known as 'Carrie' came into existence. It was received with widespread acclaim. Mr. King continued to write thrillers and mystery novels that have captured the imaginations of readers across the globe. They have also been made into classic motion pictures.
  107. 107. Stephen King
  108. 108. Elvis Presley • The King of Rock faced significant challenges and frustration before he became successful. • In 1954, Elvis performed at the Grand Ole Opry. After a cold reception, manager Jimmy Denny threw him out of the venue. • He even added that Elvis should simply go back to driving trucks for a living. Down but not out, Elvis kept trying until he signed with a major record label. He went on to release timeless classics such as 'Bridge Over Troubled Water' and became a rock and roll icon.
  109. 109. Elvis Presley
  110. 110. Jim Carrey • He is a widely known comedian who has cracked us up with his roles in movies such as 'Ace Ventura', 'The Mask', and 'Bruce Almighty'. Before he was famous, Jim and his family were struggling. • He dropped out of school at the age of 15 so that he could support his family. He suffered a lot but never gave up on his dream of being a comedian. He attended comedy clubs in Toronto with his father and eventually got picked for a show. He made it in Hollywood and became one of the most iconic comedians.
  111. 111. Jim Carrey
  112. 112. J.K. Rowling • The is the author behind the Harry Potter book series and the Hogwarts Universe. Her books have been bought all over the world. They have also been adapted into blockbuster movies. • Despite her roaring success, J.K. Rowling was once so poor that she had to depend on welfare. • She was divorced, depressed and taking care of one child. When she took the first manuscript of 'Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone', it was rejected a total of 12 times by Bloomsbury London publishers. • Eventually, the book was published and it opened the gates of fortune for the author. Today, she is one of the richest women in the world.
  113. 113. J.K. Rowling
  114. 114. Terminology • Patience • Patience (or forbearance) is the ability to endure difficult circumstances such as perseverance in the face of delay; tolerance of provocation without responding in annoyance/anger; or forbearance when under strain, especially when faced with longer-term difficulties.
  115. 115. Patience
  116. 116. Prudence • Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. • It is classically considered to be a virtue.
  117. 117. Sisu • Sisu is a Finnish concept described as stoic determination, tenacity of purpose, grit, bravery, resilience, and hardiness and is held by Finns themselves to express their national character.
  118. 118. Sisu
  119. 119. Temperance (virtue) • Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint. It is typically described in terms of what an individual voluntarily refrains from doing. • This includes restraint from retaliation in the form of non-violence and forgiveness, restraint from arrogance in the form of humility and modesty, restraint from excesses such as extravagant luxury or splurging now in the form of prudence, and restraint from excessive anger or craving for something in the form of calmness and self-control.
  120. 120. Tenacity • Tenacity is the quality displayed by someone who just won't quit who keeps trying until they reach their goal.
  121. 121. References Angela Duckworth • Developing Grit In Our Students • Grit (personality trait) • Grit: A Complete Guide on Being Mentally Tough • Is “Grit” Really the Key to Success? • The Limits of “Grit” • 5 Characteristics Of Grit -- How Many Do You Have? • what-it-is-why-you-need-it-and-do-you-have-it/#2857001c4f7b
  122. 122. Thanks…
  123. 123. Thanks…