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Sociology of education ppt.

nature,scope and approaches of sociology of education.useful for teachers and students.

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Sociology of education ppt.

  2. 2. The word Sociology is derived from two Greek terms Science of Society The study of “man in society” gave emergence to a new discipline called sociology. Sociology can be defined as the study of man and his environment in their relation with each other.
  3. 3. August Comte (1798-1857) Father of Sociology Comte was followed by Herbert Spencer (Eng. Philosopher) writer of book ‘Principles of Sociology’ & who believed individual like a ‘cell’ and society like an ‘organism’
  4. 4. Definition: “Sociology is the study of relationship between man and his human environment.” -H P Fairchild OR ;  Sociology is the study of social relationships.  Thus Sociology is :  the science of society.  the science of social relationships.  the study of social life.  the study of human behavior. the study of social action.  the study of social groups and social systems.
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS Ginsberg--“Sociology is the study of the human interaction and interrelation their condition and consequences”. Max Weber-- “Sociology is the science which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action.”
  6. 6. EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY Branch of sociology.  Studies relationship between education and sociology and deals with its problems. It is primarily concerned with social factors in education.
  7. 7. Educational sociology is the application of scientific spirit, methods and principles of sociology to the study of education”.– M S Gore Educational Sociology is sociology applied to the solution of fundamental educational problems-Roucek George Payne(USA);Father of educational sociology: Educational Sociology is the science which describes and explains institutions, groups and social processes in relation to the educational system in its evolution and changing function”
  8. 8. -Ottaway “Educational sociology starts with the assumption that education is an activity which goes on in a society, and its aims and methods depends on the nature of the society, in which it takes place  -Brown “Educational sociology is the study of interaction of the individual and his cultural environment including other individuals, social groups and patterns of behaviours.
  9. 9. MEANING  According to George payne the father of educational educational sociology is an applied science in the field of sociology.  It studies-----  Effect of learning on group life.  Effect of smaller group life upon the larger group.  It explains institutions, social norms, social groups,and social processes i.e. social relationships.
  10. 10. According to George Payne, “ Educational sociology is the science which describes and explains the institution i.e. the social relationship in which the individual gains and organizes his experiences.”
  11. 11. Scope of sociology of education  It is concerned with such general concepts such as society itself, culture, community, class, environment, socialization, internalization, accommodation, assimilation, cultural lag, sub-culture, status, role and so forth.  It is further involved in cases of education and social class, state, social force, cultural change, various problems of role structure, role analysis in relation to the total social system and the micro society of the school such as authority, selection, and the organization of learning, streaming, curriculum and so forth.  It deals with analysis of educational situations in various geographical contexts. Eg. Educational situations in rural, urban and tribal areas, in different parts of the country/world, with the background of different races, cultures etc.
  12. 12. Scope  It helps us to understand the effectiveness of different educational methods in teaching students with different kinds of intelligences.  It studies the effect of economy upon the type of education provided to the students. Eg. education provided in schools
  13. 13. Scope  It helps us to understand the effect of various social agencies like family, school on the students.  It studies the relationship between social class, culture, language, parental education, occupation and the achievement of the students  It studies the role and structure of school, peer group on the personality of the students  It provides an understanding of the problems such as, communalism, gender discrimination etc.
  14. 14.  It studies the role of schools in socialization of the students.  It suggests ways to develop national integration, international understanding, the spirit of scientific temper , globalization among the students  It promotes research studies related to planning, organization and application of various theories in education.
  15. 15. Theories /approaches of Sociology of Education  In an effort to understand how society works, different sociologists start with different assumptions about the basic character of human social life.  There are some who see order and stability as more important than conflict and change; while others take the opposite view.  Some view the larger institutional structures of society while others focus on human interaction in small groups. Thus, sociologists have theoretical perspectives which will help them select the questions that they will ask about social life and the methods they use to seek answers to these questions.
  16. 16.  Ponder over these few questions: Why do things happen the way they are in society? What determines the way we perceive an individual or groups? What leads to conflict and competition among students? What leads individuals to be attracted to others?
  17. 17. Do you know that there are three types of theoretical approaches , namely 1. Functionalist Theory 2. Conflict Theory 3. Interactionist Theory
  18. 18. 1. Functionalist Theory ( Emile Durkheim ) This theory is based on the assumption that a society is a complex system which works together to promote stability. It emphasizes the way in which each part of a society contributes to the whole so as to maintain stability.
