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impact of industrial revolution on architecture


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urban design

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impact of industrial revolution on architecture

  1. 1. What is Industrial Revolution?
  2. 2. The process of change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture.  The Industrial Revolution began in England about 1760  radical changes at every level of civilization throughout the world  The revolution in human thought
  3. 3. Industrial revolution and Architecture
  4. 4. Industrial revolution and architecture Material Social Cultural
  5. 5. Construction material Growth of heavy industry brought a flood of new building materials eg :- cast iron steel glass
  6. 6. Cast Iron For a long time before the industrial revolution the most used metal was pig iron .this is a very brittle metal and to be structural solid required large quantities. The only practical application was in pots, pans and occasionally fireplaces. However with the industrial revolution the price of cast iron decreased considerably and by 1850 intricate facades were being made of cast iron that can still be seen in Glasgow, Scotland today. The gardeners warehouse that was constructed in 1856 was the first completely cast iron fronted commercial building in Britain.
  7. 7. Wrought Iron mostly used in the construction of bridges
  8. 8. Social and Cultural Neoclassical Architecture  produced by the neoclassical movement t began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.  its purest is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.
  9. 9.  Intellectually Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, Greek, and renaissance classicism  architects, however, felt free to select whatever elements from past cultures best fitted their programs—Gothic for Protestant churches, baroque for Roman Catholic churches, early Greek for banks, Palladian for institutions, early Renaissance for libraries, and Egyptian for cemeteries.
  10. 10. Putteney bridge bath by Robert Adam (1774) Royal Scottish academy Edinburgh by William Henry playfair (1822)
  11. 11. Altes museum , Berlin (1823)
  12. 12. Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius Prado museum in Madrid ,by Juan de Villanueva (1819)
  13. 13.  In the second half of the 19th century dislocations brought about by the Industrial Revolution became overwhelming.  Many were shocked by the hideous new urban districts of factories and workers’ housing and by the deterioration of public taste among the newly rich.  For the new modes of transportation, canals, tunnels, bridges, and railroad stations, architects were employed only to provide a cultural veneer.
  14. 14. The Crystal Palace (1851, London) 1,850’ long, 110’ tall
  15. 15. The Eiffel Tower (1887-89, Paris) 1,063’ high (81 floors)
  16. 16. The Wainwright Building (1890-91, St. Louis) One of the first skyscrapers (11 floors)
  17. 17. The Empire State Building (1929-31, New York) 1,472’, 102 floors
  18. 18. Industrial revolution and City
  19. 19. City and factory town • The steam railroad extended its rails from raw products to the factory , and to the cities of consumers all over the land. • Every amenity of urban life was sacrificed to the requirements of industrial production. • Railroads and ships joined at the factories , and the waterfront became the industrial core of the city.
  20. 20. Public and safety in city • The heavy buildings cover on the land reduced the natural drainage of the city. • But extensive street paving permitted effective cleaning and strong sewers augmented the sanitary equipment. • Common use in city street lamps. Electricity began to replace gas for street lighting.
  21. 21. THANK YOU