Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ch 2 -_hr_planning

732 views

Published on

HR

Published in: News & Politics
  • You can try to use this service ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ I have used it several times in college and was absolutely satisfied with the result.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Ch 2 -_hr_planning

  1. 1. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-1 Human Resource Management 11th Edition Chapter 4 JOB ANALYSIS, STRATEGIC PLANNING, AND HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
  2. 2. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-2 HRM in Action: Social Networking: Getting to Know Each Other • Web site serves as virtual community, where group of people use Internet to communicate with each other about anything and everything • Because of rapid growth of sites, companies are having to determine if they should permit employees to use public sites at work such as MySpace and Facebook to communicate with coworkers or does company want to control access
  3. 3. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-3 Definitions • Job analysis - Systematic process of determining skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in organization • Job - Consists of group of tasks that must be performed for organization to achieve its goals • Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in organization
  4. 4. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-4 Definitions (Cont.) • A work group consisting of a supervisor, two senior clerks, and four word processing operators has 3 jobs and 7 positions.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-5 Questions Job Analysis Should Answer • What physical and mental tasks does worker accomplish? • When is job to be completed? • Where is job to be accomplished? • How does worker do job? • Why is job done? • What qualifications are needed to perform job?
  6. 6. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-6 Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Tasks Responsibilities Duties Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Knowledge Skills Abilities Staffing Training and Development Performance Appraisal Compensation Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations
  7. 7. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-7 Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis • Staffing - Haphazard if recruiter does not know qualifications needed for job • Training and Development - If specification lists particular knowledge, skill, or ability, and person filling position does not possess all necessary qualifications, training and/or development is needed • Performance Appraisal - Employees should be evaluated in terms of how well they accomplish duties specified in their job descriptions and any other specific goals that may have been established • Compensation - Value of job must be known before dollar value can be placed on it
  8. 8. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-8 Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis (Cont.) • Safety and Health - Helps identify safety and health considerations • Employee and Labor Relations - Leads to more objective human resource decisions • Legal Considerations - Having done job analysis important for supporting legality of employment practices
  9. 9. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-9 Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis • Work Activities - Work activities and processes; activity records (in film form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility • Worker-oriented activities - Human behaviors, such as physical actions and communicating on job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy expenditure
  10. 10. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-10 Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis (Cont.) • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used • Job-related tangibles and intangibles - Knowledge dealt with or applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed • Work performance - Error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken for a task
  11. 11. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-11 Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis (Cont.) • Job context - Work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts • Personal requirements for job - Personal attributes such as personality and interests; education and training required; work experience
  12. 12. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-12 Job Analysis Methods • Questionnaires • Observation • Interviews • Employee recording • Combination of methods
  13. 13. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-13 Questionnaires • Typically quick and economical to use • Structured questionnaire to employees • Problem: Employees may lack verbal skills • Some employees tend to exaggerate significance of their tasks
  14. 14. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-14 Observation • Job analyst watches worker perform job tasks and records observations • Used primarily to gather information on jobs emphasizing manual skills • Used alone is often insufficient • Difficulty: When mental skills are dominant in a job
  15. 15. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-15 Interviews • Interview both employee and supervisor • Interview employee first, helping him or her describe duties performed • Then, analyst normally contacts supervisor for additional information
  16. 16. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-16 Employee Recording • Describe daily work activities in diary or log • Problem: Employees exaggerating job importance • Valuable in understanding highly specialized jobs
  17. 17. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-17 Combination of Methods • Usually use more than one method • Clerical and administrative jobs: questionnaires supported by interviews and limited observation • Production jobs: interviews supplemented by extensive work observations may provide necessary data
  18. 18. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-18 Other Methods Available for Conducting Job Analysis • Department of Labor Job Analysis Schedule • Functional Job Analysis • Position Analysis Questionnaire • Management Position Description Questionnaire • Guidelines-Oriented Job Analysis
  19. 19. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-19 Department of Labor Job Analysis Schedule • Structured job analysis questionnaire that uses a checklist approach to identify job elements • Focuses on general worker behaviors instead of tasks • Some 194 job descriptors relate to job- oriented elements
  20. 20. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-20 Functional Job Analysis • Concentrates on the interactions among the work, the worker, and the organization • Modification of the job analysis schedule • Assesses specific job outputs and identifies job tasks in terms of task statements
