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Thesis Digital Fabrication - SPIF


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Since the computer became an important tool in our life, the design possibilities are greatly increased. However, the translation of this computational design is often done through printed plans, which are then realized with traditional construction methods. All of the information available in digital form, gets lost in this last step. Digital manufacturing is changing this by creating a direct link between design and production. The real object is like an exact copy of the virtual model.

SPIF stands for Single Point Incremental Forming. By using an industrial robot to push the metal gradually along a specific tool path, a wide variety of geometries becomes possible. Since there is no mold needed for this process, it is ideal for prototyping and producing small batches. As each panel can be different, free form architecture may also be an interesting field of application.

Through one or more test cases I would like to explore the possibilities of this technique in an architectural context. Possible applications are, for example, a self-supporting wall or self-supporting roof construction. For example I modeled a structure, based on an existing project from a carport, and subjected it to a certain load. In the second case a grid of ribs is added on the geometry. We can see clearly that the deflection decreases substantially by using a geometry with more depth.

Since it is an integrated process from design to production, it may be interesting to handle all of this in one software. That's why also the tool path, needed to control the robot, is generated in Grasshopper. This plugin provides a parametric environment for Rhinoceros3D. As an output it will give a series of coordinates and direction vectors.

Gert-Willem Van Gompel
Master of Engineering: Architecture

Published in: Design
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Thesis Digital Fabrication - SPIF

