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नेपाली भाषामा बाख्रापालन पुस्तिका

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नेपालमा बाख्रापालनबाट राम्रो फाइदा लिन सकिन्छ । चाहना राख्ने धेरैले बाख्रापालन सम्कन्धि पूर्ण जानकारी पाएका छैनन् । यसले धेरैलाई सहयोग पुग्नेछ । तपाई र तपाईको कर्मका लागि पनि उपयोगी हुन सक्नेछ ।
व्यावसायिक बाख्रापालन गर्दा कुनै पनि सरकारी निकायहरु जस्तैः जिल्ला पशु सेवा कार्यालय, सहकारी कार्यालय वा मान्यताप्राप्त अन्य निकायबाट व्यावसायिक बाख्रापालन दर्ता गरेको अवस्थामा सहुलियत पाउन सकिन्छ ।

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नेपाली भाषामा बाख्रापालन पुस्तिका

  1. 1.        
  2. 2. ljifo ;"rL cfef/ u kl/ro 3 ! afv|fsf hft -gZn_ x? ! !=! g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f l;kmfl/; ePsf afv|fsf hftx? ! !=@ :yfgLo÷/}yfg] hft (Indigenous/Local) sf afv|fx? ! !=# aflx/af6 NofOPsf (exotic) hftx? # !=$ /}yfg] / jfxo k|hfltsf afv|faLr k|hgg u/fO{ lgsflnPsf j0f{z+s/x? # !=% g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb -gfs{_df k/LIf0f cj:yfdf /x]sf hftx? # !=^ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;lagf g} g]kfnsf sltko 7fpFdf kfng ub}{ cfOPsf hftx? $ @ afv|fsf] k|hgg k|lqmof % @=! xf8gftfdf x'g] k|hgg ‑Ogla|l8ª_ sf c;/x? % @=@ j0f{z+s/ ‑qm;_ k|hggsf kmfObfx? % @=# gsf/fTds 5gf}6sf k|efjx? ^ @=$ u|fdL0f If]qdf ckgfpg'kg]{ k|hggsf] ;a}eGbf pQd tl/sf ^ @=% k|hggsf nflu 5gf]6 ul/g] af]sf / afv|fdf x'g'kg]{ u'0fx? & @=^ k|hggsf nflu af]sfsf] 5gf]6 * @=& k|hggsf nflu afv|Lsf] 5gf]6 ( @=* k|hgg !) @=( k|hggsf nflu kflng] af]sfsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg !! @=!) ule{0fL afv|Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg !! @=!! ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg !@ @=!@ v;L kfg]{ !# @=!# bfFtsf] cfwf/df afv|fsf] pd]/ kQf nufpg] tl/sf !$ # cfxf/ Joj:yfkg !^ #=! afv|fsf] kfrg–k|0ffnL !^ #=@ afv|fsf nflu cfxf/ slt rflxG5 < !^ #=# ;fgf] pd]/sf kf7f–kf7L ‑# dlxgfeGbf sd pd]/sf_ nfO{ v'jfOg] cfxf/ (Creep Feed) agfpg] tl/sf !& #=$ ax'kf]if0fo'Qm l9Ssf agfpg rflxg] ;fdu|L !&
  3. 3. #=% pks/0f / cf}hf/x? !& #=^ cfjZos ;fdu|L / dfqf ‑%–% lsnf]sf * j6f Ans agfpgsf nflu_ !* #=& agfpg] k|lqmof !* #=* Ans s;/L vfg lbg] < @) #=( olb w]/} vfP/ la/fdL k/]sf] nIf0f b]vfP eg] s] ug]{ < @) $ afv|fsf] vf]/ Joj:yf @! $=! :j:y afv|f kfNg] tl/sf @! $=@ afv|fkfng k4ltdf ;'wf/ s;/L ug]{ < @! $=# g/fd|f] vf]/ ePdf s:tf] c;/ k5{ < @@ $=$ vf]/sf nflu s:tf] 7fpF pQd x'G5 < @# $=% c;n k|sf/sf] vf]/ lgdf{0f ug]{ of]hgf @# $=^ vf]/sf s]xL gd"gfx? # b]lv % j6f afv|fsf nflu @# % afv|fdf nfUg] k/hLjLx? @^ %=! afv|fdf nfUg] jfxo k/hLjLx? (External Parasites) @^ %=@ afv|fdf nfUg] cfGtl/s k/hLjLx? (Internal Parasites) @( ^ kfrg–k|0ffnL;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:ofx? ## ^=! bfgf jf ef]h et]/df kmflnPsf vfg]s'/f a9L vfPdf b]vfkg]{ ;d:ofx? ## ^=@ 3fF;kftaf6 x'g] ljifsf] c;/ (Plant Poisoning) / pkrf/ #$ ^=# afh/f÷;f]3{d÷h'g]nf]sf] 3fF; vfFbf pTkGg x'g;Sg] ljif / pkrf/ #% ^=$ cFu]/L, bz{glkkn, gLnf] k'mNg] uGw], wf]q]m, cf?kft], /ftf] lz/Lif vfPdf nfUg] ljif #^ ^=% e'F8L k'mNg] ;d:of #& ^=^ 5]/f}6L #* ^=& 5]/f}6L jf cfpFn] afv|fnfO{ ;tfpFbf s] s] x'G5 < #( & k|d'v ;?jf (Contagious) /f]ux? $) &=! ;LkLkL ‑;g]{ vfnsf] k'/fgf] lgdf]lgof_ $) &=@ kLkLcf/ /f]u $) &=# ljleGg k|sf/sf /f]ulj?4 lbOg] vf]ksf gfd / dfqf $@ &=$ pkrf/ lsg k|efjsf/L gx'g ;S5 < $@ * afv|fsf nflu 8fn]3fF; tyf cGo e'OF3fF;x? $# *=! ux|f–sfGnf tyf 8Lnx?df 8fn]3fF; tyf e'OF3fF;x? nufpg] $# *=@ 8fn]3fF; / e'O{3fF;x? sf6g] pko'Qm cj:yf $$ ;Gbe{–;fdu|Lx? $$
  4. 4. !=! g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f l;kmfl/; ePsf afv|fsf hftx? qm=;+= hft l;kmfl/; ePsf] ef}uf]lns If]q s}lkmot ! t/fO{ afv|f t/fO{ tyf leqL dw]z ‑#)) ld6/;Dd_ @ v/L÷kxf8L afv|f tNnf] Pj+ dWo–kxf8L If]q ‑#)) ld6/b]lv !%)) ld6/;Dd # l;Gxfn afv|f pRr kxf8L If]q ‑!%)) ld6/b]lv @%)) ld6/;Dd_ $ Rofªu|f lxdfnL If]q ‑@%)) ld6/eGbf dfly_ % :yfgLo afv|f / hd'gfkf/L afv|faLr k|hgg ‑qm;_ u/fP/ lg:s]sf] j0f{z+s/ hft t/fO{, kxf8 / pRr kxf8L If]q ^ :yfgLo afv|f / afa{/L hftsf] afv|f aLr k|hgg u/fP/ lg:s]sf] j0f{z+s/ hft t/fO{, kxf8 / pRr kxf8L If]q & hd'gfkf/L t/fO{ tyf dWo–kxf8 ‑!%)) ld6/;Dd_ j0f{z+s/ pTkfbg ug{ aLpsf] nflu * afa{/L t/fO{ tyf dWo–kxf8 ‑!%)) ld6/ ;Dd_ j0f{z+s/ pTkfbg ug{ aLpsf] nflu ! !=@ :yfgLo÷/}yfg] hft (Indigenous/Local) sf afv|fx? t/fO{ afv|f ‑afv|L_ tl:a/M8f=>L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ t/fO{ afv|f ‑af]sf_ tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n afv|fsf hft -gZn_ x¿
  5. 5. v/L afv|f kxf8L afv|f ‑af]sf_ tl:a/M8f=>L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ tl:a/M>L/fddl0fkf}8]n kxf8L afv|f kxf8L afv|f tl:a/M8f=>L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ tl:a/M8f=>L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ l;Gxfn afv|f ‑af]sf_ Rofªu|f tl:a/M8f=>L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ tl:a/M8f=>L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/
  6. 6. hd'gfkf/L afa{/L tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, sa'lnotLjgtyfkz'ljsf;sfo{qmd_ tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, sa'lnotLjgtyfkz'ljsf;sfo{qmd_ !=# aflx/af6 NofOPsf (exotic) hftx? v/L / hd'gfkf/LaLr]sf] j0f{z+s/ v/L / afa{/LaLr]sf] j0f{z+s/ tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n !=$ /}yfg] / jfxo k|hfltsf afv|faLr k|hgg u/fO{ lgsflnPsf j0f{z+s/x? af]o/ afv|f lssf] afv|f tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_ tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_!=% g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb -gfs{_df k/LIf0f cj:yfdf /x]sf hftx?
