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Social Studies - The 1990 Iraq-Kuwait War


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These slides introduce Chapter 1: 1990 Iraq-Kuwait War to the Secondary 4 students who are studying Social Studies for the Singapore current syllabus.

These slides are divided into 4 areas.
1. Why we study this for Singapore Social Studies? [Slide 15]
2. Basic Events of the War [Slide 19]
3. Causes of the War [Slide 37]
4. Impacts of the War [Slide 64]

Any feedback is welcome.

You can also watch the flipped video for the first three parts of the lesson using the below link.

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Social Studies - The 1990 Iraq-Kuwait War

  1. 1. Iraq invaded her neighbour, Kuwait. This war eventually caused
  2. 2. Over 30, 000 dead
  3. 3. Over 400, 000 made homeless
  4. 4. created
  5. 5. Almost 100,000surrendering Iraqi soldiers became Prisoners of War (POWs).
  6. 6. created
  7. 7. Over 600 oil wells in Kuwait to be set on fire.
  8. 8. They dumped 11 million barrelsof oil into the sea of the Persian Gulf.
  9. 9. Unbelievable environmental damage… for no apparent reason.
  10. 10. led to
  11. 11. A rise in terrorism worldwide A huge drop in the popularity/ public image of the USA
  12. 12. There is a connection to Kuwait’s situation and Singapore. Kuwait has a small population: 3-3.5 million Kuwait’s local population is only 1 million, the rest are foreign workers. Kuwait’s defence force is tiny, so she relies on the USA as her protector/ main oil trading partner. Unlike Singapore, Kuwait is wealthy! She has oil, but apart from this, Kuwait has no other natural resources at all.
  13. 13. It lead directly to your next chapter – Transnational Terrorism You have a project to complete for this chapter Most importantly, it hasn’t come out for 2 years, and you like marks… don’t you?
  14. 14. 1. Basic Events of the War (This is for SBQ) 2. Causes of the War (This is for SEQ, the acronym in your notes is IRAQ) 3. Impacts/ Results of the War (Also for SEQ, the acronym in your notes is KILLED)
  15. 15. Part 1: The Scene
  16. 16. Where is our conflict located?
  17. 17. The Middle East
  18. 18. Part 2: The Characters
  19. 19. Main Character 1: Iraq POPULATION 31 million •Mostly Arab/ Muslim (97%) with other small minorities like Christians and Kurds ECONOMY Mostly based on production of oil. MILITARY Over 1 million soldiers, almost 2000 tanks, 300+ modern jet aircraft and a small navy.
  20. 20. 1979 2003 2006
  21. 21. Main Character 2: Kuwait POPULATION 3.5 million •Mostly Arab/Muslim (85%) with other small Asian minorities like the Indians and Pakistanis ECONOMY Mostly based on production of oil. MILITARY Over 15,000 soldiers, almost 300 tanks, 100+ modern jet aircraft and a small navy.
  22. 22. Main Character 3: United Nations
  23. 23. The UN force was led by the United States of America (USA).
  24. 24. Main Character 4: Iran LOCATION Another ‘next door neighbour’ to Iraq HISTORY Fought an 8 year war with Iraq (1980 – 1988). LEADER Ayatollah Khomeini
  25. 25. In the past: the historical relationship between Iraq and Kuwait Iraq and Kuwait have always been ruled as one territory. In the past, it was a part of the Ottoman Empire.
  26. 26. Later, under the British Empire, Kuwait and Iraq were still ruled as one territory.
  27. 27. So, when the British gave Kuwait their independence in 1961, Iraq objected as they felt it was not fair to take away a part of their territory.
  28. 28. Sounds familiar? A larger more powerful country wanting ownership of a smaller area because it was never considered separate throughout history?
  29. 29. Because of this war, the Iraqi economy was in ruins.
  30. 30. The Iraqi economy was also badly in debt to neighbouring countries, but especially to the USA and France because Saddam Hussein borrowed billions of dollars to buy…
  31. 31. Finally, Iraq was not able to make as much money as expected from oil sales as OPEC members like UAE and Kuwait did not follow oil production quotas.
  32. 32. Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil from their side of the Rumaila oil field by using slant drilling technology
  33. 33. Iraq also accused Kuwait of denying them access to the sea because Kuwait refused to allow Iraq to use the island ports of Bubiyan and Warbah.
  34. 34. Iraq also accused Kuwait of denying them access to the sea because Kuwait refused to allow Iraq to use the island ports of Bubiyan and Warbah.
  35. 35. with Saddam Hussein himself
  36. 36. Part 3: How did it begin?
  37. 37. 28th May 1990 •Iraq complains to the Arab League. •UAE and Kuwait agree to follow OPEC oil production quotas. 18th July 1990 •Iraq warns Kuwait not to involve the USA, wants Arab League to settle this matter instead. 24th July, 1990 •Iraq begins military build-up at the Iraq-Kuwait border.
  38. 38. 27th-28thJuly,1990 OPEC agrees to raise oil price by 38.8%. 1stAugust,1990 Saudi Arabia and Kuwait cancel Iraq’s war debt. Kuwait loans a further US$500 million to Iraq but refuses to pay any compensation for accusations about Rumaila, and refuses to give any territory to Iraq. 2ndAugust1990 Iraq invades Kuwait! 12 hours later, mission accomplished – the Kuwaiti royal family flees to the USA, Iraq officially declares that Kuwait is now a part of Iraq.
