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Aspetti strutturali del suono (slide)

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Dalla Trasformata di Fourier, alla Legge di Young, alla Teoria Formantica. Per un approfondimento delle identità timbriche

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Aspetti strutturali del suono (slide)

  1. 1. Aspetti strutturali del suono Dalla Trasformata di Fourier, alla Legge di Young, alla Teoria Formantica. Per un approfondimento delle identità timbriche Giovanni Niosi
  2. 2. il suono ~ Sensazione uditiva determinata da vibrazioni acustiche Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  3. 3. Generazione e propagazione (4 prerogative) 1) Corpo sottoponibile ad “occasionale deformazione” 2) Il corpo sollecitato genera un'onda meccanica che porta all'oscillazione degli stessi atomi che lo compongono 3) Le molecole d'aria circostanti al corpo raccolgono tale perturbazione trasmettendola alle molecole via via più lontane 4) Lo spostamento delle molecole determina una variazione di pressione. Attraverso cicli di condensazione e rarefazione, le onde sonore si propagano nell'aria Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  4. 4. Propagazione del suono (in dettaglio) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Propagazione radiale delle onde sonorePropagazione radiale delle onde sonore Propagazione delle onde vista dall'altoPropagazione delle onde vista dall'alto
  5. 5. Propagazione del suono (in dettaglio) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Il corpo sollecitato “innesca” un moto oscillatorio nelle molecole dell'ariaIl corpo sollecitato “innesca” un moto oscillatorio nelle molecole dell'aria Tuttavia per udire un suono nella sua persistenza, il corpo deve generare continue oscillazioni periodicheTuttavia per udire un suono nella sua persistenza, il corpo deve generare continue oscillazioni periodiche
  6. 6. Rappresentazione del suono (la forma d'onda) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  7. 7. Alcuni elementi determinanti: Fase e Controfase Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  8. 8. Alcuni elementi determinanti: Fase e Controfase Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Concordanza e opposizione di faseConcordanza e opposizione di fase
  9. 9. Alcuni elementi determinanti: Fase e Controfase Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Due segnali si “sfasano” nel tempoDue segnali si “sfasano” nel tempo
  10. 10. Alcuni elementi determinanti: Transitori d'attacco e di estinzione Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  11. 11. Alcuni elementi determinanti: Risonanza e risonatori Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Risuonatore di HelmholtzRisuonatore di Helmholtz Grafico delle risonanze principali di un violinoGrafico delle risonanze principali di un violino
  12. 12. Alcuni elementi determinanti: Risonanza e risonatori - Le tavole armoniche Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  13. 13. Il timbro Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  14. 14. Analisi di segnali stazionari Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  15. 15. Analisi di segnali transienti Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  16. 16. FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  17. 17. FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono 256 punti= 172 Hz (Ris.) 512 punti= 86 Hz (Ris.) 2048 punti= 22 Hz (Ris.) 16384 punti= 2,69 Hz (Ris.)
  18. 18. La legge di Young (In relazione al numero d'ordine delle parziali armoniche ) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono CordeCorde
  19. 19. La legge di Young (In relazione al numero d'ordine delle parziali armoniche ) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Canne aperte e chiuseCanne aperte e chiuse
  20. 20. Il timbro di alcuni strumenti musicali (comparazione degli spettrogrammi) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono ArchiArchi
  21. 21. Il timbro di alcuni strumenti musicali (comparazione degli spettrogrammi) Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono PianofortePianoforte FiatiFiati
  22. 22. Metamorfosi di una nota Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  23. 23. Metamorfosi di una nota Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Spettrogrammi della nota Do³ di un pianoforte
  24. 24. Influenza della fase sul timbro Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono
  25. 25. Le frequenze formanti Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Spettri di alcuni fonemi Thai Picchi formantici evidenziati Grafico di spettri mediati sui tempi lunghi
  26. 26. Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Teoria formantica del timbro (Le zone formantiche)
  27. 27. Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Teoria formantica del timbro (Comparazione di uno spettro ad altezze differenti)
  28. 28. Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Teoria formantica del timbro (I diagrammi formantici)
  29. 29. Aspetti strutturali del suonoAspetti strutturali del suono Un'ultima analisi comparativa

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