  7. 7. la§n afv|f ‑af]sf_ la§n afv|f ‑afv|L_ !=^ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;lagf g} g]kfnsf sltko 7fpFdf kfng ub}{ cfOPsf hftx? tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_ tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_ sfnf] a+ufnL afv|f ;fgg afv|f ‑afv|L_ tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, sa'lnotLjgtyfkz'ljsf;sfo{qmd_ PËnf] Go"laog afv|f tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_
  8. 8. @ kf7f] / kf7L h'DNofxf hGdfPsL afv|L ltg} h'DNofxf kf7f / kf7LaLrsf] k|hgg To;/L xf8gftfdf k|hgg u/L hGd]sf kf7f–kf7Lx? sdhf]/ cj:yfdf hGdg], a[l4 ljsf; l9nf] x'g] / z/L/ klg sdhf]/ x'g] x'G5 . slxn]sfxLF ;fg} pd]/df g} d[To' ;d]t x'g] u5{ . ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ afv|fsf] k|hgg k|lqmof @=! xf8gftfdf x'g] k|hgg ‑Ogla|l8ª_ sf c;/x? @=@ j0f{z+s/ ‑qm;_ k|hggsf kmfObfx? h'DNofxf kf7f–kf7L hGd]sf 5gM logLx? l56f] a95g, ;fg} pd]/df w]/} tf}nsf aG5g, :j:y / tGb'?:t ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ klg x'G5g . :yfgLo / pGgt hftsf kf7f / kf7LaLr tyf kf7L / kf7faLr k|hgg pGgt hftsf afv|fsf kf7f÷kf7L :yfgLo afv|faf6 hGd]sf] kf7f÷kf7L
  9. 9. @=# gsf/fTds 5gf}6sf k|efjx? ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ o; afv|Ln] h'DNofxf kf7f hGdfPsL 5] ;fgf] z/L/ ePsf, lgliqmo / l9nf] a9b} u/]sf n't]nfªu|] vfnsf kf7f–kf7L aLrsf] k|hgg :j:y, tGb'?:t, df]6f], ;lqmo kf7f] 5 eg] To:tfnfO{ df;sf nflu kz';]jf s]Gb|x?df rfF8} g} nu]/ v;L kfg]{ rng 5 To;f] ePdf gofF hGdg] kf7f–kf7Lx? emg ;fgf, n't]nfªu|], c:j:y k|sf/sf hGdg] x'G5g, slxn]sfxLF ;do g} gk'uL hGdg] jf t'lxg] klg x'g;S5 . @=$ u|fdL0f If]qdf ckgfpg'kg]{ k|hggsf] ;a}eGbf pQd tl/sf
  10. 10. j0f{z+s/ k|hgg /fd|f] x'g] x'gfn] Pp6f ufpF / csf]{ ufpFaLr jf r/g–If]qdf ayfg gldl;g] ufpFaLr af]sfx? ;f6k]m/ ub}{ k|hgg u/fpg] rng rnfpg' ;fx|} pQd x'G5 . ‑xf8gftfsf] k|hgg x'gaf6 hf]ufpgsf nflu x/]s @–@ jif{df o;/L cfk;df gftf gkg]{ 7fpFaf6 af]sfx? ;f6f;f6 u/L k|hgg u/fpg'k5{ ._ ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ @=% k|hggsf nflu 5gf]6 ul/g] af]sf / afv|fdf x'g'kg]{ u'0fx? ;d"xdf ;a}eGbf a9L jhg ePsf] . nfdf] / vFlbnf] z/L/ ePsf] . 5f]6f–5f]6f t/ alnof v'§f ePsf] . ub{g nfdf] ePsf] / ;Lwf lhp8fn ePsf] . rf}8f 5ftL ePsf] . ;w}+ h'DNofxf hGdfO/xg] / @ jif{df sDtLdf # k6s Aofpg] dfpsf ;Gtfg . klxnf]rf]l6 kf7f–kf7L hGdfpFbf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt (permanent teeth) ePsL dfpaf6 hGd]sf aRrf . ub{g / k5fl8sf] efudf nfdf] nfdf] / e'mKk k/]sf] /f}+ ePsf] . x]b}{df alnof], tu8f / 8/nfUbf] cfqmfds (aggresive) b]lvg] . hlGdbfv]l/ @ lsnf]u|fdeGbf a9L tf}n ePsf] . hGd]sf] ^ dlxgf;Dddf sDtLdf !% lsnf] tf}n k'u]sf] . y'g, sNrf}+8f] /fd|f];Fu ljsf; ePsf] . c08sf]ifsf b'a} bfgfx? 7"N7"nf / a/fa/ cfsf/sf] ePsf] . !* dlxgf k'lu;Sbf ;a}eGbf a9L tf}n u|x0f ug{;Sg] / @ j6f :yfoL bfFt cfPsf . /f]u ;xg ;Sg] Ifdtf a9L ePsf dfpx?af6 hGd]sf kf7f–kf7L 5fGg] . Pp6} pd]/ ;d"xsf dWo]af6 ;a}eGbf 7"nf]nfO{ 5fGg] . glhssf] gftf kg]{ jf Pp6} j+zaf6 hGd]sfnfO{ g5fGg] . pGgt hftsf] ‑cyf{t rfx]sf] jfxo k|hfltsf] gZnaf6 sDtLdf %)∞ ld>0f ePsf]_ 5fGg] . k|hgg p2]Zos} nflu 5flgPsf af]sf / afv|Lsf] ;+;u{af6 hlGdPsf aRrfdfq lng] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  11. 11. @=^ k|hggsf nflu af]sfsf] 5gf]6 klxnf]rf]l6 Aofpg] a]nfdf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt ePsL cfdfaf6 hGd]sf] af]sf h'DNofxfdWo] Pp6f af]sf k|hggsf nflu /fd|f];Fu ljsf; ePsf of}g cËx? ePsf] af]sf ;+;u{sf a]nf clt ;lqmo, km'lt{nf] / cfqmfds 6fOksf] af]sf x'g'k5{ h'DNofxf hGdfpg] cfdfaf6 hGd]sf] af]sfaf6 k|hgg u/fPdfq /fd|f] pTkfbg k|fKt x'g;S5 ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_
  12. 12. @=& k|hggsf nflu afv|Lsf] 5gf]6 k6s–k6s t'lxg] ;d:of ePsf] afv|f k|To]s a]tdf Pp6f dfq} aRrf hGdfpg] afv|f k|To]s a]tdf h'DNofxf aRrf hGdfpg] afv|f klxnf]rf]l6 aRrf hGdfpg] a]nfdf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt cfPsf] klxnf] a]tdf hGd]sf h'DNofxf kf7f–kf7L # dlxgfdf dfp k'gM afnL nfUg'k5{ * dlxgfkl5 g} bf];|f]k6s Aofpg] afv|f jf @ jif{df # a]t Aofpg ;Sg] dfp x'g'k5{ ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ ! @ # $ % ^ & *
  13. 13. 1 5gf]6 ul/g] afv|Ldf s:tf u'0f x'g'k5{ < nfdf] / vFlbnf] z/L/ ePsf] . jyfgdf ;a}eGbf 7"nf] b]lvg] . k|hggsf nflu rflxg] ljz]if u'0fx? :ki6 b]Vg ;lsg] . ;kmf lhp8fn ePsf] / ;lqmo vfnsf] . ( dlxgfsf] pd]/kl5 klxnf]k6s ule{0fL ePsf] cfdfaf6 hGd]sf] aRrf . nfdfnfdf v'§f ePsf] / sNrf}+8f] el/gsf nflu k|z:t vfnL 7fpF b]lvg] . k'i6 k/]sf] sNrf}+8f] / l7Sssf cfsf/sf] y'g ePsf] . klxnf]rf]l6 aRrf hGdfpFbf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt ePsf] . lhp8fnsf] ef/ rf/j6} v'§fdf a/fa/ ePsf] . aRrf t'lxg] /]s8{ gePsf] . k5fl8kl§ t'ngfTds?kn] km's]sf] b]lvg] . @ jif{sf] cjlwdf # k6s aRrf hGdfpg ;Sg] . h'DNofxf hGd]sf] dWo]af6 x'g'kg]{ . cfkmgf kf7f–kf7LnfO{ k|z:t b"w lbg ;Sg] . ztk|ltzt jf w]/} kf7fkf7L x'sf{pg] Ifdtf ePsf] . hlGdg]a]nfdf sDtLdf @ lsnf]u|fd tf}n ePsf] . l56f] l56f] zf/Ll/s j[l4 x'g] vfnsf] jf ^ dlxgfsf] pd]/df !% lsnf]u|fdeGbf a9L tf}n x'g] . /f]u k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtf pRr ePsf] . ljleGg vfnsf] :yfgLo jftfj/0f;Fu ;lhn} 3'nldn x'g;Sg] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á @=* k|hgg ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7L ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7L ( dlxgfsf] pd]/kl5 k|ydk6s af]sf nfu]sf] Psbd alnof tGb'?:t / :j:y aRrfsf] hGd ePsf] ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_