  21. 21. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-21 Position Analysis Questionnaire • Uses a checklist approach to identify job elements • Focuses on general worker behaviors instead of tasks • 194 job descriptors relate to job-oriented elements • Each job being studied is scored relative to the 32 job dimensions
  22. 22. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-22 Management Position Description Questionnaire • Designed for management positions • Uses checklist to analyze jobs • Has been used to determine training needs of individuals who are slated to move into managerial positions • Has been used to evaluate and set compensation rates for managerial jobs and to assign jobs to job families
  23. 23. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-23 Guidelines-Oriented Job Analysis • Step-by-step procedure for describing the work of a particular job classification • Obtains the following types of information: (1) machines, tools, and equipment; (2) supervision; (3) contacts; (4) duties; (5) knowledge, skills, and abilities; (6) physical and other requirements; and (7) differentiating requirements
  24. 24. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-24 Conducting Job Analysis People who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum: • Employee • Employee’s immediate supervisor
  25. 25. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-25 Job Description • Document that states tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job • Vitally important job descriptions are both relevant and accurate
  26. 26. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-26 Items Frequently Included In a Job Description • Major duties performed • Percentage of time devoted to each duty • Performance standards to be achieved • Working conditions and possible hazards • Number of employees performing the job, and to whom they report • The machines and equipment used on job
  27. 27. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-27 Content of a Job Description • Job Identification - Job title, department, reporting relationship, and job number or code • Job Analysis Date - Aids in identifying job changes that would make description obsolete • Job Summary - Concise overview of job • Duties Performed - Major duties
  28. 28. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-28 O*NET, the Occupational Information Network • Comprehensive government-developed database of worker attributes and job characteristics • Primary source of occupational information • Replaces Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
  29. 29. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-29 Job Specification • Job Specification - Minimum qualifications person should possess to perform particular job • Should reflect minimum, not ideal qualifications for particular job • Job specifications are often included as major section of job descriptions
  30. 30. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-30 Problems If Job Specifications Are Inflated • May systematically eliminate minorities or women from consideration • Compensation costs will increase • Job vacancies will be harder to fill
  31. 31. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-31 Timeliness of Job Analysis Rapid pace of technological change makes need for accurate job analysis even more important now and in the future.
  32. 32. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-32 Job Analysis for Team Members • With team design, there are no narrow jobs • Work departments do is often bundled into teams • Last duty shown on proverbial job description, “And any other duty that may be assigned,” is increasingly becoming THE job description.
  33. 33. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-33 Job Analysis and the Law • Equal Pay Act - Similar pay must be provided if jobs are not substantially different as shown in job descriptions • Fair Labor Standards Act - Employees categorized as exempt or nonexempt
  34. 34. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-34 Job Analysis and the Law (Cont.) • Civil Rights Act - Basis for adequate defenses against unfair discriminations charges in selection, promotion, and other areas of HR administration • Occupational Safety and Health Act - Specify job elements that endanger health or are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by most people • Americans with Disabilities Act - Make reasonable accommodations for disabled workers
  35. 35. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-35 Trends & Innovations: Talent Management • Process of anticipating workforce needs, managing current workers, attracting highly skilled workers and integrating and developing them to achieve maximum workforce productivity • Basically talent management exists to support company objectives • Companies are going to have to be innovative as they attempt to recruit highly talented individuals
  36. 36. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-36 Strategic Planning • Strategic Planning - Process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved • Strategic planning at all levels can be divided into four steps
  37. 37. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-37 Strategic Planning and Implementation Process MISSION DETERMINATION Decide what is to be accomplished (purpose) Determine principles that will guide the effort ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Determining external conditions, threats, and opportunities Determining competencies, strengths, and weaknesses within the organization External Internal OBJECTIVE SETTING Specifying corporate-level objectives that are: • Challenging, but attainable • Measurable • Time-specific • Documented (written) STRATEGY SETTING Specifying and documenting corporate-level strategies and planning STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION
  38. 38. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-38 Strategy Implementation • Leadership • Organizational Structure • Information and Control Systems • Technology • Human Resources
  39. 39. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-39 Human Resource Planning Systematic process of matching internal and external supply of people with job openings anticipated in the organization over a specified period of time
  40. 40. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-40 Human Resource Planning Process External Environment Internal Environment Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning Forecasting Human Resource Requirements Comparing Requirements and Availability Forecasting Human Resource Availability Surplus of Workers Demand = Supply No Action Shortage of Workers Recruitment Selection Restricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoffs, Downsizing
  41. 41. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-41 Definitions • Requirements forecast - Determining number, skill, and location of employees organization will need at future dates in order to meet goals • Availability forecast - Determination of whether firm will be able to secure employees with necessary skills, and from what sources
