Fractional distillation is a process of separating solutions by different boiling points. For example, when there is a lower boiling point, it evaporates quickly than the other components. By this process we can collect different types of materials and elements. Mixtures are split from one another by heating it in a column and collecting and condensing the vapours from different levels of the column.
Actually, it is not well known but it was discovered by the Greek alchemist, Alexander of Aphrodisiacs (scientist in the Middle Ages who tried to discover how to change ordinary metals into gold). After he noticed condensate on the lid of a vessel and some mercury was heated because of this, which led the result of separating mixtures of fatty acids and natural fats. It was different from today’s method, but they also used columns and tubes, so it could be separated into chemically similar groups.
The oldest record of the process dates was about 3600 B.C, it was about 48cm high and 5c in larges diameter which can contain about 2 litres of liquid. Also, the most important thing of fractional distillation is column, which is packed, was developed later in 1935. Actually, the method was getting better after 16th century. The differences between modern fractionating tower and past is that they collected steam.
The process of fractional distillation is Heat the mixture of two or more substances with different boiling points to a high temperature. Heating is usually done with high pressure.The mixture starts to boil and forming vapour. The vapours rise to the each column and filled with trays or plates. As the vapour rises through the trays in the column, it cools down the vapours, which turns into the liquid again.In different levels of the column, we can collect different liquids (vapours)
Fractional distillation is used industrially to separate petroleum fractions. Liquefied air is separated into its components by fractional distillation.
Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon is an organic chemical compound, which contains carbon and hydrogen. The interesting fact about this chemical compound is that it can be form as gases, liquids or solids depend on the form of things. They are usually found in plants, petroleum, natural gas, oil shale and more. They are used as fuels and some industrial chemicals such as plastics, dyes, drugs and other products. Actually, there are more than 100,000 hydrocarbons are known because carbon atoms can unite (combine) with many different ways to form different shapes.
By. Hae Na Lee
WHAT IS FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION?• Separating solutions • Fractionating Column• Different boiling points • Physical Properties
HISTORY OF FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION • Specifically Unknown • Greek Alchemist (Middle Ages) • Change ordinary metals into gold • Separating Mixtures of Fatty acids • Columns Tubes• Han Dynasty• Made out of Bronze• Chemical Experiments
HISTORY OF FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION • Oldest Record of the Process ( 3600 B.C) • 48cm high 5cm in large 2 liters • Steam • Developments in 16th century
HOW DOES IT WORK? 5. ‘Distillate’ is 4. The vapours received in a condenses in a receiving flask. column called Condenser 3. The vapours rise to fractional distillation column1. Heat the mixtures with 2. The mixture different boiling starts to boil and points.(High pressure) forming vapour
WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS USED FOR? Separating Crude Oil Separating Chemicals in the labAlcoholic Drinks – Spirits Creating Perfume
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION• Cost : 1 million RMB – 10 million RMB(depends on the size)• Cost to run: Depends on the capacity and types of oil• Areas : America / Russia / Middle East• Employees : 4-5 people in Europe / 10-30 people in China
WHAT ARE HYDROCARBONS?• Organic Chemical Compound• Hydrogen and Carbon• Different Properties ( Solid, Liquid, Gas) • More than 100,000 hydrocarbons • Many different uses • Crude Oil
WHAT RESEARCH IS CURRENTLY BEING DONEON FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION?
INTERESTING FACTS• The distillation process at an oil refinery consumes 2 barrels of oil in energy for every 100 barrels of refined oil• Widely use in Make-Up• It is also used in create natural food flavourings