  14. 14. 11 k|hgg slxn] / s;/L u/fpg] < klxnf]k6s afnL nufpFbf af]sfsf] pd]/ ( dlxgfeGbf a9Lsf] x'g'k5{ . klxnf]k6s ule{0fL x'g] afv|Lsf] pd]/ klg ( dlxgfeGbf a9Lsf] x'g'k5{ . b'O{ leGgleGg hftsf afv|fsf] ;+;u{af6 hGd]sf j0f{z+s/ aRrfsf] aLrdf k|hgg u/fpg] . cfk;df gftf gkg]{ vfnsf jf leGbfleGb} ufpFsf af]sf / afv|LaLr jf afv|L / af]sfaLr k|hgg u/fpg'k5{ . pGgt hftsf] af]sf ‑OR5fOPsf] hftsf] sDtLdf %) k|ltzt /Qm ldl;Psf]_ / :yfgLo afv|LaLrsf] k|hggaf6 hGd]sf]_ 5fGg'k5{ . @=( k|hggsf nflu kflng] af]sfsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg 5'§} uf]7÷vf]/sf] Joj:yf x'g'k5{ . aFw'jf k|0ffnLdf x'sf{Og] Joj:yf x'g'k5{ jf cnu r/g–If]q x'g'k5{ . sd;]sd lbgsf] #–$ 306f zf/Ll/s cEof; x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . 3fF;, bfgf / kfgL k|z:tdfqfdf jf rflxFbf]dfqfdf lbg'k5{ . k|To]s ^ dlxgfdf /f]u lg/f]ws cf}ifwLx? v'jfpg] ‑l8lkª / 8«]lGrª_ ug'{k5{ . ;do–;dosf /f]ula?4sf vf]kx? lbg'k5{ . k|hggsf nflu /flvg] af]sf k|To]s @–@ jif{df x6fO{ ;f]sf] ;§fdf gofF af]sf Nofpg'k5{ . @=!) ule{0fL afv|Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg d'Vo ayfgaf6 ule{0fL afv|LnfO{ cnUu} /fVg] . aFw'jf–k|0ffnL ckgfO{ kfNg] . r/fpg] ePdf ;lhnf] / ;dy/ 7fpFx?df dfq r/fpg] . uef{j:yfdf k|ltlbg sl/a @)) u|fd cGg ‑bfgf_ lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ;'Ts]/L x'g] cj:yfdf b]lvg] nIf0fx? cjnf]sg ug]{ . ;'Ts]/L x'g] qmddf aRrf hGdg @ 306feGbf j9L ;do nfUof] eg] k|fljlwssf] ;xof]u lng] . 3fF; / bfgfkfgL lbFbf lgolGqt tl/sf ckgfpg], o;f] ubf{ eF8fNgf] kms{g] ‑k|f]n]lK;;_ ;Defjgf 365 . ;'Ts]/L ePkl5 lbOg] bfgfkfgLsf] dfqf klxnf] lbgaf6 qmdzM a9fpFb} nfg] / l;kmfl/; eP cg';f/sf] k"0f{ dfqf 5}7f}+ lbg b]lvdfq lbg] ug'{k5{ . ;fngfnnfO{ /fd|f];Fu uf8g'k5{, o;sf nflu slDtdf ! ld6/ ulx/f] vfN8f] vGg] / To;}leq ;fngfn /fvL /fd|f];Fu k'g]{ . ;fngfn ;'Ts]/L afv|L cfk}+mn] vfPdf To;kl5 b"w pTkfbg sd x'g] / ;Gtfg hGdfpg] Ifdtf;d]t sd x'b} hfG5 . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  15. 15. 12 ;kmf / g/d sk8fsf] k|of]u u/L k"/} z/L/ /fd|f];Fu ;kmf ul/lbg], gfssf Kjfn ;kmfOdf cem a9L Wofg lbg] . ev{/ hGd]sf] kf7f–kf7Lsf] k5fl8sf b'a} v'6f ;dfO{ 6fpsf] tn kg]{ u/L prfNg] / lj:tf/} lj:tf/} k]08'nd h:t} s]xL ;do x'O{ v]nfpg] . klxnf]rf]l6 y'gaf6 aRrfnfO{ b"w r';fO{lbFbf b'a} y'gnfO{ z'?df % k6s lgrf]/]/ klxnf] lauf}tL b"w kmfNg'k5{, To;kl5 aRrfx?nfO{ k|z:tdfqfdf lauf}tL b"w r';fpg'k5{ . ;kmf / ljliff0f'/lxt kfl/Psf jf lgd{nLs/0f ‑:6]l/nfOH8_ ul/Psf pks/0f k|of]u u/L /fd|f];Fu gfn sfl6lbg]Ù gfn sf6bf z/L/;Fu sl/a @ OGr 5f]8]/ sf6g'k5{ . ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ hlGdgf;fy kf7f–kf7LnfO{ ;'Vvf / Gofgf] 7fpFdf nfg] . ;kmf / g/d sk8fsf] ;xfotfn] gfssf Kjfn / k'/} z/L/ /fd|f];Fu ;kmf ul/lbg] . ev{/ hGd]sf] kf7f–kf7Lsf] k5fl8sf b'a} v'§f ;dfO{ 6fpsf] tn kg]{ u/L prfNg] / lj:tf/} lj:tf/} k]08'nd xNn]h:t} $–% k6s otfptf xNnfpg] . gfn sf6bf ;kmf / :6]l/nfOh u/]sf] rSs", s}+rL jf An]8 k|of]u ug]{ . gfn sf6bf z/L/eGbf @ OGrdflysf] efuaf6 dfq sf6g] . sfl6;s]sf] efudf l6~r/ cfof]l8g jf o:t} Pl06;]lK6sx? nufOlbg] . sNrf}+8f] / y'gx?nfO{ tftf]kfgLn] ;kmf ug]{ / ;'Sg lbg] . aRrfnfO{ klxnf]k6s b"w r':g lbg'eGbf klxn] b'j} y'gnfO{ %–% k6s lgrf]/]/ afSnf] lauf}tL b"w kmofFSg] . To;kl5dfq aRrfx?nfO{ oy]i6dfqfdf b"w r'l;/xg lbg'k5{ . Gofgf] / ;'Vvf 7fpFdf /fVg'k5{ / cGo lx+;|s hLjhGt'af6 hf]ufpg'k5{ . kf7f–kf7L @ xKtfsf ePkl5 vfg x'g], g/d / tfultnf] 3fF;x? vfg lj:tf/} lbg'k5{ . To:t} # xKtfsf ePkl5 lj:tf/} c? bfgfkfgL / kf}li6s cfxf/x? klg lbF+b} ug'{k5{ . á á á á á á á á á á á á @=!! ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg
  16. 16. 13 k|hggsf nflu pko'Qm gx'g] vfnsf kf7fx?nfO{ ! dlxgfsf] pd]/ ePkl5 v;L kfg'{k5{ . kf7f–kf7Lx? # dlxgf pd]/ k'Ugf;fy cfdfaf6 5'6ofP/ /fVg'k5{ . k|hggsf nflu /flvg] af]sfnfO{ klg # dlxgfb]lv cGo kf7f–kf7Lx?;Fu g/fvL 5'§} 7fpFdf /fVg] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . kf7f–kf7Lx? ! dlxgfsf ePkl5 klxnf]k6s cfjZos cf}ifwLx? v'jfpg] ‑8«]l~rª ug]{_ ug'{k5{ . xNsf vfnsf] a|'; ‑sfk]{6 a|';_ n] b}lgs?kdf kf7f–kf7LnfO{ sf]/]/ ;kmf ug]{ ug'{k5{ . cfjZostfg';f/ a]nfa]nfdf v'/ klg sfl6lbg'k5{ . á á á á á á @=!@ v;L kfg]{ skf;, lrD6f / l6~r/ cfof]l8g v;L kfg]{ ;xL tl/sf ev{/ hGd]sf 5g ! dlxgf ePkl5 v;L kfg]{ ‑o;f] ubf{ l5§} df]6fpF5g÷a95g_ ! dlxgf ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ af]l8{hf]–Sof:6]«6/ z'qmaflxgL gnLnfO{ RofKg] 7fpF v;L kfbf{ hlxn] klg bIf k|fljlwssf] ;xof]uaf6 dfq kfg{'{k5{ . ;fy} v'Nnf tl/sfaf6 v;L gkf/L ;w}+ aGb tl/sf (Closed Castration) cyf{t g;f RofKg] k4ltaf6 g} v;L kfg'{k5{ .
  17. 17. 14 v;L kfbf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? tn lbOPsf] 5 kf7f] ! dlxgfsf] x'gf;fy v;L kfg'{k5{ . v;L kfg'{eGbf cl3 g} To;sf nflu clt cfjZos j:t' / pks/0fx? h:t}M af]l8{hf]–Sof:6]«6/, Pl06;]lK6s emf]n, ;kmf skf;, lrD6fx? cflb l7s kfl//fVg'k5{ . Pl06;]lK6s k|of]u u/]/ af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/ / v;L kfg]{ dfG5]sf xft /fd|f];Fu ;kmf ug]{ . kf7f]nfO{ ‑lrqdf b]vfPh:t}_ /fd|f];Fu cF7ofP/ ;dfpg'k5{ . xftnfO{ lrNnf] agfpg Pl06;]lK6s ld;fOPsf] n'la|s]G6; nufpg], c08sf]ifsf b'a} bfgfnfO{ a'9L cf}+nf / dflxnL cf}+nf k|of]u u/]/ lj:tf/} tGsfpg] . z'qmjflxgL gnL kQf nufO{ /fd|f];Fu ;dfP/ 5]pkl§ Nofpg] . cF7ofpg] bfFtLsf] efu dflykl§ kg]{u/L af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/nfO{ /fd|f];Fu ;dfpg] . RofKg'kg]{ g;fdf af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/ /flv;s]kl5 ;fgf y'g ePsf] 7fpF (rudimentary teats) eGbf ‑!÷@Æ_ cfwf OGr tn ‑hldgkl§_ l7s 7fpFdf /fvL a]:;/L bafpg], o;f] ubf{ g;f /fd|f];Fu RoFflkO{;S5 / RoFfk]sf] g;fsf] efudfly sl/a @) ;]s]08hlt Roflk/fVg] . To;kl5 ToxL g;fsf] sl/a rf}yfO OGr ‑)=@%Æ_ tnaf6 af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/ /fvL cl3s} k|lqmof ckgfO{ g;f RofKg] . o;/L Psfkl§sf] g;f RoflklbPkl5 l7s To:t} k|lqmof ckgfO{ csf]{kl§sf] g;f klg b'O{k6s Roflklbg] . g;f Roflk;s]kl5 Tof] efudf ;kmf skf; / lrD6fsf] k|of]u u/L l6~r/ cfof]l8g jf cGo Pl06;]lK6s nufOlbg] . @=!# bfFtsf] cfwf/df afv|fsf] pd]/ kQf nufpg] tl/sf hGdg]lalQs} @ j6f b"w]bfFt x'G5g . ! dlxgfsf] x'Fbf * j6f b"w]bfFt x'G5g . !* dlxgfdf aLrsf @ j6f b"w]bfFt k'mSnL gofF :yfoL bfFtn] 7fpF lnG5g . @$ dlxgfdf aLrsf $ j6f b"w]bfFt k'mSnL gofF :yfoL bfFtn] 7fpF lnG5g . #) dlxgfdf aLrsf ^ j6f b"w]bfFt k'mSnL gofF :yfoL bfFtn] 7fpF lnG5g . #^ dlxgfdf ;a} * j6f b"w]bfFtsf] ;§f :yfoL bfFt cfpF5g . $* dlxgfdf ;a} bfFt sDhf]/ x'g], xlNng] / l5b| kg]{ x'g yfN5g . á á á á á á á á á á á
  18. 18. 15 hGdbfsf avt jf ! dlxgfdf ;j} * j6} b"w]bfFt 5g . ! @ 8]9 jif{sf] pd]/df cufl8sf @ j6f b"w]bfFt x65g / @ j6f gofF÷:yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g . ! @# $ ! @# $% ^ @ jif{sf] pd]/df cufl8sf $ j6f b"w]bfFt em/]/ $ j6f gofF :yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g . ;f9] b'O{ jif{sf] pd]/df ^ j6f b"w bfFt em/L ^ j6f gofF÷:yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g . ! @# $% ^ *& # jif{sf] x'Fbf ;a} * j6f b"w]bfFt v;]/ ltgsf 7fpFdf * j6} gofF÷:yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g .
