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Basics of Veterinary
Anatomy & Physiology
Objectives
 Define anatomy
 Discuss the different fields of anatomy
 Identify and describe the integumentary system
 I...
Definitions
 Anatomy
 The study of the structures of living things
 Physiology
 The study of the functions of living t...
Latin – Anatomy
 “ana” “tome”
 “ana” – again or go back
 “tome” – to cut
 “cut again” or “go back and cut”
 The study...
 Gross anatomy
 Microscopic anatomy
 Developmental anatomy
 Applied anatomy
Fields of Anatomy
Study of gross
anatomy
 Systemically
 Regionally
Macroscopic Anatomy (gross anatomy)
Seen with the naked eye by dissection.
Organs and organ systems
Microscopic Anatomy
Vi...
ORGAN – Two or more types of tissues
e.g., skin, kidney, intestine, blood vessels
TISSUE – Groups of cells with same gener...
Four Basic Types of Tissue
EPITHELIUM TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUEMUSCULAR TISSUE
Covers organs
Functions of Epithelium
Secretory cells of
glands
Lines viscera and
blood vessels
Functions of Connective Tissue
 Provides mechanical support.
 Provides place for metabolite exchange.
 Provides place f...
Connective Tissue and Blood Cells
Red Cells
Carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide
from the body’s tissues.
White Cells
Manufa...
Function
Generates contractile force.
Muscular Tissue
Function
Provides transmission, reception, and integration
of electr...
Organs
Definition: a distinct collection of two or more tissues
that performs a specific function or functions
Examples:
-...
Organ Systems
Definition: a group of interconnected organs that
work together with a common purpose or purposes
• Digestive
• Respiratory
• Urinary
• Reproductive
• Musculoskeletal
• Endocrine
• Nervous
• Integumentary
• Cardiovascula...
Integumentary System
 Epidermis
Outermost layer of skin
 Dermis
Beneath the epidermis
Consists of connective
tissue
 Hy...
Functions of Skin
 Protects against injury and desiccation.
 Maintains water balance.
 Excretes various substances.
 P...
Muscles: system of levers that aid muscle action
 Smooth Muscle
 Skeletal Muscle
 Cardiac Muscle
Bones: provide support...
Parts and Functions of the
Musculoskeletal System
 Joints
Form the junction between
two or more bones.
 Cartilage
Forms ...
Functions of Muscle
 Produces contractibility (movement).
 Running, walking, jumping
 Produces posture.
 Stabilizes jo...
Functions of Cartilage
 Provides flexible support.
(ears, nose, and respiratory)
 Slides across each other.
(joints)
 P...
Functions of Bone
 Provides skeletal support.
 Provides protective enclosure.
 Skull to protect brain.
 Long bone to p...
Skeleton of the “hand”
Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Phalanges (Digits)
1
2 3 4
5
Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Phalanges
1
2
3 4
5
Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Phalanges2
3 4
5
Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Phalanges
3 4
Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Phalange
3
Cardiovascular System
 Heart
 Arteries
 Veins
 Capillaries
Parts and Functions of the
Cardiovascular System
Heart
Produces blood pressure
during systole.
Elastic arteries
Conduct bl...
Closed Loop with
Pressure Drop
125
3015
2
Heart
base
apex
atria
ventricles
RA
LA
RV LV
interatrial
septum
interventicular
septum
R. atrioventicular
orifice
L. atrioventricular
orifice
R. AV valve
(tricuspid valve)
L. AV valve
(mitral valve)
chordae tendineae chordae tendineae
aorta
pulmonary trunk
pulmonary valve aortic valve
O2
Press.
(2mmHg)
O2
Press.
(3mmHg)
Systole
0mmHg 0mmHg
Diastole
Systole
25mm
25/8
125mm
125/80
Lymphatic System
 Returns fluid from the
tissues to the
circulatory system.
 Consists of:
 Lymph
 Lymphatic vessels
 ...
