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Pesticide formulations

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Pesticide formulations

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Pesticide formulations

  1. 1. Pesticide Formulations 0
  2. 2. Why Formulate Pesticides ??! • Pesticides are rarely applied in their technical form. • They are usually formulated to improve – Handling – Storage – Application – Effectiveness – Safety
  3. 3. Terminology for Formulations • AI = active ingredient, chemicals that are responsible for the pesticidal effect • Inert ingredient = any substance in a pesticide formulation having no pesticidal action • Formulation = the way a pesticide is prepared for practical use • Carrier = inert liquid or solid added to an active ingredient to prepare a pesticide formulation
  4. 4. Terminology for Formulations • Diluent = any liquid or solid material used to dilute an active ingredient. In liquid formulations, water or oil is used; in dry formulations, talc, clay or other fine dust is used • Emulsifier = a chemical that aids in suspending one liquid in another • Emulsion = a mixture of one liquid in another liquid
  5. 5. Terminology for Formulations • Wetting agent = a chemical which causes a liquid to contact surfaces more thoroughly • Suspension = a mixture of fine solid particles in a liquid • Soluble = dissolves in a liquid • Surfactant = increases the emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, and wetting properties of a formulation
  6. 6. Types of Formulations • Emulsifiable concentrates • Wettable powders • Solution • Dusts • Aerosols • Granular formulations • Baits • Microencapsulated products
  7. 7. Emulsifiable Concentrates • Designated by E or EC – Examples are Dursban 2E, Prevail TC, Gentrol, Dursban Pro, Archer, Dragnet – 2E stands for 2 lbs/gal • AI + solvent + emulsifier = EC • EC + water = emulsion • Emulsion is a fine suspension of oil droplets in water and appears milky in color • They do not require constant agitation prior to each application
  8. 8. Emulsifiable Concentrates • Advantages – Bind well to fabrics and fibers in carpet. – Easy to mix and use – Spreads evenly over foliage – Binds well to soil particles
  9. 9. Emulsifiable Concentrates • Disadvantages – Mild to strong odors – Absorption onto porous surfaces – Potential burning of plant material – Errors in mixing the concentrate with water – Some surfaces such as plastic or tile may be damaged – Can easily penetrate skin
  10. 10. Wettable Powders • Desginated by W or WP – Examples of wettable powders are Demon WP, and Tempo WP – 50WP stands for 50% WP • AI + carrier + wetting agent = WP • WP + water = suspension • Suspensions are fine particles suspended in water • Suspensions require constant agitation prior to each application
  11. 11. Wettable Powders • Advantages – No oil based solvents – Low to no odor – Little hazard of burning plants – Little hazard of penetrating skin – Do not absorb into porous surfaces, when water evaporates, powder sits on surface and is readily picked up by insects
  12. 12. Wettable Powders • Disadvantages – Inhalation of particles while mixing concentrate – Constant agitation of suspension prior to and during application – Large mesh strainer must be used (>50 mesh) in sprayers – Pumps and nozzles can be damaged by abrasion of the particles – Visible residues can occur on dark surfaces
  13. 13. Solution • Technical pesticide + diluent = solution • Designated with SP = Soluble Powder, or SC = Soluble Concentrate • Example Premise SC, Termidor SC, Bora- Care • Advantage is also a solution • Form clear liquids for spraying
  14. 14. Dusts • Designated by D – Examples of dusts are Deltadust, Ficam D, Drione, Sevin D, and malathion D – 5D represents 5% D • Technical pesticide + dry carrier = dust • Dusts cannot be mixed with water and must be applied dry • Common carriers are clay, talc, silica gel, or diatomaceous earth • Some dusts are the insecticide themselves like boric acid or diatomaceous earth
  15. 15. Dusts • Advantages – Long lasting— they often do not break down – Low odor – Easy to apply – Not absorbed into surfaces and are readily picked up by pests – If spilled, dusts can be easily cleaned up
  16. 16. Dusts • Disadvantages – Readily become airborne and can contaminate non-target surfaces – Readily inhaled by the applicator, technicians should wear a respirator for application – Can be abrasive, and eye protection should be worn
  17. 17. Aerosols • AI + solvent + propellent + nozzle = aerosol • Technical insecticide + propellent = aerosol • Examples of aerosols are Wasp Freeze, ULD-BP-50, Ultracide, UltraGuardian • Propellents may be butane
  18. 18. Aerosols • Advantages – Ease of use – Ease of storage – No dilution or storage of concentrates • Disadvantages – Expensive – Odor of solvents – Atomized droplets are easy to inhale and drift to non- target surfaces
  19. 19. Granular Formulations • Designated by G • Technical pesticide + clay = granules • Examples of granular formulations are Dursban G, Talstar G • 2.5G represents 2.5% G
  20. 20. Granular Formulations •Advantages –Low drift –Ease of application –Long residual life outdoors •Disadvantages –Water is required to release the insecticide •Although some manufacturers are overcoming this aspect –Limited to outdoor application –Application equipment must be calibrated often
  21. 21. Baits • AI + food base = bait – Food base can be liquid, meal, seed, pellet, bait block, or gel • Some baits are packaged in childproof bait trays • Examples of baits are MaxForce FC, Siege, Recruit, Drax, Dual Choice, Firstline, Niban, Amdro
  22. 22. Baits • Advantages – Easy to use – Little or no mixing – Readily control pests moving into or out of an area • Disadvantages – Other food sources compete with baits – Very specific for certain species of pests – Can be attractive to children or pets
  23. 23. Microencapsulated products • Often referred to as ME (microencapsulated emulsion), FM (flowable microencapsulated), CS (Capsulated suspension) • AI + plastic polymer + emulsifiers = ME – The capsules enclose the insecticide and protect it from degradation and release the insecticide slowly • Examples of MEs are Demand CS
  24. 24. Microencapsulated products • Advantages – Long term control – Low odor – Safety— if swallowed the capsules do not release the insecticide – No absorption into surfaces • Disadvantages – Require constant agitation – May leave visible residues on dark surfaces – Not effective in wet areas
  25. 25. Fumigants • Gaseous insecticides usually packaged under pressure and stored as liquids • Some are tablets or pellets that release gas when mixed with water • Examples of fumigants are sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane) and methyl bromide (Meth-o-gas), Phostoxin (aluminum phosphide)
  26. 26. Fumigants • Advantages – Toxic to a wide variety of pests – Good penetration of target areas – Single treatment will usually kill al pests in treated area • Disadvantages – Treated area must be closed or tented to prevent gas from escaping – Highly toxic to people
  27. 27. Thank You

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