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Ibnu Khaldun

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Ibnu Khaldun

  1. 1. IBNU KHALDUN ابو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي A PHILOSOPHER, SOCIOLOGIST AND SOCIAL SCIENTIST Juffri Supa’at & Nurhazman Abdul Aziz
  2. 2. Scope <ul><li>As An Individual A Muslim Scholar </li></ul><ul><li>The Community Structure, Norms and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of the Information Sources Orthodox, Philosophy & Intellectual Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion What can we learnt </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>As An Individual </li></ul><ul><li>A Muslim Scholar </li></ul>Ibnu Khaldun
  4. 4. Biography Arab Scholar Medieval era Name Ibn Khaldun [Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī] Birth 27 May, 1332/732 AH Death 19 March, 1406/808 AH School / Tradition Ash'ari [It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic theology, separating its development radically from that of theology in the Christian world.] Main Interests Sociology, History, Historiography, Demography, Economics, Philosophy of History, Notable Ideas Asabiyah Influences Al-Razi [a fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various fields of science.] Influenced Al-Maqrizi, Social sciences [remarkable in this context for his unusually keen interest in the Ismaili Fatimid dynasty and its role in Egyptian history]
  5. 5. Quotation attributed to Ibn Khaldun <ul><li>&quot;He who finds a new path is a pathfinder, even if the trail has to be found again by others; and he who walks far ahead of his contemporaries is a leader, even though centuries pass before he is recognized as such.&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. About Ibnu Khaldun <ul><li>Abu Zayd 'Abd al-Rahman Ibnu Khaldun </li></ul><ul><li>received a good education. </li></ul><ul><li>served as assistant and secretary to several government officials. </li></ul><ul><li>career was dependent on the good will of his superiors, </li></ul><ul><li>changed jobs frequently when political winds shifted. </li></ul><ul><li>led an extremely eventful life, traveling to, among other places, Mecca, Damascus. Palestine and Seville, and occasionally finding enough leisure time to teach, study, and write. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the notable personalities Ibn Khaldun encountered in his adventures were King Pedro I of Castile and Timur. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Education & Early Years <ul><li>Family social and political activist </li></ul><ul><li>received a classical Arabic education, </li></ul><ul><li>studying the Qur'an and Arabic linguistics, the basis for an understanding of the Qur'an, Hadith [1] and Fiqh [2] </li></ul><ul><li>mathematics, logic and philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>lost both his parents to an epidemic of the plague which hit Tunis, when he was 17 years old </li></ul><ul><li>In a typical Muslim family, follow family tradition is common, that is where he strove for a political career </li></ul><ul><li>And he life adventure begin, in which he spends time in prison, reaches the highest offices and falls again into exile. </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Hadith relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Fiqh is an expansion of Islamic law, complemented by the rulings of Islamic jurists to direct the lives of Muslim </li></ul>
  8. 8. His writing <ul><li>most significant work is the Muqaddimah. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;introduction&quot; to history, he discussed historical method and provided the necessary criteria for distinguishing historical truth from error. </li></ul><ul><li>considered one of the most phenomenal works on the philosophy of history ever written where he related the social impact of a community or event. </li></ul><ul><li>In this action, this play a big impact to the Muslim society, where we are going to share about the Muqaddimah and the sociological view. </li></ul>
  9. 9. His Adventure <ul><li>continued education, social and political began </li></ul><ul><li>play an important role in the political leadership of Sevilla </li></ul><ul><li>Become a judge and held post in may courts of the Maghrib & Andalunisa (Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>one reasons why he have travel because he to find that scholar from that institution in order to fulfill his knowledge desire </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Community </li></ul><ul><li>Structure, Norms and Development </li></ul>Ibnu Khaldun
  11. 11. Muqaddimah <ul><li>What is Muqaddima? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching is a Craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An important role in providing conceptual and paradigmatic frameworks as well as an epistemological foundation of the study of human society. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. THE MAGNUM OPUS &quot;AL-MUQADDIMAH&quot; <ul><li>This impressive document is a gist of his wisdom and hard earned experience. </li></ul><ul><li>use his political and first had knowledge of the people of Maghrib to formulate many of his ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>discussion of Tribal societies and social forces would be the most interesting part of his thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>His theories of the science of Umran (sociology) are all pearls of wisdom </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Structure of Muqaddimah <ul><li>Chap 1 : Human civilization in general </li></ul><ul><li>Chap 2 : Bedouin civilization, savage nation and tribes and their condition of life, including several basic and explanatory statements </li></ul><ul><li>Chap 3 : On dynasties, royal authority, the caliphate, government ranks and all the goes with these things (basic & supplementary propositions) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Structure of Muqaddimah <ul><li>Chap 4 : Countries & cities and all forms sedentary civilization. The conditions occuring there. Primary and secondary considerations in this connection </li></ul><ul><li>Chap 5 : On the various aspects of making a living, such as profit and the crafts. The conditions that occur in this connection. A number of problems are connected with this subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Chap 6 : The various kinds of sciences. The methods of instruction. The conditions that obtain in these condition </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Norms <ul><li>Sedentary cultural is the goal of civilisation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The end of its life span and brings about it corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cities that are the seats of royal authority fall into ruin when ruling dynasty crumbles and falls into ruin </li></ul><ul><li>Certain Cities have crafts that others lack </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Norms <ul><li>The existence of group feeling in cities and the superiority of the inhabitants over others </li></ul><ul><li>The dialects of the urban population </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Community <ul><li>Nomadic (al-’umran al-badawi) </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary societies (al-’umran al-hadari) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Relevance to Contemporary Sociology <ul><li>Ibnu Khaldun and Auguste Comte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both emphasized a historical method & did not propose statistical methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both distinguished their sciences from what proceeded them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both believed human nature in the same everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both recognised the importance of social change </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Nature of the Information Sources </li></ul>Ibnu Khaldun
  20. 20. Orthodox & Philosophy <ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe the ultimate truth about man and society must referred to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quran, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the prophetic tradition (hadith) and (fiqih) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary of rational inquiry over revelation in both the theoretical & practical sciences </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Various Kinds of Intellectual Sciences <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysical & Spiritual Matters </li></ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical Sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Conclusion & Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>What can we learnt </li></ul>Ibnu Kaldun
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