Parts and Functions of the
Lymphatic System
 Lymph nodes
 Filters and traps foreign particles.
 Contain white blood cel...
Functions of the Lymphatic System
 Removes excess fluids from body tissues.
 Absorbs fatty acids.
 Transports fat.
 Pr...
Digestive System
 Involves
 Prehension
 Digestion
 Absorption of food
 Elimination of solid
waste material
 Parts
 ...
Functions of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract
(G-I Tract)
 Moves food.
 Secretes of digestive juices.
 Absorbs digested food...
Stomach of Ruminants
 Four chambers
 Rumen
 Reticulum
 Omasum
 Abomasum
Stomach of Monogastrics
 Single stomach
Parts of the Respiratory System
 For conducting air:
 Nasal cavity
 Nasopharynx
 Larynx
 Trachea
 Bronchi
 Bronchio...
Functions of the Respiratory System
 Includes inspiration and expiration.
 Provides an exchange of respiratory
gases.
(o...
Reproductive System
 Functions of the reproductive system
 Provides process for reproduction.
 Production of offspring
...
Parts of the Urinary System
 Kidneys
 Urinary bladder
 Ureters
 Urethra
Functions of the Urinary System
 Absorbs metabolites.
 Storages urine temporarily.
 Eliminates urine.
 Excretes waste ...
Parts of the Endocrine System
 Pituitary gland
 Thyroid gland
 Parathyroid glands
 Adrenal glands
 Related parts:
 P...
Functions of the Endocrine System
 Releases hormones.
 Regulates metabolism.
 Regulates growth/development.
 Regulates...
Parts of the Nervous System
 Central nervous system
 Brain
 Spinal cord
 Peripheral nervous system
 Somatic nerves
 ...
Functions of the Nervous System
 Controls functions and movement of:
 Organs
 Muscles
 Sensory organs
 Neurons relay ...
The Central Nervous System (CNS)
The Brain
The central information
processing organ of the
body
The Spinal Cord
Long, thin...
The Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nerves
Control voluntary muscles that
provide movement.
Autonomic Nerves
Control inv...
Special Systems
The Eye (sight)
The Ear (hearing and balance)
The Tongue (taste)
The Nasal Cavity (smell)
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
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Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology

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In this book following points has been defined and described.
Define anatomy
Discuss the different fields of anatomy
Identify and describe the integumentary system
Identify and describe the musculoskeletal system
Identify and describe the cardiovascular system
Identify and describe the lymphatic system
Identify and describe the digestive system
Identify and describe the respiratory system
Identify and describe the endocrine system
Identify and describe the urinary system
Identify and describe the reproductive system
Identify and describe the nervous system and special senses

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Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology

  1. 1. Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
  2. 2. Objectives  Define anatomy  Discuss the different fields of anatomy  Identify and describe the integumentary system  Identify and describe the musculoskeletal system  Identify and describe the cardiovascular system  Identify and describe the lymphatic system  Identify and describe the digestive system  Identify and describe the respiratory system  Identify and describe the endocrine system  Identify and describe the urinary system  Identify and describe the reproductive system  Identify and describe the nervous system and special senses
  3. 3. Definitions  Anatomy  The study of the structures of living things  Physiology  The study of the functions of living things  Mechanical, physical, or biochemical
  4. 4. Latin – Anatomy  “ana” “tome”  “ana” – again or go back  “tome” – to cut  “cut again” or “go back and cut”  The study of the structure of the animal body and the relationships of its many parts
  5. 5.  Gross anatomy  Microscopic anatomy  Developmental anatomy  Applied anatomy Fields of Anatomy
  6. 6. Study of gross anatomy  Systemically  Regionally
  7. 7. Macroscopic Anatomy (gross anatomy) Seen with the naked eye by dissection. Organs and organ systems Microscopic Anatomy Viewed with a microscope. Cytology: the study of cells Histology: the study of the four basic types of tissues
  8. 8. ORGAN – Two or more types of tissues e.g., skin, kidney, intestine, blood vessels TISSUE – Groups of cells with same general function e.g., muscle, nerve CELL – Smallest unit of protoplasm ORGAN SYSTEM – Several organs e.g., respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems CELL TISSUE ORGAN SYSTEM PROTOPLASM – Living Substance
  9. 9. Four Basic Types of Tissue EPITHELIUM TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUEMUSCULAR TISSUE
  10. 10. Covers organs Functions of Epithelium Secretory cells of glands Lines viscera and blood vessels
  11. 11. Functions of Connective Tissue  Provides mechanical support.  Provides place for metabolite exchange.  Provides place for energy storage.  Provides place for inflammation.  Provides place for fibrosis – healing.
