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Horse Manure A Renewable Resource (Swinker)


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Horse Manure A Renewable Resource (Swinker)

  1. 1. <ul><li>Horse Manure: </li></ul><ul><li>A Renewable Resource </li></ul>My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast. The presentation will begin promptly at 7:00 p.m. EST. Dr. Ann Swinker
  2. 2. My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast. Horse Manure: A Renewable Resource Dr. Ann Swinker Robb Meinen Penn State University
  3. 3. Meet our presenter: <ul><li>Dr. Ann Swinker </li></ul><ul><li>Penn State University </li></ul>Mike Harper Penn State University Question facilitator:
  4. 4. Confined Animal Housing <ul><li>An attractive safe area </li></ul><ul><li>Generates manure and bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Requires more management </li></ul>
  5. 5. More Work?? <ul><li>Cleaning stalls </li></ul><ul><li>Picking up manure in paddocks /pens </li></ul>
  6. 6. Manure Management Plans Lanes & Gates Hard Surface Composting Water Drainage Neighboring Property Land Capability PLAN??
  7. 7. Must also consider… <ul><li>Zoning Regulations, Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Management Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Building Codes </li></ul><ul><li>New zoning guidelines and nutrient management regulations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Staying On Top Of the Pile <ul><li>Actively compost all stall waste </li></ul><ul><li>Stockpile manure & stall waste for crop fields needs and spread when possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Haul manure & stall waste off property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the amount of bedding used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give away </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Manure Handling Site <ul><li>Consider topography and flood patterns when developing manure facilities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not near streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not in Flood-prone areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not on steep hillsides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat, impermeable, deep water table </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Storage Sitting
  11. 11. Dry - Manure Storage <ul><li>Stock piled for future use </li></ul><ul><li>Composting on site </li></ul>
  12. 12. Both Require a Storage Site <ul><li>Select a high dry spot </li></ul><ul><li>Keep away from bodies of water </li></ul><ul><li>Easily accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Confine the pile </li></ul><ul><li>Treat any runoff </li></ul>
  13. 13. Constructing – A Hard Surface <ul><li>Concrete/macadam pad </li></ul><ul><li>Create a hard surface with layers of stone aggregate topped with finer stone. </li></ul><ul><li>Surround your storage pad with vegetation to filter out run off. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How Much ?? Waste Space <ul><li>One 1,000 lbs. horse produces ~45 lbs. manure daily+ Bedding </li></ul><ul><li>= 730 cubic feet/year of waste to manage per 1,000s of animal. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Traditional Use of Manure
  16. 16. <ul><li>Manure contains organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter is good for soil health & structure </li></ul>Manure Commercial fertilizer vs.
  17. 17. Applying Manure/Bedding Fresh <ul><li>Improve the health of grass </li></ul><ul><li>Apply according to soil test </li></ul><ul><li>Good idea to keep animals off pasture for a few days </li></ul><ul><li>When weather permits </li></ul>
  18. 18. Haul Off the Property <ul><li>Haul manure & stall waste off property </li></ul><ul><li>PA Mushroom Growers contact with horse farms to remove manure and straw. </li></ul><ul><li>Compost all stall waste </li></ul>
  19. 20. Absorption of Bedding Types Material (lbs water absorbed/lbs bedding) <ul><li>Wood Products </li></ul><ul><li>Pine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sawdust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shavings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardwood Chips </li></ul>3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 Shredded newspaper 1.6 <ul><li>Straw </li></ul><ul><li>Oats </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul>2.5 2.2 Hay (mature) 3.0
  20. 21. Composting Natural aerobic process for stabilizing organic matter Well composted manure has humus smell, 25-50% volume reduction, and destruction of pathogens and weed seeds due to heat of composting.
  21. 22. <ul><li>Simple, easy. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural biological process. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling. </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-secure. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Low odor. </li></ul><ul><li>Low fly production . </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Mechanical breakdown of large particles </li></ul><ul><li>Increase surface area for microbes </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on bacteria and fungi. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Microbial activity is related to availability of food source, surface area, moisture and oxygen availability.
  24. 26. Composting Principles
  25. 27. Cone Shaped Windrow
  26. 29. “ Chimney effect”
  27. 30. Unimproved Surface
  28. 31. Active vs. Passive Composting
  29. 32. Actively Compost Requires turning, moisture, oxygen, C:N
  30. 33. <ul><li>Properly composting manure – Heats up to 145 degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Can kill parasite eggs and weed seeds </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>C:N ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen Content (Porosity) </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture Content </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Particle Size </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Active composting occurs in the temperature range of 50 o F to 160 o F </li></ul><ul><li>Pile temperature may increase above 140 o F but this is too hot for most bacteria and decomposition will slow until temperature decreases again. </li></ul>Remember, Compost pile heat is the direct result of microbial metabolism!!!