  1. 1. Digital Fabrication SPIF Gert-Willem Van Gompel Master of engineering: architecture Promotor: Vande Moere Andrew Corneel Cannaerts (ir. arch.) Marc Lambaerts (FabLab, dep. Werktuigkunde) Matthias Mattelaer (DMOA, ir. arch.) Hans Vanhove (dep. Werktuigkunde)22 October
  2. 2. Design Production Why digital fabrication?
  3. 3. Design Production Why digital fabrication?
  4. 4. Missing Link between design and production aim of the thesis: going through this digital proces by means of one or more test cases digital parametric design and optimalization as well as digital fabrication How can Single Point Incremental Forming be integrated in a digital design and production process? Design Production Why digital fabrication?
  5. 5. What is SPIF? Figure 17: Single Point Incremental Forming of a cone. Kim & Park [70] focused their attention o anisotropy on formability. For this pu measurements of the major and the m carried out both along the rolling direct transverse one (TD). The tests wer pyramid specimens with a varying too material was the aluminium alloy 1050-O σο = 33MPa, R0 = 0.51, R45 = 0.75, R concluded that formability along the trans greater when small diameter tools are ut the rolling direction it is larger with large d In order to fully understand the increase AISF, a simple FEM was developed by and Bambach et al. [69]. They found tha step size, ∆z, the strain increments impo decrease and any point is overlapped ot while strains increase with increasing from a stress point of view, a negat distribution is observed under the tool a elements; in this way, the tool action p fractures during the process, until the too with the sheet. Finally, at decreasing ∆z along the wall decreases too, so that a h can be imposed without tears occurring. Nontraditional Forming Limit Diagrams Forming limit diagrams usually have the shown as FLC in conventional formin Εmax, FLDo 3.5 Jeswiet, J., Micari, F., Hirt, G., Bramley, A., Duflou, J., & Allwood, J. (2005). Asymmetric single point incremental forming of sheet metal. Cirp Annals-Manufacturing Technology, 54(2), 623-649. oints to generate new, virtual target geometry. This virtual art geometry forms the basis for the determination of an mproved toolpath. Using a scale factor of 0.7 was found provide optimal results for part made of DC04, 1.5 mm. V shaped tub mbrogio et al. [106] use an in-process measurement stem that allows the determination of deviation between e anticipated intermediate part geometry and the actually alized intermediate shape. Per layer (incremental olpath contour) the observed deviations are measured to orrect the toolpath geometry for the next contour. ConeCross Hexagon he proposed system has been tested with a discrete point ontact measurement system, used interactively, thus mulating the availability of real in-process measurement quipment. The toolpath optimization algorithm has been sted with pyramid part geometry. The author claims gnificant accuracy improvements. No quantitative output however available to evaluate the achievable mensional accuracy. HyperbolaDome 5 lobe shape EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS he major advantage of asymmetric incremental forming is can be used to make asymmetric parts, quickly and conomically, without using expensive dies. Shapes used demonstrate the abilities of the process are shown in able 8. Some of the shapes illustrated have been used to onduct springback experiments, and in determining the aximum draw angle φ, others are just for demonstration process abilities. he asymmetric single and two point incremental forming ocesses are still in their infancy. Much research work mains to be done and to do this appropriate shapes are Table 8: Shapes used to demonstrate the viability of the process and for experiments. oven cavity for use in developing country applications. The last two are for the same manufacturer of custom motorbikes; the first part is for a motorbike seat and the second is part of a gas tank. 5.2 Custom manufacture of a solar oven Truncated pyramid Faceted cone Multi-shaped surface
  6. 6. Fig. 5 Top DSIF Method A with a forming tool and a support tool. Bottom DSIF Method B with two forming tools 40 A. Kalo and M. J. Newsum Fig. 9 A component with performative textures and features 44 A. Kalo and M. J. Newsum Kalo, A., & Newsum, M. J. (2014). An Investigation of Robotic Incremental Sheet Metal Forming as a Method for Prototyping Parametric Architectural Skins. Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2014, 33-49. What is SPIF?
  7. 7. Kalo, A., & Newsum, M. J. (2014). An Investigation of Robotic Incremental Sheet Metal Forming as a Method for Prototyping Parametric Architectural Skins. Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2014, 33-49. Fig. 10 Comparison of overall geometric improvements with the ‘ribbing’ system An Investigation of Robotic Incremental Sheet Metal Forming 45 What is SPIF?
  8. 8. With the process combination of stretch forming and ISF the forming of global shape and local features can be performed in an integrated procedure (see Fig. 3). Figure 3: a) Clamping the sheet blank; b) Generating a preform with stretch forming; c) Forming details and features with ISF Compared to pure ISF, the process combination allows for a shorter process time as well as improved geometrical accuracy and sheet thickness distribution [9]. Compared to pure stretch forming, the process combination enables the realization of changes in curvature within one panel geometry and the generation of features, such as the described cones. Production Routine and Tooling Concept The tooling concept for the described production approach is a combined die for the stretch forming and the incremental forming process. Due to the low forming forces in ISF, the use of very cheap tool material for a die is possible. This way a bonded block of medium density fiberboard (MDF) has been prepared for the milling of the customized dies. However, the MDF block deforms under the high pressure induced by the stretch forming, but due to the homogenous structure of MDF, these deformations are uniform and can easily be taken into account in preliminary simulation of the process. The tooling concept is illustrated in Fig. 4 and the steps of the production routine for the freeform panels are the following: 1) Milling of the die (based on a prepared MDF block) 2) Stretch forming of the first outer layer 3) Trimming of the first outer layer 4) For an optional second outer layer, the steps 2 and 3 will be conducted twice Figure 6: Produced and joined freeform panel: Smooth outer layer (left); Structural layer (right) The entire assembled prototype structure is presented in Fig. 7 and serves as proof for th ducibility as well as the mountability of the panels. Figure 7: Assembled prototype structure with 8 panels (4 different panel shapes) Case Study In order to assess the applicability of the proposed panel system for large-scale applications, a further case study has been investigated by means of design and structural analysis. The developed case study is a shell spanning over four foundation points, which build a square of 8.15 m by 8.15 m. The maximum height at the apex is 4.80 m. Figure 8: Case study design for a large-scale freeform structure The construction results in 100 panels with a constant effective thickness of 150 mm. To produce all panels, a die block with a height of only 650 mm is necessary. Due to the double symmetric Key Engineering Materials Vol. 639 47 Bailly, D., Bambach, M., Hirt, G., Pofahl, T., Della Puppa, G., & Trautz, M. (2015). Flexible manufacturing of double-curved sheet metal panels for the realization of self-supporting freeform structures. Key Engineering Materials, 639, 41-48. What is SPIF?
  9. 9. Applications? Project 2XmT by Christopher Romero, Nicholas Bruscia (self-structuring and lightweight architectural screens from sheet metal)
  10. 10. Eventueel toepassing binnen huidig of toekomstig project van DMOA Applications?
  11. 11. © Otto Wöhr GmbH, Friolzheim Applications?
  12. 12. description of the tool path can be generated in Grasshopper Tool path
  13. 13. output: list with coordinates and direction vectors Tool path
  14. 14. Set up one or more test cases to show the different design and production phases. 1. Parametric design structural optimalization to minimize stresses and deflections 2. Translate to translate the 3D model to the robot-instructions to generate the tool path 3. Digital production to fabricate the element with an industrial KUKA-robot 4. Assembly to assemble the individual elements Andrew Vande Moere Corneel Cannaerts Matthias Mattelaer Hans Vanhove Marc Lambaerts Andrew Vande Moere Corneel Cannaerts Matthias Mattelaer Test Cases