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How You Really Connect To The Internet

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Your business depends on reliable connection to the Internet each and every day... but how does it work exactly?

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How You Really Connect To The Internet

  1. 1. How You REALLY Connect To The Internet
  2. 2. You and your business depend on the Internet daily for everything and anything. But do you know how it really works?
  3. 3. Connect Your Site(s) To Your ISP's Core Network
  4. 4. To connect you to the Internet, your Internet Service Provider (ISP) creates a link between your site(s) and its own core network, probably by using one or more of the following technologies…
  5. 5. Data is sent over a copper phone line to the local telephone exchange. From there, the data travels via fibre-optic cables to your ISP's core network. The maximum speed varies widely by location and the upload speed is fairly low. ADSL is ideal for very small offices and for staff that work from home. ADSL Customer Office Cabinet Copper Local Exchange Copper
  6. 6. Think of this as ADSL on steroids. It offers faster speeds, because it uses more fibre- optic cabling and shorter distances of copper. It's not as widely available as ADSL. Fibre To The Cabinet (FTTC) Fibre Customer Office Cabinet Copper Local Exchange
  7. 7. A distant cousin of ADSL. EFM uses between 2 and 8 phone lines, instead of just one. The upload speed matches the download speed. Most EFM connections are 'uncontended' meaning you won't have to fight other customers for a limited amount of bandwidth. Ethernet First Mile (EFM) 2 to 8 bonded copper pairs Customer Office Local Exchange
  8. 8. These use fibre-optic cabling for the entire route. They offer the fastest connections and the most reliable links. They are a very popular choice for connecting offices to the Internet. Leased lines are uncontended. Fibre Leased Lines Customer Office Fibre Local Exchange
  9. 9. Which connection option is right for your business? That depends on your bandwidth requirements, the amount of data you're transferring each month, your budget and the options available in your location.
  10. 10. Connect To the Rest of the Internet
  11. 11. • The Internet can feel like one single network, but it is really made up of separate networks – over 52,000 of them. • Some of these networks, or to use the proper term - Autonomous Systems (AS), can connect to each other with the help of Internet peering. One network, two networks, three networks…
  12. 12. • Peering occurs when two Autonomous Systems transfer data to each other directly. It happens mostly in large data centres within major cities. • Network operators that want to peer can join an Internet Exchange (abbreviated IX). These make it simpler for network operators to swap traffic with fellow member of the same Internet exchange. • Examples of Internet Exchange Points (IXPs): About Peering
  13. 13. • Unfortunately, there are only a few hundred ISPs at most Internet exchanges, so it’s not practical for your ISP to connect to the whole Internet through peering alone. • This is where Internet transit comes in. In return for a hefty 'transit' fee, a few international telecoms firms are willing to fill in the gaps, acting as a bridge between your ISP and the rest of the Internet. • Your ISP can connect you to the whole of the Internet by using a mixture of peering and transit. Internet Transit?
  14. 14. In Practice
  15. 15. • How does an ISP know where to send your requests? By using DNS and BGP. • If I visit Google UK's web site, my computer uses the Domain Name System (DNS) to convert the hostname www.google.co.uk into an IP address, 216.58.210.3. • My ISP then needs to route my request for Google's homepage to the correct section of the Internet. • Luckily for me, Autonomous System 15169 is announcing to the world (via Border Gateway Protocol) that it is happy to receive requests intended for IP addresses in the range 216.58.192.1 to 216.58.223.254. As 216.58.210.3 falls within that range, my ISP will send my request for www.google.co.uk to that Autonomous System. • My ISP has an Autonomous System (AS 39326) that peers with AS 15169, so my request for Google UK's homepage goes directly to Google, without having to pass through the network of a transit-providing middle man.
  16. 16. Staying Connected
  17. 17. You now know how your business connects to the Internet. But how can you ensure it stays connected?
  18. 18. Check whether your Internet connection comes with a Service Level Agreement (SLA). This document guarantees that your Internet connection will only ever experience minimal downtime. It also explain how you'll be compensated if the service you receive falls short of agreed levels.
  19. 19. If your business is heavily reliant on its Internet connection, you should consider installing a backup Internet connection. This doesn't need to be expensive. The connection just has to be good enough to tide you over until your main connection is fixed.
  20. 20. One tip for getting problems fixed faster is to sign up for an Internet service that offers 24x7 support. That way, troubleshooting takes place throughout the day and night. Network upgrades, patching and rebooting can be scheduled at times of the day when no-one from your organisation is around to notice disruption.
  21. 21. Another way to cut downtime is to use an ISP that monitors its customer connections for problems. This allows your ISP to begin troubleshooting some problems that you've yet to notice or report.
  22. 22. Do you need help with your Internet Connection? Contact us today for a chat: +44 (0) 20 7847 4510 info@hso.co.uk www.hso.co.uk

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