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Beer ingredients

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Beer ingredients

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Beer ingredients

  1. 1. Understanding BeerUnderstanding Beer IngredientsIngredients
  2. 2. AdjunctAdjunct  Any fermentableAny fermentable ingredient added to beeringredient added to beer other than malted barleyother than malted barley
  3. 3. AttenuationAttenuation  Measure of how muchMeasure of how much dissolved solids in thedissolved solids in the wort will be fermentedwort will be fermented  difference between thedifference between the starting specific gravitystarting specific gravity and the final specificand the final specific gravitygravity
  4. 4. BarmBarm  To add or pitch yeastTo add or pitch yeast  foam on top of afoam on top of a fermenting beer or afermenting beer or a glass of finished beerglass of finished beer
  5. 5. BrixBrix  Measurement of originalMeasurement of original sugar amountsugar amount
  6. 6. MashingMashing  Process to make wortProcess to make wort  Malt ground up into small piecesMalt ground up into small pieces  Malted barley is immersed in water at aMalted barley is immersed in water at a controlled temperature to allow enzymescontrolled temperature to allow enzymes in the barley to convert starch to sugarin the barley to convert starch to sugar  Temperature raised to 150-160 FTemperature raised to 150-160 F  Diastatic enzymes activate and convert theDiastatic enzymes activate and convert the soluble starches to sugarssoluble starches to sugars  Spent grains removed from the liquidSpent grains removed from the liquid
  7. 7. ModificationModification  The level to which the starchyThe level to which the starchy endosperm is allowed to alter orendosperm is allowed to alter or modify into the growing acrospiremodify into the growing acrospire  The longer modification occurs,The longer modification occurs, the easier the mashing stage isthe easier the mashing stage is laterlater
  8. 8. Original GravityOriginal Gravity  Density of malt and other sugarsDensity of malt and other sugars  Estimate of how much of the sugarsEstimate of how much of the sugars will be consumed by the yeastwill be consumed by the yeast (extent of attenuation)(extent of attenuation)
  9. 9. WortWort  Malt juices that emerge from theMalt juices that emerge from the malted grains after being steepedmalted grains after being steeped in water at a specific temperaturein water at a specific temperature to release sugarsto release sugars
  10. 10. IngredientsIngredients  Four basic ingredients usedFour basic ingredients used  WaterWater  Fermentable sugars fromFermentable sugars from malted grainsmalted grains  HopsHops  YeastYeast
  11. 11. Grains and MaltGrains and Malt  Grains need to be soaked to start the sprouting processGrains need to be soaked to start the sprouting process (Modification)(Modification)  Converts the starches into usable sugars that the yeast canConverts the starches into usable sugars that the yeast can act upon to produce alcoholact upon to produce alcohol  Allowed to steep in water for a few days and then allowed toAllowed to steep in water for a few days and then allowed to germinategerminate  On average, moisture content of the barley is allowed toOn average, moisture content of the barley is allowed to reach 40-45 percentreach 40-45 percent  Germination and drying develops sugars, soluble starches andGermination and drying develops sugars, soluble starches and starch to sugar converting enzymes (Diastase)starch to sugar converting enzymes (Diastase)
  12. 12. Grains and MaltGrains and Malt  Traditional germination takesTraditional germination takes place on a stone floorplace on a stone floor  wet malt converted to ‘green malt’wet malt converted to ‘green malt’  Racked regularly to aerate and toRacked regularly to aerate and to separateseparate  Floor-malting very labor intensiveFloor-malting very labor intensive but may work better due to thebut may work better due to the hands on carehands on care  Shallow layer which influencesShallow layer which influences temperature and moisturetemperature and moisture
  13. 13. Grains and MaltGrains and Malt  Can be done on a sieved floorCan be done on a sieved floor over a fireover a fire  Fire could be made up of sodFire could be made up of sod (peat) or wood(peat) or wood  Produces a smoky tasting beerProduces a smoky tasting beer  Most today dried over warm orMost today dried over warm or hot air without the exposure tohot air without the exposure to smokesmoke
  14. 14. BarleyBarley  Soft, sweetish flavorsSoft, sweetish flavors  Different styles of barleyDifferent styles of barley  Winter barley is hardier, more robustWinter barley is hardier, more robust  Spring barley, softer and cleanerSpring barley, softer and cleaner