  19. 19. 16 # l;sd cf]dfhdPaf]d]hd ‑vf; e'F8L_ /]l6s'nd ef]hg gnL ;fgf] cfGb|f 7"nf] cfGb|f ?d]g cfxf/ Joj:yfkg #=! afv|fsf] kfrg–k|0ffnL #=@ afv|fsf nflu cfxf/ slt rflxG5 < ‑;fwf/0ftof @% b]lv #) lsnf] tf}nsf] afv|fsf nflu_ cfxf/sf] k|sf/ OsfO{ ;fdfGo afFRgsf nflu df]6fpgsf nflu ule{0fLsf nflu k|hggsf nflu /flvPsf] af]sfsf nflu a9bf] pd]/sf kf7f–kf7Lsf nflu cGg sf];] u|fd @%=)) !))=)) !%)=)) !))=)) @%=)) csf];] u|fd &%=)) !%)=)) @))=)) !%)=)) &%=)) 8fn]3fF; sf];] s]=hL= )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=@% csf];] s]=hL= !=)) !=)) !=)) !=)) )=%) e'OF3fF; sf];] s]=hL= )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=@% csf];] s]=hL= !=)) !=)) !=)) !=)) )=%) 8fn]3fF; sf];] u|fd @%=)) !))=)) !%)=)) !))=)) @%=)) csf];] u|fd &%=)) !%)=)) @))=)) !%)=)) &%=)) cGo 3fF; sf];] u|fd )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) csf];] u|fd )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) g'g u|fd !)=)) !)=)) !)=)) !)=)) !)=)) nj0fx? u|fd )=@% )=@% )=@% )=@% )=@% le6fldgx? – kfgL ln6/ @=)) @=)) @=)) @=)) @=)) hDdf s]= hL= ^=) ^=% ^=% ^=% $=) b|i6JoM afv|fnfO{ 3fF; lbg] 7fpFdf hlxn] klg 3fF;x? tyf :ofpnf jf cGo afnLgfnLsf 8fF7, e';, sf];fsf af]qmf, 9'6f] cflbh:tf rLhaLh vfnL gu/L /flvlbg'k5{ . ;fy} kfgL vfg] efF8fdf ;w}+ kfgL /flvlbO/xg'k5{ .
  20. 20. 17 ;s];Dd rf}aL;} 306f afv|fn] 3fF; vfg] 7fpF÷6f6gf] ‑x]–¥ofs_ df xl/of] 3fF; x'g'k5{ . pknAw x'g;S5 eg] nj0fsf nflu v'jfOg] Ansdf jx'–kf]ifs tTj ldl;Psf] v'jfpg'k5{ . g'g tyf cGo nj0fx? ;s];Dd xKtfsf] Psk6s v'jfpg'k5{ . ;kmf kfgL k|z:tdfqfdf lkpg lbg'k5{ . @% lsnf] jf ;f]eGbf a9L tf}n ePsf] afv|fnfO{ b}lgs sl/a @%) u|fd bfgf v'jfpg'k5{ . #=# ;fgf] pd]/sf kf7f–kf7L ‑# dlxgfeGbf sd pd]/sf_ nfO{ v'jfOg] cfxf/ (Creep Feed) agfpg] tl/sf bfgfsf nflu cfjZos ;fdu|Lx? ‑!)) lsnf]u|fd cfxf/ tof/ kfg{sf nflu rflxg] kl/df0f–s]=hL= df_ ds} ^) $) @) @@ hf}÷h} ) @) $% ) abfdsf] lkgf @) @) @) #% df5fsf] l;b|f !) !) !) ) ux'Fsf] rf]s/ & & @ @) rgf ) ) ) @) nj0fsf] ld>0f @ @ @ @=% g'g ‑cfof]g'g_ ! ! ! )=% hDdf !)) !)) !)) !)) ;|f]tM afv|fkfng k'l:tsf, @)^%÷^^ #=$ ax'kf]if0fo'Qm l9Ssf agfpg rflxg] ;fdu|L afv|fkfngsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ax'kf]if0fo'Qm ‑dlN6Go"l6«;g_ Ans÷l9Ssf agfpgsf nflu lgDg ;fdu|Lx? cfjZos k5{M o'l/of dn, g'g, pmFv'sf] df]nf;];÷vF'bf] ÷;Vv/÷e]nL, r'gf, nj0fx?, le6fldgx?, l;d]G6 jf /ftf] df6f] ‑hldgsf] ;txeGbf @ ld6/ tn vf8naf6 lgsflnPsf] /ftf] df6f]nfO{ xfF8Ldf e'6]/ dfq k|of]u ug]{_, /]zfbf/ j:t'÷3fF;kft ‑h:t}M e";÷rf]s/, rfdn, ux'F cyjf ;'sfPsf] x]–3fF; jf cGo gn÷k/fn cflb_ #=% pks/0f / cf}hf/x? o:tf] Ans agfpgsf nflu lgDgfg';f/ pks/0f÷cf}hf/÷;fdu|L rflxG5M ;fFrf] (mould) cyjf Knfli6s÷kf]lnlygsf emf]nf÷af]/f jf afN6L jf sf7sf] afs;, tf}ng] ‑d]zLg÷t/fh'_, gfkf] ePsf] efF8f] ‑hf/_, j:t'x? ld;fpgsf nflu 7"nf] efF8f], rnfpg] ;fa]n, kfgL, kftf cflb . á á á á á á á
  21. 21. 18 #=^ cfjZos ;fdu|L / dfqf ‑%–% lsnf]sf * j6f Ans agfpgsf nflu_ ;fdu|L tf}n ;fdu|L tf}n o'l/of $ s]=hL= g'g @ s]=hL= df]nf;]; @) s]=hL= x88L r"0f{ @ s]=hL= l;d]G6÷/ftf] df]6f @ s]=hL= nj0f ld>0f !)) u|fd 8f]nf]ldl6s r'gf @ s]=hL= ax'le6fldg kfp8/ % u|fd /]zfbf/ j:t' * s]=hL= kfgL ! ln6/ #=& agfpg] k|lqmof ! ln6/kfgLdf @ lsnf] l;d]G6 jf /ftf] df6f] ld;fpg] / /fd|f];Fu d'5g] . To;df $ lsnf] o"l/of / @ lsnf] g'g /fv]/ /fd|f];Fu dNg] . To;dfk]ml/ @) lsnf] df]nf;]; /fv]/ dNg] . k]ml/ @ lsnf] r'gf ld;fpg] . x88Lsf] r"0f{ klg @ lsnf] ld;fpg] ‑pknAw ePsf] v08df_ . njg–ld>0f / cGo le6fldgx? ld;fpg] . To;df % lsnf] /]zfbf/ j:t' e";f–rf]s/ jf ;–;fgf 6'qmf agfP/ sf6]sf] ;'s]sf] Æx]Æ ‑3fF;_ ld;fpg] . /fd|f];Fu rnfO/xg], ha;Dd ;Dk"0f{ j:t'x? /fd|f] / Psgf;;Fu ldl;Psf] h:tf] b]lvFb}g, ha;Dd /fd|f] n]bf] (Paste) aGb}g . Ans agfpg] ;fFrf]df n]bf] vGofpg] / ;fx|f] aGgsf nflu ! lbg TolQs} 5f]8g] . @$ 306fkl5 ;fFrf] lgsfNg] / ;fx|f] aGgsf nflu ! lbg TolQs} 5f]8g] . á á á á á á á á á á
  22. 22. 19 /]zfbf/ j:t' ÷ 3fF;sf 6'qmf÷ rf]s/ cflb ax' kf]if0f vlgh / le6fldgx? e]nL÷df]nf;]; r'gf g'g l;d]G6 jf /ftf] df6f] hf]Vg] d]lzgl9Ssf agfpg] ;fFrf] -Ans_ o'l/of kfgL ;Dk"0f{ j:t'x? /fd|f];Fu ldl;P–gldl;Psf] hfFr ug]{ / dn]/ uhasf] n]bf] ‑k]i6_ agfpg] rfx] cg';f/sf ;fOhsf Ansx?df n]bf] /fvL l9Ssf aGg lbg] / l9Ssfx?nfO{ /fd|f];Fu ;'Sg lbg]
  23. 23. 2 o;/L agfPsf Ansdf lgDg u'0fx? x'g'k5{ ;Dk"0f{ j:t'÷tTjx? /fd|f];Fu 3'nldn÷ld;df; ePsf] x'g'k5{ . o'l/of / r'gfsf 8Nnf–8Nnf b]lvg] x'g'x'Fb}g . /fd|f];Fu ;'s]sf], s8f / ;dfpFbf RofkRofk nfUg] x'g'k5{ . tof/ ePsf Ansx?nfO{ ;'Vvf 7fpFdf 5f]k]/ ;'/lIft tj/n] e08f/ u/L /fVg'k5{ . #=* Ans s;/L vfg lbg] < 5fofF kg]{ 7fpF sl/a ! ld6/ jf # lkm6sf] pFrf] 7fpFdf Ans /flvlbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . o;/L afv|fx?nfO{ s]xL l5g Ans rf6g ‑vfg_ lbg'k5{, t/ Psk6sdf jf ! lbgdf !%) u|fd eGbf a9L vfg lbg'x'Fb}g . b|i6JoM Pp6f x's]{sf] afv|fnfO{ lbgsf] !%) u|fdeGbf a9L Ans vfg lbOof] eg] To;n] g/fd|f] (intoxicate) ug{ klg ;S5 . #=( olb w]/} vfP/ la/fdL k/]sf] nIf0f b]vfP eg] s] ug]{ < nIf0fx? d'vjl/kl/ ufh÷lkmFh b]lvg] . afofFkl§sf] e'F8L k'mn]sf] b]lvg] (Tympani/bloat) dflQPh:tf] Jojxf/ b]vfpg] . pkrf/ tl/sf dflysf nIf0fx? b]lvPdf t'?Gt pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . lgDgfg';f/sf pkrf/x? ug'{k5{ Ans vfg /flvlbPsf] 7fpFaf6 x6fpg] ‑yk vfg gkfcf]; eg]/_ . k|z:t kfgLdf em08} cfwf ln6/ cldnf] ‑leg]u/_ ld;fP/ v'jfpg] . á á á á á á á á á á á á afv|fsf] 6fpsf]n] k'Ug] 7fpF ‑! ld6/ jf # lkm6sf] prfOdf_ df Ans e'm08ofpg] Joj:yf ldnfO{ vfg lbg]
  24. 24. 21 $ afv|fsf] vf]/ Joj:yf $=! :j:y afv|f kfNg] tl/sf ;'ljwfo'Qm vf]/sf] Joj:yf 3fF;kftsf] /fd|f] Joj:yf g'g, nj0fx? / le6fldg ;do ;dodf v'jfpg] Joj:yf pRr÷pGgt k|sf/sf] efn]÷af]sf k|hgg Joj:yf 3fF; vfg] /fd|f] 6f6gf]sf] Joj:yf ;do – ;dodf EoflS;gx? nufpg] Joj:yf lgoldt?kn] cf}ifwL v'jfpg] ‑8]«l~rª ug]{_ Joj:yf lgoldt?kn] g'xfOlbg] (Dipping) sf] Joj:yf $=@ afv|fkfng k4ltdf ;'wf/ s;/L ug]{ < ;Gt'lnt cfxf/ pknAw u/fpg] . pGgt vf]/sf] Joj:yf ug]{ . nj0fx?, g'g / le6fldgx? lgoldt?kn] lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . á á á