  12. 12. Connective Tissue and Blood Cells Red Cells Carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body’s tissues. White Cells Manufactured in bone marrow. Pass through the blood to connective tissue for defense. Platelets Act in blood clotting.
  13. 13. Function Generates contractile force. Muscular Tissue Function Provides transmission, reception, and integration of electrical impulses. Nervous Tissue
  14. 14. Organs Definition: a distinct collection of two or more tissues that performs a specific function or functions Examples: - bones - brain - liver - kidney - heart
  15. 15. Organ Systems Definition: a group of interconnected organs that work together with a common purpose or purposes
  16. 16. • Digestive • Respiratory • Urinary • Reproductive • Musculoskeletal • Endocrine • Nervous • Integumentary • Cardiovascular (circulatory) • Lymphatic (immune) Organ Systems
  17. 17. Integumentary System  Epidermis Outermost layer of skin  Dermis Beneath the epidermis Consists of connective tissue  Hypodermis Subcutis Lowest layer of skin Mainly houses fat
  18. 18. Functions of Skin  Protects against injury and desiccation.  Maintains water balance.  Excretes various substances.  Provides thermoregulation.  Receives stimuli.  Temperature  Pain  Pressure  Provides basis of recognition of well-being.  Provides place for fat metabolism in the hypodermis.
  19. 19. Muscles: system of levers that aid muscle action  Smooth Muscle  Skeletal Muscle  Cardiac Muscle Bones: provide support and protection  Long bones  Short bones  Flat bones  Irregular bones Parts and Functions of the Musculoskeletal System
  20. 20. Parts and Functions of the Musculoskeletal System  Joints Form the junction between two or more bones.  Cartilage Forms cushion.  Ligaments Connect bone to bone.  Tendons Attach muscles to bone.
  21. 21. Functions of Muscle  Produces contractibility (movement).  Running, walking, jumping  Produces posture.  Stabilizes joints.  Produces heat. Flexion (close angle of joint) and Extension (open angle)
  22. 22. Functions of Cartilage  Provides flexible support. (ears, nose, and respiratory)  Slides across each other. (joints)  Provides a cushion. (joints) No nerves, so no pain during compression of cartilage.