  19. 19. According to this approach: Society and institutions in society (such as education) are interdependent. Society is much like the human body. Like parts of body, the parts of society work together in a systematic way that is usually good for the whole. Each part helps to maintain the state of balance that is needed for the system to operate smoothly. Society is represented by major units/institutions namely, family, religion, education, politics, economics and health.
  20. 20. Every unit must work and contribute to the functioning of the whole society. Every unit plays a role in the total system and are dependent on each other for survival. Analogy : Heart and brain are essential for human being to live. An education system is necessary for the survival of a society.
  21. 21. The important aspects of this theory are: It consists of functions and structures – which contribute to the stability of society. Integration – between all units and institutions in the society. Maintain the stability in society. Encourages changes to promote progress in society. Importance of formal and non formal education in the socialization process of educating children; to uphold values and norms of the society (education as means of socialization ).
  22. 22. As for the functionalist perspective, the school serves very similar functions and the five main social functions of education have been identified as (a) socialization, (b) social control, (c) selection and allocation, (d) assimilation of newcomers and (e) social innovation and change. .
  23. 23. Social control is where school expected to persuade their students that it is necessary to behave according to these principles. Students are graded not only on how well they learn but also on how well they cooperate, how orderly they are and also even on personal grooming. Social control functions of education extends well beyond socialization. School serves as custodial institutions for the nation’s young, keeping children off the streets.
  24. 24. Selection and allocation of people to enter particular occupational positions rests with the schools. Assimilation is the absorption of newcomers into the dominant society. Assimilation functions in schools is geared towards including the poor and disadvantaged in the main stream of society, whether or not they are recent immigrants.
  25. 25. Education contributes to change by spreading and producing new knowledge, values and beliefs. Besides new knowledge, education organization also produce and disseminated new values and beliefs that can be potent generators of social change
  26. 26. 1.1.2 Conflict Theory (Max, Weber ) This theory is based on the assumption that society is a complex system characterized by inequality and conflicts that generate social change. According to this theory, there are 3 important elements: - conflict - change - force
  27. 27. The conflict theory emphasizes on the struggle over limited resources, power and prestige as a permanent aspect of societies and a major source of social change. Based on the assumption that the parts of sociology, far from being smoothly functioning units of a whole, actually are in conflict with one another.
  28. 28. According to this theory, the functions of education are : § Stratification tool for the capitalist society. § Social control
  29. 29. School is a training ground for workers in terms of attitude, technical skills, intellectual abilities etc. So who do you think students are trained for the lower hierarchy job in the industrial sector?
  30. 30. According to this theory, students with low academic achievement are chosen for lower hierarchy jobs. These students normally are from the low income group . Children from rich families have access to many privileges (example: access to the best education) normally score high academic grades. They are the ones who secure the better jobs.
  31. 31. Conflict theorists see education principally as a tool by the ruling classes to perpetuate social inequality, both by controlling access to schooling and by training docile, disciplined workers.
  32. 32.  Can you relate the idea of this theory in our present education system? Does our present education system serves as a means of stratification tool and social control?
  33. 33. 1.1.3 Interactionist Theory This theory is based on the assumption that society is involved in interaction by which individuals actively construct reality in everyday life. The major characteristics of the theory are- Focuses on how people interact in their everyday lives and how they make sense of this interaction. Focuses on individuals’ interaction with one another. Interactionist is concerned with the nature of daily interaction on the society and how this interaction is perceived by people
  34. 34. They study individuals and small groups rather than large scale social structures. They observe human behaviour at such close range, interactionists tend to see people as having more freedom of actions –more freedom from the constraints of society. The important principles of this theory are: - individual’s interaction ( through shared symbols & meanings ) enable him to think. - individual’s action and interaction develop into groups and societies. - every individual will influence the other.
  35. 35. Individuals with similar culture and background will define and interpret social situations in similar ways because of their similar socialization, experiences and expectations. Their behaviour is guided by common norms. However, differences do exists due to individual experiences, social class and economic status
  36. 36. Consider this situation: A teacher walking past a classroom may generate a positive feeling to some students and nervousness and anxiety in others. These reactions happen because we tend to respond to others according to the different labels we attach. Now, let’s ponder for a while. How do Educational Sociologist explain the achievement using this theory?
  37. 37. In education, this theory focuses on the common, ordinary interactions between members in a school such as among peer groups, teachers and students, teachers and principals to explain the following aspects, namely: § students’ achievement § students’ attitudes § students’ values § students’ self concept and aspirations § socio-economic status § grouping of students
  38. 38. Now reflect your past experiences. Can you recall of any interaction with any of the school members (peers, teachers, principals) in relation to your values, attitudes, achievement, etc.