  25. 25. 22 af]sf, afv|L ;fgf kf7f–kf7L, v;L / ao:sx?nfO{ /fVg] cnu–cnu Joj:yf ldnfpg] jif{sf] @ k6s jfxo k/hLjLla?4 cf}ifwL kfgLn] g'xfOlbg]÷8'afpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . cf}ifwLx? lgoldt?kn] Vjfpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ;do–;dodf EoflS;gx? lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . wfg–v]t / wfk, bnbn If]qdf rg{ hfg glbg] . á á á á á km/s hftsf kz'x?nfO{ Pp6} vf]/df /fVg' x'Fb}g ‑ufO{, e}+;L, e]8f cflb hgfj/sf km/s hftx? Pp6} uf]7df g/fVg"_ 5]/f}6L nfUg] / cfpFn] ;tfpg] t'lxg] lemFufx?n] hgfj/ / dfG5]df /f]ux? k}mnfpg ;S5g ljleGg ;?jf /f]u / k/hLjLx?n] ;tfpg] dfgj :jf:Yodf ;d]t g/fd|f] c;/ k'Ug] Zjf;–k|Zjf;;DjGwL /f]u ‑h:t}M lgdf]lgof_ n] ;tfpg] ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% . $=# g/fd|f] vf]/ ePdf s:tf] c;/ k5{ <
  26. 26. 23 $=$ vf]/sf nflu s:tf] 7fpF pQd x'G5 < v'Nnf, ;'Vvf / yf]/} p7]sf] efu . blIf0f–k"j{ jf blIf0f–klZrd df]x8f kms]{sf] . dnd"q ;lhn} aflx/ lg:sg] vfnsf] vf]/ . ;kmf kfgL, 3fF;x? kfOg] jf r/g–If]qsf] kfos kg]{ 7fpF . $=% c;n k|sf/sf] vf]/ lgdf{0f ug]{ of]hgf vf]/ agfpFbf :yfgLo ;fdu|Lx?sf] clwstd k|of]u ug]{ . ljleGg pd]/–;d"xsf afv|fnfO{ cnu–cnu /fVg ldNg] u/L k|z:t 7fpF xf]; . k|z:t k|sfz / xfjf v]Ng] ‑e]lG6n];g_ Joj:yf x'g'k5{ . 3fF; vfgsf nflu /fd|f] 6f6gf] agfOlbg'k5{ . k|z:t kfgL lbg] k|aGw ug'{k5{ . a8Sof}+nf / lk;fa emg]{ /fd|f] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{, tf ls vf]/ ;kmf ug{ ;lhnf] xf]; . vf]/ agfpFbf j}1flgsx?n] l;kmfl/; u/]cg';f/sf] df]8]n / gfk–;fOhdf agfpg'k5{ . $=^ vf]/sf s]xL gd"gfx? # b]lv % j6f afv|fsf nflu á á á á á á á á á á á & lkm6 jf @ ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/
  27. 27. 24 % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ cfFvLemofnsfh:t} ;–;fgf Kjfnx? # lkm6 jf )=( ld6/ hldgsf] ;txeGbf tn @ j6f afF; aLrsf] efudf )=% OGrsf] vfln 7fpF 5f]8]sf] ‑a8Sof}nf emg{sf nflu_ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/ * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ ! lkm6 % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld6/ @ j6f afF; aLrsf] efudf )=% OGrsf] vfln 7fpF 5f]8]sf] ‑a8 Sof}nf emg{sf nflu_ # lkm6 jf )=( ld6/ hldgsf] ;txeGbf tn % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ ! lkm6
  28. 28. 25 !) lkm6 jf # ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ # lkm6 jf ! ld6/ hldgd'gL # lkm6 jf )=* ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld ^ lkm6 jf !=^ ld= % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ ! lkm6 % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld6/ # lkm6 jf )=( ld6/ hldgsf] ;txeGbf tn % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/
  29. 29. 26 % afv|fdf nfUg] k/hLjLx? %=! afv|fdf nfUg] jfxo k/hLjLx? (External Parasites) lsgf{ gfsdf k:g] h"sf p8'; n'tf] ;fg]{ sL/f plkofF lemFuf 6f]Sg] h'd|f ;'n;'n] jf ud] ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% %=!=! jfxo k/hLjLsf] pkrf/ tyf lgoGq0f ug]{ pkfox? afv|fsf] vf]/sf] lgoldt ;/;kmfO ePsf] x'g'k5{ . ljleGg l;kmfl/; ul/Psf ‑kz';]jf sfof{noåf/f_ cf}ifwLx? ld;fOPsf] kfgLn] g'xfOlbg] jf jif{sf] @ k6s 8'afOlbg] . a'|;n] /f}+ sf]l/lbg] ugf{n] klg k/hLjLsf c08f / ao:s lgoGq0f ug{ ;3fp k'U5 . á á á
  30. 30. 27 8'jfOlbgsf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] 6ofªsL ‑P/f]n] b]vfOPsf 7fpFx? 8'afPkl5sf afv|f /fVg] 7fpF x'g_ k/hLjL lgoGq0fsf nflu afv|fx?nfO{ kfgLdf 8'afPsf] lrq 8'jfpg'eGbf cl3 afv|f /fVg] 7fpF %=!=@ ljleGg k/hLjL lgoGq0fsf nflu afv|f 8'afpgsf nflu agfOg] 3f]ndf ld;fpg'kg]{ ljiffbL÷sL6gfzs cf}ifwLsf] dfqf cf}ifwLsf] gfd 3f]ndf ljiffbLsf]] dfqf aLPr;L %∞ kfp8/ )=$–!∞ dfnflyog (Malathin) )=%∞ ;fOlyg (Cythine) )=%∞ g'efg (Nuvan) )=@∞ a'6f]S; (Butox) )=$∞ ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% %=!=# sL6gfzs ljiffbLsf] gfd, dfqf / afv|fsf] vf]/df 5g]{ ;do ljiffbL] gfd 3f]ndf /fVg'kg]{ ljiffbLsf] k|ltzt / 5g]{ ;dofjlw÷cGt/ ;]j]g (Seven) )=*∞ k|To]s !% lbgdf c;Gtf]n (Asantol) )=@%∞ ,, ln08]n (Lindel) )=@%∞ ,, g'efg (Nuvan) !=)∞ ,, ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% )=&% ld6/ )=&% ld6/ !=% ld6/ !=% ld6/ cfjZostfg';f/ cfjZostfg';f/ 8'afO{ ;s]kl5 kfgL tsf{pg] 7fpF
  31. 31. 28 %=!=$ jfxo k/hLjL lgoGq0fdf k|of]u x'g] u/]sf s]xL :yfgLo ljlwx? k/hLjLn] c;/ k'¥ofPsf 7fpFx?sf] /fd|f] ;/;kmfO ug]{ lsgf{, h'd|f, h"sf cflbh:tf k/hLjLnfO{ xft}n] l6k]/ cfuf]df hnfpg] c;/ k'u]sf] 7fpFdf g'gsf] afSnf] 3f]n blnlbg] ;"tL{sf] kft, gLdsf] kft / g'gsf] ld>0f agfP/ 3fpdf blnlbg] gfsdf h"sf k/]df gLdsf] kftsf] /; gfssf] Kjfndf r'xfOlbg]r/gdf uPsf] a]nf afv|fsf gfsdf h"sf k;]/ c;/ k'¥ofpF5 afv|fn] kfgL vfg nfu]sf] a]nf h"sfx?, gfsaflx/ lg:sFbf xft}n] tfg]/ lgsfNg] jf Pp6f s}++rLsf] d2tn] sf6]/ 6'qmf kfl/lbg] ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%
  32. 32. 29 uf]nf] h"sf afv|fsf] cfGb|fdf nfUg]] lkmQ] h"sf (Tape‑Worm) ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% kl/kSj ePsf] Pp6f gfDn] h"sf (Liver Fluke) %=@ afv|fdf nfUg] cfGtl/s k/hLjLx? (Internal Parasites) Pp6f kl/kSj ePsf] lkmQ]h"sf lkmQ]h"sfsf ;–;fgf 6'q]m efu (segments) x? afv|fsf] lb;faf6 hldgdf k'U5g o:tf] 7fpFdf rg]{ :j:y afv|fx?df tL lkmQ]h"sfsf 6'qmfx? leq k:g ;S5g lkmQ]h"sfsf] hLjg–rqm ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%
  33. 33. 3 c? :j:y hgfj/df k/hLjL g;?g eGgsf nflu v;L afv|f sf6bf kmflng] rLhx?dWo] hNg] j:t'nfO{ /fd|f];Fu hnfpg] ug'{k5{ eg] lnbL tyf cGo kmfNg'kg]{ rLhx? (offal) nfO{ /fd|f];Fu uf8L lbg'k5{ . á gfDn]h"sfsf] hLjg–rqm afv|fsf] z/L/leq kfgL / af]6 la?jfdf z+v]sL/fsf] z/L/leq s's'/nfO{ h'sf lj?4 cf}ifwL v'jfpg]