  39. 39. 3rdAugust,1990 Iraqi armed forces start massing at the Saudi-Kuwait border. Saudi Arabia officially requests UN help. UN passes a resolution calling for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait. 8thAugust,1990 UN forms a Coalition force (under the leadership of the USA), UN sends the force to protect Saudi Arabia; called ‘Operation Desert Shield’
  40. 40. 29th November, 1990 • UN Security Council issues a final ultimatum to Saddam Hussein – the deadline to withdraw from Kuwait is the 15th January, 1991. 15th January, 1991 • Iraq ignores the deadline 17th January, 1991 • Operation ‘Desert Storm’ begins. 28th February, 1991 • War is over. Iraqi forces withdraw from Kuwait. UN forces do not pursue Iraqi forces past the Iraq – Kuwait border.
  41. 41. Kuwait’s suffering: The impact of the war on Kuwait.
  42. 42. Social Impact: Death, Torture, Refugees According to an unclassified report written by Pentagon lawyers in 1992: “Report on Iraqi War Crimes: Desert Shield/Desert Storm,” (a copy of which was obtained by WorldNetDaily), Iraqi troops were accused of systematically carrying out grisly acts of torture against Kuwaiti citizens “with the approval of the national leadership in Iraq.” “The evidence establishes that there were at least two dozen torture sites in Kuwait City, most of which were located in either police stations or sports facilities,” the report said. “The gruesome evidence confirms torture by amputation of or injury to various body parts, to include limbs, eyes, tongues, ears, noses, lips and genitalia. Electric shock was applied to sensitive parts of the body (nose, mouth, genitalia),” the report said. “Electric drills were used to penetrate the chest, leg(s) or arm(s) of victims.”
  43. 43. Invading Iraqi soldiers also allegedly beat Kuwaiti civilians, crushing bones, skulls and disfiguring their faces, according to the catalog of abuses. Some victims were soaked in acid. Others were beaten while suspended from ceilings. Axes were allegedly used in some beatings. “Women taken hostage were raped repeatedly,” the report added.
  44. 44. But it gets worse: “Eyewitnesses reported Iraqis torturing a woman by making her eat her own flesh as it was cut from her body,” the report said. Furthermore, some 120 babies “were left to die after being removed from incubators that were taken to Iraq.” More than 150 children between the ages of one and 13 were killed “for various reasons”, and finally, 57 mentally ill individuals were killed “simply because of their handicap.” A news report published on ‘World Net Daily’, an internet news website.
  45. 45. Loss of Respect for the Iraqi Government • How the war affected the political structure of Iraq Lack of fear and respect for the Iraqi government • the UN-backed Kurdish uprising against Saddam Hussein’s government.
  46. 46. The Kurds suffered for it. It
  47. 47. In 1988, the Hussein regime began a campaign of extermination against the Kurdish people living in Northern Iraq. This is known as the Anfal campaign. The campaign was mostly directed at Kurds who sided with Iranians during the Iraq-Iran War. The attacks resulted in the death of at least 50,000 (some reports estimate as many as 100,000 people), many of them women and children.
  48. 48. A team of Human Rights Watch investigators determined that the attacks on the Kurdish people were characterised by mass executions and disappearances of many tens of thousands of non- combatants, widespread use of chemical weapons including Sarin, mustard gas and nerve agents that killed thousands, the imprisoning of tens of thousands of women, children, and elderly people for months in conditions of extreme deprivation, forced displacement of hundreds of thousands of villagers after the demolition of their homes, and the wholesale destruction of nearly two thousand villages along with their schools, mosques, farms and power stations.
  49. 49. In April 1991, after Saddam lost control of Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War, he cracked down ruthlessly against several uprisings in the Kurdish north, Iraqi forces committed wholesale massacres and other gross human rights violations similar to the violations mentioned before. Estimates of deaths during that time range from 20,000 to 100,000 for Kurds.
  50. 50. Environmental Impact on the Region From a radio interview of Dr. Jacqueline Michel, US geochemist, broadcast in 2010.
  51. 51. The long term effects were very significant. There was no shoreline cleanup, and so when we went back in to do quantitative survey in 2002 and 2003, there was a million cubic meters of oil sediment remained then 12 years after the spill.... The oil penetrated much more deeply into the sediment than normal because the sediment there has a lot of crab burrows, and the oil penetrated deep, sometimes 30, 40 cm into the mud of these tidal flats. There’s no way to get it out now. So it has had long term impact. Marshlands and mud tidal flats continue to contain large quantities of oil, over ten years later, and full recovery is likely to take decades.
  52. 52. Enjoy memorising all these for your O Levels!
  53. 53. Goh Bang Rui Follow me on @slideshare. @gohbangrui