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A3/A4 Management
What is an A3?

   quot;A3quot; refers to an international-size piece of paper, one that is
  approximately 11-by-17 inche...
What A3 is NOT?




              A3 is not and should not be seen as a template

                      One style problem ...
Example of a Completed A3 Report – Problem Solving




        This example has been taken from quot;Understanding A3 Thin...
A3 Report Template – Problem Solving
                                                                         Current Cond...
A3 Format Guidelines

    The format and the goals of the A3 are guided by the following set of questions:
    1. What is ...
Standardized Storytelling

  An A3 should tell a story that anyone can understand, following it from the
  upper left-hand...
A3 Storytelling Tools
                       Section of A3                                                                ...
Behind the Scenes

The lean tools establishing the grounds for A3:
          Gemba is the place where value-creating work ...
Dos and Don'ts

          Don’t worry about whether to use pen, pencil, or even a computer program.
          Don't get hu...
Key Questions to Ask?

    Who is responsible for this issue?
   Who owns the process for addressing the problem (or reali...
Key Questions to Ask?

    Have you identified the real problem?
    Can you show the gap between the target and the curre...
Key Questions to Ask?
   Can you show how your proposed actions will address the root causes of
  the performance problems...
Key Questions to Ask?

   Are you using the PDCA cycle to implement the plan –and to gather
  knowledge from experiments?
...
Key Questions to Ask?

   Is your team bringing problems and ideas forward, or waiting for
  assignments?
    Are issues a...
Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008.


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A3 Management

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This is a brief summary of "Managing to Learn". It will give you the basics of A3/A4 management.

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A3 Management

  1. 1. A3/A4 Management
  2. 2. What is an A3? quot;A3quot; refers to an international-size piece of paper, one that is approximately 11-by-17 inches. Within Toyota and other lean companies, the term means much more… A3 is like a resume that can be adapted in layout, style, and emphasis according to the person seeking the job and the type of job being sought. A3 elements follow one another, in a natural and logical sequence. The links among the problem, its root causes, the goal, the actions proposed to achieve the goal, and the means of judging success are clear and easy to understand. It is a practical knowledge-sharing mechanism since the information – not just data – contained in A3's. It is a decision making, planning, proposals, and problem-solving tool. Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 2 2 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  3. 3. What A3 is NOT? A3 is not and should not be seen as a template One style problem solving does not fit all problems Template completion discourages thinking Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 3 3 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  4. 4. Example of a Completed A3 Report – Problem Solving This example has been taken from quot;Understanding A3 Thinkingquot; by D. K. Sobek II and A. Smalley Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 4 4 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  5. 5. A3 Report Template – Problem Solving Current Condition / Goal 1 Product/Background 2 3 Root Cause Analysis Effect Confirmation 5 4 6 Next Steps / Followup Actions Countermeasures Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 5 5 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  6. 6. A3 Format Guidelines The format and the goals of the A3 are guided by the following set of questions: 1. What is the problem or issue? 2. Who owns the problem? 3. What are the root causes of the problem? 4. What are some possible counter measures? 5. How will you decide which countermeasures to propose? 6. How will you get agreement from everyone concerned? 7. What is your implementation plan-who, what, when, where, how? 8. How will you know if countermeasures work? 9. What follow-up issues can you anticipate? What problems may occur during implementation? 10. How will you capture and share learning? Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 6 6 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  7. 7. Standardized Storytelling An A3 should tell a story that anyone can understand, following it from the upper left-hand side to the lower right-hand side of the paper. A3 shares a complete story by communicating both facts and meaning in a commonly understood format. Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 7 7 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  8. 8. A3 Storytelling Tools Section of A3 Storytelling Tools Background Graph, Sketch, Photographs Tally Sheet, Pareto Diagram, Sketch, Current-State Map, Histogram, Scatter Current Conditions Diagram, Control Chart, Graph, Photographs Goals/Targets Graph, Sketch, Photographs Control Chart, Cause-and-Effect Fishbone, Relation Diagram, Histogram, Tree Analysis Diagram, Pareto Diagram, Sketch, Graph, Scatter Diagram, Photographs Diagram, Chart, Sketch, Future-State Map, Proposed Countermeasures Graph, Evaluation Matrix, Photographs Plan Gantt Chart Follow-up Sketch, Chart, Photographs Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 8 8 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  9. 9. Behind the Scenes The lean tools establishing the grounds for A3: Gemba is the place where value-creating work happens. For our facility, it is the manufacturing floor. (Philosophy of empiricism) Genhci Genbutsu Shugi means the principle of the real place and real thing. Five Why's Ask key questions. Value Stream Map Nemawashi is the consensus-building process of aligning the organization around broad and specific goals. PDCA Hansei: Evolutionary learning capability Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 9 9 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  10. 10. Dos and Don'ts Don’t worry about whether to use pen, pencil, or even a computer program. Don't get hung up on formal elements. Do get your message across. Do get messy. Do use the A3 to control meetings. Do use the A3 to lock down agreements. Do store learnings for later reference and sharing. Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 10 10 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  11. 11. Key Questions to Ask? Who is responsible for this issue? Who owns the process for addressing the problem (or realizing the opportunity or managing the project)? What is the business context? How did you decide to tackle this problem? What do you actually know and how do you know it? Have you gathered and verified the facts -not just data and anecdotes- to clearly understand the current state? Have you engaged other people? What is the problem? Can you clearly and succintly define the quot;presenting problemquot; –the actual business issue that is being felt? Have you gone to the gemba? Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 11 11 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  12. 12. Key Questions to Ask? Have you identified the real problem? Can you show the gap between the target and the current condition? Did you clarify the true business objectives? Did you uncover the right information to support the analysis? Did you isolate the root cause(s) of the main components of the gap? Did you capture this material in the most clear and concise manner, i.e., one that clarifies true problems, invites analytic questions, and suggests direct countermeasures? Have you explored every reasonable alternative countermeasure? Have you produced viable alternatives based on productive conversations with everyone doing the work? With customers of the process? With stakeholders? Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 12 12 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  13. 13. Key Questions to Ask? Can you show how your proposed actions will address the root causes of the performance problems? Can you justify why your proposed actions are necessary? Have you continued to go to the gemba in gathering new information and countermeasures? Has problem-solving shifted from quick fixes to root-cause countermeasures? Does the current A3 reflect the input of the key people involved with the work? Do countermeasures have support? Do you see where your A3 (and the work it encompasses) fits into A3s of colleagues below and above you (and their work)? Has the A3 continued to evolve through constant iteration as a result of experimenting with the initially proposed countermeasures? Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 13 13 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  14. 14. Key Questions to Ask? Are you using the PDCA cycle to implement the plan –and to gather knowledge from experiments? Are you making a conscious effort to use the review process as a way of sharing your A3 learning with your team members and with other individuals? Have you captured and communicated the key details of what your team has learned? Have you considered a wide set of potential scenarios and consequences of the changes –and developed followup activities to address them? Is your theme ripe for another full round of PDCA? Should you turn your staff's attention elsewhere? Is your team gaining capability of A3 thinking? Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 14 14 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  15. 15. Key Questions to Ask? Is your team bringing problems and ideas forward, or waiting for assignments? Are issues and problems being revisited repeatedly? Are staff still jumping to solutions? Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 15 15 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG
  16. 16. Reference: Shook, J, Managing to Learn, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, MA, 2008. 16 16 /Gokhan Sarpkaya / 1/23/2009 © Continental AG

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