  34. 34. 31 uf]n h"sfsf] hLjg–rqm afv|fn] 3fF; vfFbf nfef{x? klg vfP/ k]6df k'U5g lb;f;Fu} c08fx? Aflx/ cfpF5gk"mnaf6 nfef{ aG5g / ToxLF ljsl;t x'Fb} hfG5g %=@=! cfGtl/s k/hLjLsf] pkrf/ / lgoGq0f ljlw afv|fsf] a8Sof}+nf÷lb;fsf] lgoldt k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0f u/fpg] ug'{k5{ . kz';]jf sfof{non] l;kmfl/; u/]sf cf}ifwLx? jif{df @ k6s v'jfpg] ug'{k5{ . k/hLjL af]Sg] dfWodx? –h:t}M z+v]sL/fÙ 9fk÷bnbn] / a9tf lr;f] hldgdf a9L kfOg] x'Fbf To:tf] 7fpFdf afv|fnfO{ r/fpg' nfg'x'Fb}g . k/fn v'jfpg}kg]{ xf] eg] wfg yGSofPsf] sDtLdf ^ dlxgf ePkl5 dfq To:tf] k'/fgf] k/fn v'jfpg'k5{ . ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ %=@=@ afv|fnfO{ h"sf gfzs cf}ifwL v'jfpg] lgb]{lzsf /;fog÷cf}ifwL uf]nf]h"sfsf] nflu ‑k|lt lsnf]u|fd zf/Ll/s tf}nsf b/n]_ gfDn]h"sfsf] nflu ‑k|lt lsnf]u|fd zf/Ll/s tf}nsf b/n]_ lkmQ]h"sfsf] nflu ‑k|lt lsnf]u|fd zf/Ll/s tf}nsf b/n]_ cNj]G8fhf]n % ld=u|f= % ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= k]mGa]Ghf8f]n % ld=u|f= % ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= cS;k]m08fhf]n % ld=u|f= % ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= /;fog÷cf}ifwL uf]nf] h"sfsf] nflu lkmQ]h"sfsf] nflu gfsdf nfUg] h"sf n]jfljhf]n Pj+ /]kmf]S;fgfO8 &=% ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= n]jfldhf]n Pj+ clShSnf]hfgfO8 &=% ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= n]jfldhf]n &=% ld=u|f= – – n]jfldhf]n Pj+ ljlycf]gf]n &=% ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= cfOe/d]lS6g )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= cfOe/d]lS6g Pj+ snf];'{nf]g )=@ ld=u|f== )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= df]lS;8]lS6g )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= 8f]/flS6g )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= gfO6f]lShlgn !) ld=u|f= x]df]ªs;nfO{ dfq !) ld=u|f= @ ld=u|f= /]kmf]S;fgfO8 &=% ld=u|f= x]df]ªs;nfO{ dfq &=% ld=u|f= &=% ld=u|f= clS;Snf]gfgfO8 – &=% ld=u|f= – á á á á
  35. 35. 32 %=@=# kf7f–kf7Lsf] pd]/cg';f/ lbg'kg]{ cf}ifwL / dfqf pd]/ cf}ifwLsf] gfd Dffqf !) lbgdf a]gfldGy cfwf 6ofAn]6 #) lbgdf lkk|flhg b}lgs @=% u|fdsf b/n] @ lbg $% lbgdf a]gfldGy % ldlnln6/ ^) lbgdf cf]efdf/ !) s]=hL= kfgLdf ! rDrf ;|f]tM afv|fkfng, s]Gb|Lo e]8f tyf afv|fkfng ljsf; sfof{no, @)^%÷^^ %=@=$ cfGtl/s kl/hLjLn] k'¥ofPsf] c;/sf cfwf/df k|of]u ug'{kg]{ cf}ifwL / dfqf k/hLjLsf] gfd cf}ifwL dfqf ‑zf/L/s tf}nsf b/n]_ s}lkmot uf]nf] h"sf lkk|flhg !) u|fd ÷$% s]=hL= klxnf]k6s v'jfPsf] @) lbgkl5 k]ml/ v'jfpg] x]Ndfl;8 $ ld=ln=÷!) s]=hL= klxnf]k6s v'jfPsf] @) lbgkl5 k]ml/ v'jfpg] lkmQ] h"sf hgfOn !)–!% ld=u|f=÷!) s]=hL= k|To]s ^–^ dlxgfdf v'jfpg] cDn];g !% u|fd÷afv|f k|To]s ^–^ dlxgfdf v'jfpg] gfDn] h"sf kfgfs'/ ! u|fd÷afv|f cf}ifwL v'jfPsf] @! lbg k'u]kl5 k]ml/ bf]xf]¥ofP/ v'jfpg] 6flgn ! u|fd÷afv|f cf}ifwL v'jfPsf] @! lbg k'u]kl5 k]ml/ bf]xf]¥ofP/ v'jfpg] l8lh:6n ! u|fd÷afv|f cf}ifwL v'jfPsf] @! lbg k'u]kl5 k]ml/ bf]xf]¥ofP/ v'jfpg] slS;l8of]l;; ;Nkmfd];flyog ! 6ofAn]6÷afv|f # lbg;Dd nuftf/ v'jfpg] Pk|f]lnod !)) u|fd÷ k|To]s $ lbgdf bf]xf]¥ofpg] v'jfpg] ;|f]tM afv|fkfng, s]Gb|Lo e]8f tyf afv|fkfng ljsf; sfof{no, @)^%÷^^ afF;sf] 9'ªu|f]af]tngfKg] efF8f] ef]hg–gnL h:t} kfOk cf}ifwL Vjfpg] aGb"s ‑8]«lGrª–ug_ cf}ifwL v'jfpg] tl/sf ;f]nL
  36. 36. 33 ^ kfrg–k|0ffnL;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:ofx? vfgdf ?lr gb]vfpg] . k]6 km'Ng]÷9fl8g] . kvfnf nfUg]÷slAhot x'g]÷uf]6f kg]{ . ckr x'g] . ljiffQm (food poisoning) x'g] . ^=! bfgf jf ef]h et]/df kmflnPsf vfg]s'/f a9L vfPdf b]vfkg]{ ;d:ofx? Uof; pTkGg x'g], k]6 k'mNg] ‑l6DKofgL÷Anf]6 x'g]_ . ;f; k]mg{ cK7]/f] x'g] . l56f] l56f], yf]/} yf]/} lk;fa ug]{ . s/fpg] / 56k6fpg] . lb;f ubf{ ufx|f] eP/ sGg] / af/Daf/ lb;f ug{ vf]Hg] . dflQPem}+ ug]{ / 3l/3l/ e'OFdf n8g] . o:tf] x'Fbf ;dod} pkrf/ ug{ ;lsPg eg] afv|f dg{ klg ;S5 . pkrf/ ljlw pkrf/sf nflu :yfgLo ?kdf pknAw ljleGg a:t'x?sf] k|of]u ug]{, h:t}M lx+u, vfg];f]8f, ufFhf, cb'jf, tf]/Lsf] t]n, l6d'/ cflb v'jfpg] . DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 k|of]u ug]{ . ;dod} :yfgLo k|fljlws jf u|fdL0f kz':j:Yo sfo{stf{;Fu ;Dks{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ljz]if ;ts{tf ckgfpg'kg]{ s'/fx? lj:s'g ;'sfPsf] 7fpF jf cGg /fv]sf] 7fpFaf6 afv|fx?nfO{ 6f9f /fVg] . afv|fx?nfO{ cGg÷bfgf lbFbf a9tf x'g]u/L glbg] . ef]h–et]/x?df kmflnPsf vfg]s'/fx?nfO{ /fd|f];Fu gksfO{ glbg] . ;fy} w]/} kl/df0f vfg klg glbg] . k|f]l6gsf] dfqf a9L x'g] vfnsf 3fF;x? klg w]/} vfg glbg] . afv|fnfO{ ;a}eGbf /fd|f] x'g] vfnsf 3fF;x? dfq vf]h]/ Nofpg] . cnUofP/ Vjfpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ;|f]t kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  37. 37. 34 afv|fnfO{ pgLx?n] krfpg ;Sg]eGbf a9L cGg÷bfgf vfg lbg'x'Fb}g, gq k]6 k'mNg]÷9fl8g], 9':; eO{ ;f; km]g{ g;Sg] eP/ ;dodf pkrf/ lbg ;lsPg eg] afv|f dg{ klg ;S5g ef]h–et]/af6 pa|]sf] vfg]s'/fx? lsg kmfNg] eg]/ hah{:tL w]/} kl/df0fdf vfg lbFbf klg afv|fx? k]6 9fl8g], ckr x'g] Joyf nfu]/ dg{;d]t ;S5g . ^=@ 3fF;kftaf6 x'g] ljifsf] c;/ (Plant Poisoning) / pkrf/ ^=@=! s]xL ljiffn' 3fF;kftx? w]/} vfnsf afnLx?, 3fF;kft tyf 8fn]3fF;x?df ljiffn' tTj x'g] u5{ . To:tf j:t' vfPdf afv|fx?nfO{ ljifn] c;/ kfb{5 . sltko afnL÷ jf]6 la?jf / 3fF;kft w]/} slnnf] cj:yfdf v'jfpFbf ljiffn' k|s[ltsf x'G5g, h:t}M hO{3fF;, ux'F, ds}, ;'8fg 3fF;, :jL6–Snf]e/÷;]tf]–Snf]e/ cflb . oL 3fF;kft slnnf] v'jfOof] eg] gfO{6]«6 gfds ljifsf] c;/ k'Ub5 . ljif nfUbf b]lvg] nIf0fx? d'vjl/kl/ ufh÷kmLFh el/g] k]6 b'Vg] 56k6fpg] ule{0fL afv|fn] ljiffn' 3fF; vfFbf ue{ t'lxg] ;Defjgf a9L x'g;S5 df+;k];L a9L v'lDrg]÷yy{/fpg] yf]/}–yf]/} lk;fa k6s–k6s ug]{ b"wfn' afv|fn] b"wsf] dfqf 36fpg] b]a|]kl§sf] e'F8L k'mn]sf] b]lvg] . á á á á á á á á
  38. 38. 35 pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ < kz' :jf:Yo k|fljlwssf] ;xof]uaf6 ldyfOlng An'–@) gfds cf}ifwL $) ld=ln= lbgsf] rf/k6s g;fdf ;"O{ lbg] . t/n Koflkmg cf}ifwL v'jfpg] . pk/f]Qm cf}ifwLx? pknAw gePsf] v08df :yfgLo?kdf pknAw j:t'÷ ;fdu|Lx?nfO{ cf}ifwLsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug]{ . ^=@=@ c1ft af]6la?jf vfFbf nfUg] ljif / pkrf/ nIf0fx? afv|f rg{ 5f]85 / pu|fpg klg 5f]85 . afv|f Psbd lgl:qmo ÷emf]sfpg] / pbf; h:tf] b]lvG5 . d'v jl/kl/ ufh lgsfN5 . k]6sf] b]a|]kl§sf] efu k'mn]sf] b]lvG5 . kvfnf nfUg klg ;S5 . pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ < pGo" vfFbf afv|fn] /ftf] /Ësf] lk;fa u5{g . ljif nfu]–gnfu]sf] klxrfg ug]{ tl/sf ljiffn'/lxt kf/]sf] ‑:6]l/nfOH8 u/]sf]_ lunf;df lk;fa /fVg], @$ 306f;Dd Tof] lunf;nfO{ s;}n] g5'g]÷grnfpg] / @$ 306fkl5 /fd|f];Fu cjnf]sg ug]{ . olb lunf;sf] lkFwdf s]xL lylu|Psf] h:tf] (sediments) b]lvG5 eg] To:tf] cj:yfdf afv|fdf k|f]6f]hf]cfaf6 x'g] /f]u nfu]sf] x'g;S5, t;y{ Tof] lunf;sf] lk;fa glhssf] kz':jf:Yo k|of]uzfnfdf nuL k/LIf0f u/fpg] . olb Tof] lk;fadf Psgf;sf] /Ë b]lvG5 eg] Tof] pGo" vfPsf sf/0fn] ljif pTkGg ePsf] x'g;S5 . pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ < pGo" knfPsf] r/g–If]qdf afv|fnfO{ r/fpg nfg'x'+Fb}g . ^=# afh/f÷;f]3{d÷h'g]nf]sf] 3fF; vfFbf pTkGg x'g;Sg] ljif / pkrf/ oL afnLsf 3fF;x? slnnf] cj:yfdf v'jfOof] eg] afv|fnfO{ ljif nfUg;S5 . o:tf 3fF; slnnf] x'Fbf ltgdf ;fOgfO8; (cyanides) gfds ljiffn' tTj pRrdfqfdf /x]sf] x'G5 . oL 3fF;x? v'jfpg' k/]df Ps/ft cf]OnfP/dfq v'jfpg] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  39. 