  42. 42. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-42 Forecasting Human Resource Requirements • Zero-based forecasting - Uses current level as starting point for determining future staffing needs • Bottom-up approach - Each level of organization, starting with lowest, forecasts its requirements to provide aggregate of employment needs.
  43. 43. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-43 Forecasting Human Resource Requirements (Cont.) • Relationship between Volume of Sales and Number of Workers Required • Simulation Models - Simulation is a forecasting technique for experimenting with real-world situation through mathematical model representing that situation. A model is abstraction of the real world.
  44. 44. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-44 The Relationship of Sales Volume to Number of Employees Number of Employees 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Sales (thousands)
  45. 45. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-45 Forecasting HR Availability • Determining whether firm will be able to secure employees with necessary skills, and from what sources • Show whether needed employees may be obtained within company, from outside organization, or from combination of these sources
  46. 46. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-46 Use of HR Databases • Many workers needed for future positions may already work for firm. • Databases include information on all managerial and nonmanagerial employees. • Companies search databases within company to see if employees with needed qualifications already exist. Growing trend: Automatically notify qualified employees of new positions.
  47. 47. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-47 Shortage of Workers Forecasted • Creative recruiting • Compensation incentives – Premium pay is one method • Training programs – Prepare previously unemployable people for positions • Different selection standards
  48. 48. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-48 Surplus of Employees • Restricted hiring – Employees who leave are not replaced • Reduced hours • Early retirement • Downsizing - Layoffs
  49. 49. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-49 Downsizing • Also known as restructuring and rightsizing • Reverse of company growing and suggests one-time change in organization and number of people employed • Typically, both organizational structure and number of people in the organization shrink for purpose of improving organizational performance
  50. 50. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-50 System Used In the Event of Downsizing • Unionized - Seniority usually is the basis • Union-free - Productivity and needs of the organization • Retention bonuses are used to entice terminated employees to remain for short periods of time to ensure continued services
  51. 51. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-51 Negative Aspects of Downsizing • Cost associated with low morale of those remaining • Layers removed, making advancement in organization more difficult • Workers may seek better opportunities, fearing they may be in line for layoffs
  52. 52. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-52 Negative Aspects of Downsizing (Cont.) • Employee loyalty significantly reduced • Institutional memory lost • Remaining workers required to do more • When demand for products/services returns, firm may realize it has cut too deep • May be an increase in number of discrimination lawsuits
  53. 53. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-53 Outplacement • Laid-off employees given assistance in finding employment elsewhere • Companies use outplacement to take care of employees by moving them successfully out of company rather than having to do it on their own
  54. 54. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-54 Succession Planning • Process of ensuring that qualified persons are available to assume key managerial positions once the positions are vacant • Goal is to help ensure a smooth transition and operational efficiency
  55. 55. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-55 Disaster Planning • Should focus on catastrophes that range from natural calamities such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods to man-made crises such as 9/11 • Always significant human resource issues to address • Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike
  56. 56. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-56 Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) Any organized approach for obtaining relevant and timely information on which to base HR decisions
  57. 57. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-57 HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM Goal: Integrate Core Processes into Seamless System Input Data Types Job Analysis Recruitment Selection/Job Posting/ Employee Referral T&D Performance Appraisal Compensation Benefits Safety Health Labor Relations Employee Relations Output Data Uses* Employee Tracking Diversity Programs Hiring Decisions Training Programs/E- learning/Management Succession Compensation Programs Benefit Programs (e.g., prescription drug programs) Health Programs (e.g., Employee Assistance Programs) Bargaining Strategies Employee Services Organizational Strategic Plans Human Resource Management Plans Contribute Toward Achievement of: Human Resource Information System *Manager and employee self-service is available.
  58. 58. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-58 Manager Self-Service • Use of software and corporate network to automate paper-based processes requiring manager’s approval, record- keeping or input, and processes that support manager’s job • MSS can help managers develop and grow staff and assist employees in determining their career paths and developing required competencies
  59. 59. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-59 Employee Self-Service (ESS) • Processes that automate transactions formerly labor- intensive for employees and HR professionals • ESS applications can free up valuable HR staff time, reducing administrative time and costs
  60. 60. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-60 Job Design • Process of determining specific tasks to be performed, methods used in performing these tasks, and how job relates to other work in organization • Job enrichment - Basic changes in content and level of responsibility of job, to provide greater challenge to worker
  61. 61. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-61 Job Design (Cont.) • Job enlargement - Changes in scope of job to provide greater variety to worker • Reengineering - Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed
  62. 62. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as 4-62 A Global Perspective: India Getting the Job Done, but Differently • Indian companies invested $6 billion in U.S., which created jobs for Americans • Most Indian companies going global have adopted strategy of ‘not rocking the boat’ at their newly acquired foreign operations • Gaining an appreciation of local laws and customs is important • Language and food choices often present challenges
  63. 63. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

×