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Genes hox

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Genes hox

  1. 1. Complexo Hox Gunte P. Wagner, Chris Amemiya and Frank Ruddle Yale University and Benaroya Institute PNAS - Nº 25 (09/12/2003)
  2. 2. Introdução <ul><li>Os HOX são uma família de genes envolvidos em fatores de transcrição compartilhando domínios de ligação ao DNA </li></ul><ul><li>O Hox-Paradox </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes homólogos são responsáveis por diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento corporal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A regulação seria força maior </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. O Hox-Paradox <ul><li>Os Hox foram observados em Drosophila sp. </li></ul><ul><li>Foi observado que esses genes tendem a ocorrem em clusters intimamente ligados e exibiam expressão coordenada espaço-temporal ao longo do eixo antero-posterior. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Clusters em Vertebrados Nº de Clusters Hox Grupo 4 Tetrapoda 4* Crossopterígeos 7-8 Teleósteis 4* Peixes Cartilaginosos >3 Petromyzonteformes 1 Cefalocordados 0 Urocordados
  5. 5. Clusters em Vertebrados
  6. 6. O Segundo Hox-Paradox <ul><li>Fato: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O número de clusters Hox nos cordados varia entre o grupo e pode ser várias vezes maior do que em invertebrados. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Porque durante a evolução dos cordados tendeu-se ao aumento no número de clusters Hox, enquanto nos invertebrados não se nota tal efeito? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hipótese <ul><li>A Força que mantém a estrutura do cluster Hox seria retirada temporariamente após a duplicação o que traria a associação duplicação/irradiação adaptativa. </li></ul>
  8. 8. O Segundo Hox-Paradox <ul><li>As duplicações gênicas teriam papel pequeno em inovações adaptativas (Carroll et al ). </li></ul><ul><li>Continuamos com a dúvida: Porque na filogenia dos vertebrados têm papel tão importante, e que papel é esse? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Duplicação <ul><li>Problema: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perda de função </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taxas de retenção entre 20 e 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>A taxa de retenção indica a probabilidade de um dado gene, quando duplicado, ser mantido. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Duplicação <ul><li>A maioria na redução é devido ao encurtamento de regiões intergênicas. </li></ul><ul><li>Tentativas de associar o tamanho do genoma ao tamanho dos clusters Hox. </li></ul>110 Hox A mamífero 450 Anfioxo >1000 Invertebrados Tam/Kb Organismo
  11. 11. Genes Hox <ul><li>As diferenças entre organismos sugerem duas possíveis abordagens evolutivas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Grandes” distâncias intergênicas podem estar envolvidas na elaboração de elementos regulatórios capazes de controlar poucos genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pequenas” distâncias intergênicas podem estar envolvidas na elaboração de elementos regulatórios capazes de controlar vários genes </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Genes Hox <ul><li>Foram encontrados genes que sugerem que como resultado de duplicações gênicas, funções podem ser “divididas” entre outros genes. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Passando a régua... <ul><li>Os padrões evolutivos de invertebrados e vertebrados indicam que existem diferenças entre seus clusters. </li></ul><ul><li>A evoluabilidade dos clusters de vertebrados é de alguma forma inferior comparada a dos de invertebrados. </li></ul><ul><li>A duplicação gênica “abriria uma janela” de evoluabilidade nos vertebrados. </li></ul>

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