39. 36 nIf0fx? /utn] clS;hg lng] Ifdtf 365 / /utdf clS;hgsf] dfqf Go"g x'g hfG5 . ;f; k]mg{ ufx|f] x'G5 / aNn aNn Zjf;–k|Zjf; rn]sf] b]lvG5 . d'vsf] jl/kl/ ufh÷lkFmh b]lvG5 . cfFvfsf gfgLx? 7"N7"nf b]lvG5g . df+;k];Lx? v'lDrPsf] / sDkg ePsf] b]lvG5 . pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ < !) u|fd ;f]l8od yfof];Nk]m6 gfds cf}ifwL !)) ld=ln= kfgLdf ld;fO{ v'jfpg] . ?d]g af]n; gfds cf}ifwL ;f]xL Kofs]6df l;kmfl/; ePcg';f/ v'jfpg] . DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 @ b]lv % lrofrDrf !)) ld=ln= -Ps lrof lunf;_ kfgLdf ld;fO{ v'jfpg] / lb;f u/fpg] . g;faf6 gd{n ;nfOg lbg] . ^=$ cFu]/L, bz{glkkn, gLnf] k'mNg] uGw], wf]q]m, cf?kft], /ftf] lz/Lif vfPdf nfUg] ljif nfdf] ;'Vvf ofdkl5 klxnf]k6s kfn'jf nfUg] pko'{Qm jg:kltsf d'06f÷3fF; afv|fn] vfPdf t'?Gt ljif nfUg ;S5 . o:tf]df b]lvg] nIf0fx?, o; k|sf/ 5g nIf0fx? d'vjl/kl/ ufh lgsfNg] d'vaf6 ¥ofn alu/xg] afv|fn] …dflQPsf]Ú h:tf] Jojxf/ b]vfpg yfN5 b]a|]kl§sf] e'F8L k'mn]sf] b]lvG5 af/Daf/ afGtf ug]{ 5]/f}6L nfU5÷kftnf] lb;f u5{ emf]qmfpg]÷pbf; b]lvg] cfFvfsf gfgLx? /ftf–/ftf b]lvG5g z/L/sf] tfkqmd ;fdfGo cj:yfdf eGbf 365 pkrf/ k|lt ao:s afv|f # b]lv % ln6/ kfgL v'jfpg] . k|lt ao:s afv|f vfgf ksfpg] t]n @%) ld=ln= sf b/n] v'jfpg] . pdfn]sf] cldnf] !)) ld=ln= nfO{ cfwf ln6/ kfgLdf ld;fO{ k|lt ao:s afv|fnfO{ v'jfpg] á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  40. 40. 37 ^=% e'F8L k'mNg] ;d:of o:tf] ;d:of vf;u/L lgDg sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] ub{5 cfsl:ds?kdf 7fpF÷jftfj/0f / cfxf/df kl/jt{g ePdf w]/} k|f]l6gldl>t vfB kbfy{x? vfPdf ljiffn' 3fF;kft vfPdf cfGtl/s k/hLjLx?n] ;+qmd0f u/]df 3fF6Ldf vfgf c8lsP/ ;f; k]mg{ cK7]/f] ePdf cGo /f]ux?sf sf/0faf6 klg x'g ;S5 . nIf0fx? k]6df Uof; pTkGg x'g], vf;u/L afofF k]6df o:tf] x'G5 ;f; k]mg{ sl7g x'g] 56kl6g] lb;flk;fa ug{ g;Sg]÷aGb x'g] ;dodf pkrf/ gkfPdf dg]{ ;Defjgf x'g] . á á á á á á á á á á á afv|fn] ljiffn' 3fF; vfPsf afGtf ug]{, 5]/f}6L nfUg] / k]6 k'mNg] ;d:of ;dodf pkrf/ geP/ kz' dg{ ;S5 ljif x6fpg] cf}ifwL ‑Pl068f]6_ ;'O{ lbP/ pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 ;Dej eP;Dd :yfgLo?kdf pknAw x'g] ljleGg 3/]n' cf}ifwLx? v'jfpg ;|f]t kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% . @–% lrof rDrf DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 #)) ld=ln= kfgLdf ld;fO{ k|lt ao:s afv|fnfO{ v'jfpg] dflysf pkfox? ckgfpFbf klg ljif vfPsf] afv|fdf s'g} ;'wf/ b]lvPg eg] glhssf] kz' k|fljlws;Fu t'?Gt ;Dks{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . á á
  41. 41. 38 pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ < l6Dkf]n jf Anf6f]l;nåf/f pkrf/ vfg] t]n / tflk{gsf] t]n a/fa/ dfqf ldnfP/ v'jfpg] PlenÙ k|lt ls=u|f= afv|fsf] hLljt tf}nsf nflu ! ld=ln= sf b/n] df;'df jf g;fdf ;"O{ lbg] DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 cfwf ln6/ kfgLdf ! lrofrDrf cf}ifwL /fv]/ v'jfpg] . ^=^ 5]/f}6L 5]/f}6L nfUgfsf sf/0fx? vfgf, 7fpF / jftfj/0fdf cfsl:ds kl/jt{g ePdf w]/} k|f]l6 ldl>t vfB kbfy{ vfPdf ljiffn' 3fF;kft vfPdf cfGtl/s k/hLjLx?n] ;+qmdg u/]df cGo /f]ux? nfUbf klg 5]/f}6L nfUg ;S5 . nIf0fx? kftnf] lb;f x'g] z/L/sf] tf}n 36b} hfg] b"w pTkfbg 36b} hfg] a9L Kof;÷ltvf{ nfUg] / z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf sd x'g] ‑l8xfO8]«;g_ pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ < g]Anf]g kfp8/ / ;Nkmf ju{sf cf}ifwL;Fu} k|ofu] ug]{ . olb cfGtl/s k/hLjLsf sf/0faf6 5]/f}6L nfu]sf] xf] eg] ;f]sf nflu cf}ifwL v'jfpg} k5{ . vf]/ jl/kl/sf] jftfj/0f, e'OF, kfgL cflbsf] ;/–;kmfO / :j:ytfdf a9L hf]8 lbg'k5{ . z/L/df kfgL sd x'g] x'Fbf ;f]sf nflu hLjghn agfO{ v'jfpg], hLjnhn agfpbf %)) ld=ln= kfgLdf ! lrof rDrf g'g / # lrof rDrf lrgL /fVg] . ;fy} :yfgLo kz' :jf:Yo k|fljlwssf] k/fdz{ / ;xof]u lng] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  42. 42. 39 5]/f}6L jf cfpFaf6 lj/fdL ePsf] afv|f Hj/f] b]lvof], tfkqmd w]/} a9]sf] 5 Hj/f] gfKbf Hj/f] b]lvPg /f]ux?n] cfqmd0f ul/;s]sf 5g kLkLcf/ nx'd't] Eofu't] lb;f k/LIf0f ug]{ ljiff0f' / hLjf0f'af6 x'g] /f]ux? :yfgLo k|fljlws;Fu k/fdz{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] cfGtl/s k/hLjL tyf c08f, z/L/sf 6'qmfx? kQf nfU5g ‑h:t}M gfDn]h"sf, uf]nf]h"sf, lkmQ]h"sf cflb_ k/LIf0f ubf{ k/hLjLsf c08f, z/L/sf efux? b]lvPgg, zfob vfgfsf] sdL, ljiffn' 3fF;kft cflbaf6 klg o:tf] ePsf] x'g;S5 . :yfgLo k|fljlws;Fu k/fdz{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] :yfgLo k|fljlws;Fu k/fdz{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] ;|f]t kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% . ^=& 5]/f}6L jf cfpFn] afv|fnfO{ ;tfpFbf s] s] x'G5 <
  43. 43. 4 & &=! ;LkLkL ‑;g]{ vfnsf] k'/fgf] lgdf]lgof_ hLjf0f'sf sf/0faf6 x'g] d[To'b/ cTolws a9L x'G5 ‑^) k|ltztb]lv !)) k|ltzt;Dd_ nIf0fx? afv|f ;fx|} sdhf]/ b]lvG5 vfgdf ?lr gb]vfpg] cTolws Hj/f] cfpg] a]nfa]nfdf vf]Sg] Zjf;k|Zjf;df sl7gfO x'g] sltko hgfj/df d'6'sf] w8sgdf clgoldttf b]lvg], hf]gL{ tyf dl:tisdf ;d]t km/skg b]lvg ;S5 . /f]u ;g]{ dfWodx? /f]uL kz' / :j:y kz'aLr ;Dks{ ePdf /f]uL kz'n] vfPsf] bfgf–kfgL jf uf]7÷vf]/, r/g–If]q k|of]u ePdf . lgoGq0fsf pkfox? ufpFsf ;a} k|sf/sf afv|fx?nfO{ /f]ula?4 ;"O{ nufpg'k5{ . ufpFdf gofF kz'÷afv|f Nofpg' k¥of] eg] pQm kz'÷afv|fn] /f]u lj?4sf] ;"O{ lnPs} x'g'k5{ . ayfgaf6 /f]uL kz'nfO{ t'?Gt cnUofP/ /fVg'k5{ . /f]uL kz'sf] ;Dks{÷;+;u{df cfPsf ;Dk"0f{ j:t'x? gi6 ug'{k5{ . pkrf/ tl/sf 6fOnf]l;g (Tylosine) gfds cf}ifwL l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] dfqf cg';f/ v'jfpg] jf df;'df ;"O{ lbg] . &=@ kLkLcf/ /f]u ljiff0f'af6 x'G5 Psbd} ;+qmfds÷l56f] l56f] ;g]{ k|j[lQsf] x'G5 o;nfO{ …afv|fsf] x}hfÚ eg]/ klg lrlgG5 . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á k|d'v ;?jf (Contagious) /f]ux?