  23. 23. Functions of Bone  Provides skeletal support.  Provides protective enclosure.  Skull to protect brain.  Long bone to protect blood producing cells.  Regulates calcium.  Provides place for hemopoiesis.  Blood cell formation in the body
  24. 24. Skeleton of the “hand”
  25. 25. Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges (Digits) 1 2 3 4 5
  26. 26. Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges 1 2 3 4 5
  27. 27. Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges2 3 4 5
  28. 28. Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges 3 4
  29. 29. Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalange 3
  30. 30. Cardiovascular System  Heart  Arteries  Veins  Capillaries
  31. 31. Parts and Functions of the Cardiovascular System Heart Produces blood pressure during systole. Elastic arteries Conduct blood and maintain pressure during diastole. Muscular arteries Distribute blood and maintain pressure. Arterioles Provide peripheral resistance. Distribute blood. Capillaries Exchange nutrients and waste. Venules Collect blood and edema from capillaries. Veins Transmit blood to large veins. (reservoir) Large veins Receive lymph and return blood to heart. (reservoir)
  32. 32. Closed Loop with Pressure Drop
  33. 33. 125 3015 2
  34. 34. Heart
  35. 35. base apex atria ventricles RA LA RV LV
  36. 36. interatrial septum interventicular septum
  37. 37. R. atrioventicular orifice L. atrioventricular orifice
  38. 38. R. AV valve (tricuspid valve) L. AV valve (mitral valve)
  39. 39. chordae tendineae chordae tendineae
  40. 40. aorta pulmonary trunk pulmonary valve aortic valve
  41. 41. O2 Press. (2mmHg) O2 Press. (3mmHg) Systole
  42. 42. 0mmHg 0mmHg Diastole
  43. 43. Systole 25mm 25/8 125mm 125/80
  44. 44. Lymphatic System  Returns fluid from the tissues to the circulatory system.  Consists of:  Lymph  Lymphatic vessels  Lymphatic structures
  45. 45. Parts and Functions of the Lymphatic System  Lymph nodes  Filters and traps foreign particles.  Contain white blood cells.  Tonsils  Protects against bacteria.  Thymus  Helps with immunologic cells.  Spleen  Clears out old red blood cells.
  46. 46. Functions of the Lymphatic System  Removes excess fluids from body tissues.  Absorbs fatty acids.  Transports fat.  Produces immune cells (lymphocytes).  Helps combat infections.
  47. 47. Digestive System  Involves  Prehension  Digestion  Absorption of food  Elimination of solid waste material  Parts  Oral cavity  Esophagus  Stomach (gastro)  Small intestines  Large intestines
  48. 48. Functions of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract (G-I Tract)  Moves food.  Secretes of digestive juices.  Absorbs digested foods, water, and electrolytes.
  49. 49. Stomach of Ruminants  Four chambers  Rumen  Reticulum  Omasum  Abomasum Stomach of Monogastrics  Single stomach
  50. 50. Parts of the Respiratory System  For conducting air:  Nasal cavity  Nasopharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchi  Bronchioles  For exchanging gas:  Alveoli
  51. 51. Functions of the Respiratory System  Includes inspiration and expiration.  Provides an exchange of respiratory gases. (oxygen and carbon dioxide)  Warms, cleans, and humidifies air.  Aids olfaction and phonation.
  52. 52. Reproductive System  Functions of the reproductive system  Provides process for reproduction.  Production of offspring  Parts of the reproductive system  Female animals  Male animals
  53. 53. Parts of the Urinary System  Kidneys  Urinary bladder  Ureters  Urethra
  54. 54. Functions of the Urinary System  Absorbs metabolites.  Storages urine temporarily.  Eliminates urine.  Excretes waste products.
  55. 55. Parts of the Endocrine System  Pituitary gland  Thyroid gland  Parathyroid glands  Adrenal glands  Related parts:  Pancreas  Gonads  Placenta  G-I tract
  56. 56. Functions of the Endocrine System  Releases hormones.  Regulates metabolism.  Regulates growth/development.  Regulates tissue function.  Regulates mood.
  57. 57. Parts of the Nervous System  Central nervous system  Brain  Spinal cord  Peripheral nervous system  Somatic nerves  Automatic nerves
  58. 58. Functions of the Nervous System  Controls functions and movement of:  Organs  Muscles  Sensory organs  Neurons relay and receive information.  Neurons conduct electrochemical signals.
  59. 59. The Central Nervous System (CNS) The Brain The central information processing organ of the body The Spinal Cord Long, thin tubular bundle of nerves Connected to the brain
  60. 60. The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nerves Control voluntary muscles that provide movement. Autonomic Nerves Control involuntary responses. (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and organs)
  61. 61. Special Systems The Eye (sight) The Ear (hearing and balance) The Tongue (taste) The Nasal Cavity (smell)

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