Realism -is derived from the Greek word “RES” whichmeans real which further is related to object. -is an attempt to portray life as it is. -the world is real and material. -considered as an educational philosophywhich advocates that education should beconcerned with the realities of life and shouldprepare a person for his/her duties in life.
Definitions• “ Realism is the reinforcement of our common acceptance of this world as it appears to us.” - Butler• “ The doctrine of realism asserts that there is a real world of things behind and corresponding to the objects of our perception ”– Ross• Realism means a belief or theory which looks upon the world as it seems to be a mere phenomenon.” -Swami Ram Tirth.
Forms of Realism in Education Humanistic Realism Aimed to secure a knowledge of human society and its institutions of nature and man’s reactions to nature, chiefly through the content and not the form of classics. According to John Milton education must prepare one for life in the real world. Francois Rabelais was known for his idea that education is gained through books, though emphasis should be on the mastery of their content and their actual use in one’s life. According to him, education should be attractive rather than compulsive.
Social Realism It criticized bookish knowledge & emphasized on practical knowledge. Its aim is to fulfill social needs ,social efficiency which is the result of practical knowledge. Which can be imparted through tours, excursions, observations, experiences etc. “ The social realist, looking askance of bookish studies stressed the values of direct studies of men & things in mind, having chiefly the upper classes ;they advocate a period of travel, a grand tour which will give real experience of varied aspects of life.” -J.S.Ross
Montaigne -he believe that ideas are acquired throughinteractions with other people, first in one’s owncountry then while on travels to other countries. -according to him, the aim of education isnot produce scholars and professionals but toprepare a young boy to live the life of agentleman in the world of affairs. "A boy should not so much memorize hislesson as practice it. Let him repeat it in hisactions."
Sense RealismIt came into being in the 17th century according to which knowledge can be gained through our senses.Inductive method, from simplest ideas to the more complicated ones.The medium of education should be mother tongue or dialect used in ancient times.It is developed on the psychological, scientific, and sociological basis.Method of teaching should be naturalAccording to Comenius, the aim of knowledge is to make a child moral, knowledgeable, and a devotee.
Realism and aims of EducationPreparing the child for a happy and successful life.Emphasis on training on senses.Preparing a child for a real life.Equal importance to individuality and sociability.Developing scientific attitude.
Realism and CurriculumAccording to realists only those subjects should included in the curriculum which prepare the child for day to day livingRealist emphasized prime importance to nature, science and vocational subjects whereas secondary place to arts, literature and languages.At the same time they have made clear that teaching of mother tongue is the foundation of all the development and vocational subjects. Hence the essential subjects in the curriculum should be language and vocational subjects.
Realism and TeacherThe teacher according to realist, is expected to have full knowledge of the content and needs of the children.It is the duty of the teacher to tell children about scientific discoveries, researches and inventions by others in the field of knowledge.The teacher himself should also be engaged in some research work and experimentation. At the same time he must inspire the children to undertake wide and close observation and experimentation so that they are able to find out the new facts.
Realism and the childAccording to Realist, the child will have to be enabled to proceed from ignorance to knowledge & to beget the knowledge of the real.Unlike naturalist & idealist, the realist want to educate a child how to become a man that he can face the real challenges of life.
Disadvantage of RealismGreat stress upon physical world.Realism accepts real needs and real feelings only. It doesn’t believe in imagination and sentiments.Realism emphasizes on scientific subjects and neglects art and literature. This creates imbalanced curriculum.Doesn’t give any importance to ideals and values.Fails to answer illusion and faulty knowledge.