  44. 44. 41 kLkLcf/ nfUbf k|f/lDes cj:yfdf b]lvg] nIf0fx? cTolws Hj/f] cfpg] ‑!)$ l8u|L ;]l06u|]8b]lv !)^ l8u|L ;]l06u|]8;Dd_ d'v / y't'gf]sf] efu ;'Vvf x'g] z/L/sf] ;tx v;|f] b]lvg]÷lhªl/Ë k/]sf] b]lvg] cfFvfsf gfgLx? /ftf–/ftf x'Fb} hfg] vfgdf k6Ss} ?lr gb]vfpg] . a9L ;+qmd0f ePsf] cj:yfdf b]lvg] nIf0fx? gfsaf6 kfgL h:tf] l;Fufg alu/xg] / kLk ldl;Ph:tf] klg b]lvG5 . gfssf Kjfnx?sf] leqkl§ 3fp;d]t x'G5 . luhf, lha|f] / d'v jl/kl/ ;–;fgf 3fp cfpF5g . vf]/]t /f]u nfu]sf] h:tf] nIf0f b]lvG5 / uf9f sfnf] / kftnf] vfnsf] lb;f u5{ . z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf sd eP/ cTolws Kof; nfU5 . z/L/sf] tfkqmd ;fdfGoeGbf klg tn 365 . #–$ lbg kl5 kz'df lgdf]lgof, vf]sL / Zjf;–k|Zjf;sf] ;d:of pTkGg x'g yfN5 . afv|L ule{0fL 5] eg] ue{ t'lxg] ;d:of klg x'g;S5 . kf7f–kf7L / jo:s afv|fx?df d[To'b/ a9L x'g;S5 ;+qmd0f ePsf] % b]lv !) lbgdf pkrf/ kfPg eg] kz' dg{ klg ;S5 . /f]u ;g]{ dfWodx? /f]uL / :j:y afv|faLr ;Dks{÷;+;u{ ePdf /f]uL kz'n] vfPsf bfgf–kfgL–3fF; lg/f]uLn] vfPdf jf /f]uLn] k|of]u u/]sf] uf]7, vf]/ tyf r/g–If]qdf r/]df lgoGq0fsf pkfox? k|To]s @–@ jif{df ufpFsf ;Dk"0f{ afv|fx?nfO{ vf]k lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . gofF afv|f ufpFdf Nofpg'k5{ eg] vf]k nufP–gnufPsf] lglZrt u/L vf]k nufP/dfq Nofpg] . pkrf/ kz'df ;+qmd0f eO;s]kl5 pkrf/ ug{ sl7g 5 . t;y{ /f]u nfUg glbg' g} ;a}eGbf pQd pkfo ePsfn] /f]syfdsf pkfox? cjnDag ug]{ . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á gfs / d'vdf ufh lgsfn]sf] luhf / leqkl§ 3fp cfPsf]
  45. 45. 42 &=# ljleGg k|sf/sf /f]ulj?4 lbOg] vf]ksf gfd / dfqf dlxgf /f]u dfqf÷k|lt k"0f{ jo:s afv|fsf nflu dfqf÷kf7f–kf7L ev{/sf] jo:ssf nflu hgj/L – k]ma|'c/L ‑df3_ ;LkLkL )=@ ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ lbg]_ )=@ ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ lbg]_ k]ma|c/L – dfr{ ‑kmfNu'g_ kLkLcf/ !=) ld=ln=÷df;' jf ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ lbg]_ !=) ld=ln=÷df;' jf ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ lbg]_ dfr{ – clk|n ‑r}t_ lakm/ (Pox) ;"O{sf] k|of]u u/L g/d df;'df ;"O{ nufpg] ;"o{sf] k|of]u u/L g/d df;'df ;"O{ nufpg] clk|n – d] ‑j}zfv_ OG6]/f]6f]lS;ldof % ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ nufpg_ @=% ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ nufpg]_ clk|n – d] ‑j}zfv_ vf]/]t (FMD) @ ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ nufpg]_ ! ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;"O{ nufpg]_ &=$ pkrf/ lsg k|efjsf/L gx'g ;S5 < pkrf/ ug{ w]/} l9nf ePdf /f]u cg';f/ cf}ifwLsf] k|sf/ / dfqf gldn]df k6s k6s cgfjZos?kdf ljleGg cf}ifwLx? k|of]u u/]sf] ePdf olb afv|f cGo s'g} k'/fgf] ‑qmf]lgs_ /f]uaf6 u|:t 5 eg] cjlw ;lsPsf] cf}ifwL k|of]u u/]sf] v08df vf]/÷uf]7sf] jftfj/0f / ;/–;kmfO{ :j:ys/ gePdf lj/fdL kz'nfO{ /fd|f];Fu Wofg glbOPsf] v08df bfgf / 3fF;sf] u'0f:t/ sd;n ePdf . á á á á á á á á ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% la/fdL kz'x? xl/of] 3fF;kfteGbf klg ;'s]sf] 3fF; vfg ?rfpF5g .
  46. 46. 43 * afv|fsf nflu 8fn]3fF; tyf cGo e'OF3fF;x? *=! ux|f–sfGnf tyf 8Lnx?df 8fn]3fF; tyf e'OF3fF;x? nufpg] Olkn–Olkn 9}+rf ‑;gx]Dk_ e]r 3fF; e6df;] 3fF; cld|;f] 3fF; s]/f g]lko/ afF; Olkn–Olkn sfGnfdf ul/Psf] 3fF;–/f]k0f Olkn– Olkn 6fFsLe]r 3fF; e6df;] 3fF; g]lko/ sfGnfdf ul/Psf] 3fF;–/f]k0f bLgfgfy 3fF;sf] g;{/L /fVg] sfd x'Fb}5 g]lko/ e6df;] ux|f / sfGnfdf 3fF;sf aLpx? ;Lw}+ /f]lkFb}5bLgfgfy 3fF;sf la?jf ;fl/Fb}5 hO{ e]r
  47. 47. 44 *=@ 8fn]3fF; / e'O{3fF;x? sf6g] pko'Qm cj:yf cld|;f] e6df;] Olkn–Olkn‑‑‑
  48. 48. 45 Ifdtf clej[l4 lqmofsnfk cGtu{t lhNnf kz' ;]jf sfof{nosf k|fljlwsx?sf nflu afv|fkfng ljifodf k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f sfo{qmd x'Fb} kl/of]hgfsf pkk|jGwsåf/f sfo{qmd;DaGwL hfgsf/L k|bfg ub}{ /fli6«o kz'kfng ljz]if1åf/f afv|fkfng tflndsf] af/]df k|sfz kfb}{ afv|fkfng tflndsf ;xefuLx? ;d"xut 5nkmndf afv|fkfng tflndsf ;xefuL k|:t'tLs/0f ub}{
  49. 49. 46 kl/of]hgf (OSRO/NEP/801/SPA) cGtu{t ;~rflnt afv|fkfng;DaGwL s[ifs:t/Lo ljleGg lqmofsnfkx? afv|fkfng tflndsf ;xefuLx? 3/;Fu} hf]l8Psf] afv|fsf] vf]/ afv|f ljt/0fsf nflu ;+sng s]Gb|df hDDff kfl/Psf afv|fx? lhNnf kz';]jf sfof{nosf k|fljlwsx? Affv|f klxrfgsf nflu sfgdf 6ofluª ub}{ afv|f ljt/0fsf nflu ckgfOPsf] lrÝf k|0ffnL lhNnf kz';]jf sfof{nosf k|fljlwsx? Affv|f klxrfgsf nflu sfgdf 6ofluª ub}{

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