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Physiology of the Heart Dr. George Pearce
Functions of the Heart <ul><li>Generating blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Routing blood:   separates pulmonary and system...
The cardiovascular system is divided into two circuits <ul><li>Pulmonary circuit  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood to and from ...
 
<ul><li>Structural Differences in heart chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The left side of the heart is more muscular than th...
 
Cardiac Muscle Contraction <ul><li>Heart muscle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is stimulated by nerves and is self-excitable (auto...
Conducting System of Heart
Conduction System of the Heart <ul><li>SA node : sinoatrial node. The pacemaker.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized cardia...
Heart Physiology: Sequence of Excitation <ul><li>Sinoatrial (SA) node generates impulses about 75 times/minute </li></ul><...
Impulse Conduction through  the Heart
An Electrocardiogram
Electrocardiogram <ul><li>Record of electrical events in the myocardium that can be correlated with mechanical events </li...
ECGs, Normal and Abnormal
ECGs, Abnormal Arrhythmia: conduction failure at AV node No pumping action occurs
A Simple Model of Stroke Volume Figure 20.19a-d
Factors Affecting Cardiac Output Figure 20.20
Heart Rate <ul><li>Pulse = surge of pressure in artery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infants have HR of 120 bpm or more </li></ul>...
Regulation of Heart Rate <ul><li>Positive chronotropic factors increase heart rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chrono -  time </...
Regulation of the Heart <ul><li>Neural regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic stimulation  - a negative chronotr...
Preload and Afterload Figure 18.21
Effects of Hormones on Contractility <ul><li>Epi, NE, and Thyroxine all have positive ionotropic effects and thus   contr...
Unbalanced Ventricular Output
Unbalanced Ventricular Output
Exercise and Cardiac Output <ul><li>Proprioceptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR    at beginning of exercise due to signals fr...
Factors Involved in Regulation of Cardiac Output
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Heart excitation

  1. 1. Physiology of the Heart Dr. George Pearce
  2. 2. Functions of the Heart <ul><li>Generating blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Routing blood: separates pulmonary and systemic circulations </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring one-way blood flow: valves </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating blood supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic needs </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The cardiovascular system is divided into two circuits <ul><li>Pulmonary circuit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood to and from the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systemic circuit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood to and from the rest of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vessels carry the blood through the circuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries carry blood away from the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins carry blood to the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries permit exchange </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Structural Differences in heart chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The left side of the heart is more muscular than the right side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions of valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AV valves prevent backflow of blood from the ventricles to the atria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semilunar valves prevent backflow into the ventricles from the pulmonary trunk and aorta </li></ul></ul>Heart chambers and valves
  5. 7. Cardiac Muscle Contraction <ul><li>Heart muscle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is stimulated by nerves and is self-excitable (automaticity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts as a unit; no motor units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a long (250 ms) absolute refractory period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle contraction is similar to skeletal muscle contraction, i.e., sliding-filaments </li></ul>
  6. 8. Conducting System of Heart
  7. 9. Conduction System of the Heart <ul><li>SA node : sinoatrial node. The pacemaker. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized cardiac muscle cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate spontaneous action potentials (autorhythmic tissue). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action potentials pass to atrial muscle cells and to the AV node </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AV node : atrioventricular node. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action potentials conducted more slowly here than in any other part of system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures ventricles receive signal to contract after atria have contracted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AV bundle : passes through hole in cardiac skeleton to reach interventricular septum </li></ul><ul><li>Right and left bundle branches : extend beneath endocardium to apices of right and left ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Purkinje fibers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large diameter cardiac muscle cells with few myofibrils. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many gap junctions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct action potential to ventricular muscle cells (myocardium) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Heart Physiology: Sequence of Excitation <ul><li>Sinoatrial (SA) node generates impulses about 75 times/minute </li></ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular (AV) node delays the impulse approximately 0.1 second </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse passes from atria to ventricles via the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) to the Purkinje fibers and finally to the myocardial fibers </li></ul>
  9. 11. Impulse Conduction through the Heart
  10. 12. An Electrocardiogram
  11. 13. Electrocardiogram <ul><li>Record of electrical events in the myocardium that can be correlated with mechanical events </li></ul><ul><li>P wave : depolarization of atrial myocardium. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals onset of atrial contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QRS complex : ventricular depolarization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals onset of ventricular contraction.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T wave : repolarization of ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>PR interval or PQ interval: 0.16 sec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from start of atrial depolarization to start of ventricular depolarization (QRS complex) contract and begin to relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can indicate damage to conducting pathway or AV node if greater than 0.20 sec (200 msec) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q-T interval : time required for ventricles to undergo a single cycle of depolarization and repolarization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be lengthened by electrolyte disturbances, conduction problems, coronary ischemia, myocardial damage </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. ECGs, Normal and Abnormal
  13. 15. ECGs, Abnormal Arrhythmia: conduction failure at AV node No pumping action occurs
  14. 16. A Simple Model of Stroke Volume Figure 20.19a-d
  15. 17. Factors Affecting Cardiac Output Figure 20.20
  16. 18. Heart Rate <ul><li>Pulse = surge of pressure in artery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infants have HR of 120 bpm or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>young adult females avg. 72 - 80 bpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>young adult males avg. 64 to 72 bpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR rises again in the elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia: resting adult HR above 100 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stress, anxiety, drugs, heart disease or  body temp. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia: resting adult HR < 60 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in sleep and endurance trained athletes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Regulation of Heart Rate <ul><li>Positive chronotropic factors increase heart rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chrono - time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative chronotropic factors decrease heart rate </li></ul>
  18. 20. Regulation of the Heart <ul><li>Neural regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic stimulation - a negative chronotropic factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied by vagus nerve, decreases heart rate, acetylcholine is secreted and hyperpolarizes the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic stimulation - a positive chronotropic factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied by cardiac nerves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innervate the SA and AV nodes, and the atrial and ventricular myocardium. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases heart rate and force of contraction . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine and norepinephrine released. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart beat causes increased cardiac output. Increased force of contraction causes a lower end-systolic volume; heart empties to a greater extent. Limitations: heart has to have time to fill. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hormonal regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in response to increased physical activity, emotional excitement, stress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Preload and Afterload Figure 18.21
  20. 22. Effects of Hormones on Contractility <ul><li>Epi, NE, and Thyroxine all have positive ionotropic effects and thus  contractility </li></ul><ul><li>Digitalis elevates intracellular Ca ++ concentrations by interfering with its removal from sarcoplasm of cardiac cells </li></ul><ul><li>Beta-blockers ( propanolol, timolol ) block beta-receptors and prevent sympathetic stimulation of heart (neg. chronotropic effect) </li></ul>
  21. 23. Unbalanced Ventricular Output
  22. 24. Unbalanced Ventricular Output
  23. 25. Exercise and Cardiac Output <ul><li>Proprioceptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR  at beginning of exercise due to signals from joints, muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Venous return </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscular activity  venous return causes  SV </li></ul></ul><ul><li> HR and  SV cause  CO </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise produces ventricular hypertrophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li> SV allows heart to beat more slowly at rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> cardiac reserve </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Factors Involved in Regulation of Cardiac Output
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