  33. 36. So…What is a C:N Ratio? <ul><li>Supply of total carbon compared to total nitrogen in compost pile. </li></ul><ul><li>If C:N is too high the compost process will slow. </li></ul><ul><li>If C:N is too low, more likely to lose Nitrogen as ammonia gas or in leaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal initial C:N mixture range is 20 – 30:1. </li></ul><ul><li>Very important! </li></ul>
  34. 37. Weeks of Composting 2 4 6 100 140 8 Temperature (F) Curing Phase Mesophilic Thermophilic Active Phase
  35. 38. <ul><li>Need Oxygen for most efficient process. </li></ul><ul><li>21% oxygen in air. </li></ul><ul><li>5%-10% is optimal for compost process. <5% process slows. </li></ul><ul><li>As pile heats more oxygen will be consumed by microbes. </li></ul>
  36. 39. 50-65% 100 % 0% Optimal conditions for microbes Too Dry Too Wet 40-65% moisture range
  37. 40. 0 14 7 Bacteria (6.0 – 7.5) Fungi (5.5-8.0)
  38. 41. <ul><li>C:N Ratio - 20 to 30:1 </li></ul><ul><li>% Moisture - 50-65% </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen - 5-10% </li></ul><ul><li>pH - 5.5-8.2 (acceptable) </li></ul><ul><li>Particle size - 1/4 to 3 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature -110 -160 o F </li></ul>
  39. 44. Mixed sizes are preferred. Wood shavings ideal.
  40. 45. Solid Manure Storage <ul><li>Covered facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Tarp may provide cover with less cost and more labor </li></ul><ul><li>Stack or stockpile in a well-drained area for later hauling </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations may require runoff control </li></ul>
  41. 46. Sample Manure Storage
  42. 47. Choosing a Manure Storage Facility <ul><li>Land application methods </li></ul><ul><li>Type of bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Hauling, distances, volume </li></ul><ul><li>Space and size requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense!! </li></ul>
  43. 49. <ul><li>Design system to fit your goals </li></ul><ul><li>Storage area? </li></ul><ul><li>Consult sizing guide </li></ul><ul><li>Consult NRCS </li></ul><ul><li>Add another bin </li></ul>
  44. 50. Two Bin Composter Manure Compost Bin
  45. 51. Manure Management   Building a Manure Composting System for a Small Horse Operation Two bins are adequate for 2-5 horses. One bin can be composting while the other is being filled.
  46. 52. Economy Model
  47. 53. Size Matters
  48. 54. Manure Stacking Facility <ul><li>Allows for the accumulation of solids </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive method of separating liquids from solids (Not in Horses) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaching should be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Works only with solid manure waste </li></ul><ul><li>Good to have a vegetative filter area </li></ul>
  49. 55. Other Uses of Composted Horse Manure
  50. 56. Landscaping - Gardening
  51. 57. Riding Arena Footing
  52. 58. Compost- Use on Sustainable Trails as Footing
  53. 59. <ul><li>Mortality Compost Management </li></ul>
  54. 60. <ul><li>Animal bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Waste feed </li></ul><ul><li>Manure </li></ul><ul><li>Straw </li></ul><ul><li>Wood shavings, </li></ul><ul><li>sawdust, woodchips </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
  55. 62. <ul><li>Plenty of absorbent base </li></ul><ul><li>24” is ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Common to have 2 layers of mortality </li></ul>
  56. 63. For Large Animals
  57. 65. <ul><li>Turn Pile in 90 Days. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue compost for 4-6 mos. </li></ul>
  58. 66. <ul><li>Land apply after 90 more days </li></ul><ul><li>Six months total </li></ul><ul><li>Or use on new composting row </li></ul>Land Application
  59. 67. <ul><li>Bones from immature animals degrade quickly and can be land applied. </li></ul><ul><li>Big bones from mature animals may need to be picked out. </li></ul>Bone Disposal
  60. 68. Vegetative Buffer Strips <ul><li>Inexpensive to install ? </li></ul><ul><li>Removes some solids from liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance is not easy </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be long and flat </li></ul><ul><li>Channel flow reduces effectiveness </li></ul>
  61. 69. Odors <ul><li>Remember downwind neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>You might like the smell of manure but your neighbors will not </li></ul>
  62. 70. Factors Affecting Odor Release and Dispersion 3. Source concentration 2. Area <ul><li>Wind speed </li></ul>1. Temperature 2. Wind speed 3. Topography
  63. 71. Summary - Manure Management <ul><li>Each farm should have a plan for managing manure spreading and disposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Store manure in a dry, level, impermeable location free from storm-water runoff. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage storm-water to prevent manure contamination of water and eliminate runoff. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively compost manure and bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Control animal access to manure pile sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual – out of sight-out of mind </li></ul>
  64. 72. Questions????
  65. 73. Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University please visit us at: | | 517-353-3123