  15. 15. BarleyBarley  Two rowTwo row  Preferred by othersPreferred by others  Higher extract and less huskHigher extract and less husk  Six rowSix row  Preferred by U.S. breweriesPreferred by U.S. breweries  Higher starch degrading enzymesHigher starch degrading enzymes  Works better with other adjuncts such as rice and cornWorks better with other adjuncts such as rice and corn
  16. 16. WheatWheat  Tarter notesTarter notes OatsOats  Oily smoothnessOily smoothness RyeRye  Hint of spicinessHint of spiciness
  17. 17. CornCorn  Lighter in taste and bodyLighter in taste and body  If used in the form of grits (flakes) or syrups give aIf used in the form of grits (flakes) or syrups give a chicken feed flavorchicken feed flavor RiceRice  cleaner, crisper flavorcleaner, crisper flavor
  18. 18. Specialty MaltsSpecialty Malts Black Malt (Black Patent)Black Malt (Black Patent)  Roasting the malted barley at very high temperaturesRoasting the malted barley at very high temperatures  Drive off all of the aromaticsDrive off all of the aromatics  Used mainly for coloring beerUsed mainly for coloring beer  Give a dry burnt flavorGive a dry burnt flavor  No enzymes availableNo enzymes available
  19. 19. Chocolate MaltChocolate Malt  Dark brown produced by the roasting of maltedDark brown produced by the roasting of malted barleybarley  Lighter in color than black maltLighter in color than black malt  Retains some aromatics and flavorRetains some aromatics and flavor  Gives a nutty toasted flavorGives a nutty toasted flavor  No enzymes availableNo enzymes available
  20. 20. Crystal Malt (Caramel Malt)Crystal Malt (Caramel Malt)  Made from green maltMade from green malt  Not been kiln driedNot been kiln dried  Produced by drying the wet barley at controlledProduced by drying the wet barley at controlled temperaturestemperatures  Gently dried for a short period of timeGently dried for a short period of time  Then malt is mashed and temperature is raised toThen malt is mashed and temperature is raised to boilingboiling  Most starch converted to sugar quicklyMost starch converted to sugar quickly  Remains in a liquid state while warm but crystallizes whenRemains in a liquid state while warm but crystallizes when it coolsit cools
  21. 21. Crystal Malt (Caramel malt)Crystal Malt (Caramel malt)  Some soluble starches do not fermentSome soluble starches do not ferment  Therefore increases the sweetness and body of the beerTherefore increases the sweetness and body of the beer  Aids in head retentionAids in head retention  Enriches the color (gold or reddish glow)Enriches the color (gold or reddish glow)  Come in different color levels (light, medium, brown)Come in different color levels (light, medium, brown)  No enzymes availableNo enzymes available
  22. 22. Roasted BarleyRoasted Barley  Roasting unmalted barley at high temperaturesRoasting unmalted barley at high temperatures  Temperature gradually increased to almost 400 FTemperature gradually increased to almost 400 F  Gains a rich dark brown color (used in stouts)Gains a rich dark brown color (used in stouts)  Distinctive roasted flavor and bitternessDistinctive roasted flavor and bitterness  No enzymes availableNo enzymes available
  23. 23. Other SugarsOther Sugars GlucoseGlucose  Rapidly fermentable sugarRapidly fermentable sugar  Also knows as dextrose (comes from the chemical conversionAlso knows as dextrose (comes from the chemical conversion of starch to sugar) and corn sugarof starch to sugar) and corn sugar Fructose (levulose)Fructose (levulose)  Very rapid fermentable sugarVery rapid fermentable sugar  Sweetest tastingSweetest tasting LactoseLactose  Not fermentable in beer (will remain the same)Not fermentable in beer (will remain the same)  Can add to get some sweetness and bodyCan add to get some sweetness and body MaltoseMaltose  Two glucose moleculesTwo glucose molecules  Fermentable in beer but takes longer to occurFermentable in beer but takes longer to occur
  24. 24. Sucrose (Invert)Sucrose (Invert)  Combination of glucose and fructoseCombination of glucose and fructose  Rapidly fermentable by yeastRapidly fermentable by yeast  Occurs naturally in maltOccurs naturally in malt  Invert produced by using an acid treatmentInvert produced by using an acid treatment
  25. 25. Cane and Beet SugarsCane and Beet Sugars  Almost 100% sucroseAlmost 100% sucrose  Cheaper to useCheaper to use  Can increase the alcohol contentCan increase the alcohol content  Lightens the flavor of the beerLightens the flavor of the beer  Use more than 30% of the fermentable sugar for aUse more than 30% of the fermentable sugar for a beerbeer  Produces a cidery flavorProduces a cidery flavor
  26. 26. Corn SugarCorn Sugar  Most commonly used productMost commonly used product  Processed from refined cornProcessed from refined corn  Lightens the body and flavor of the beerLightens the body and flavor of the beer  if more than 20% used for the beer’s fermentableif more than 20% used for the beer’s fermentable sugarssugars  produces a dry cidery flavorproduces a dry cidery flavor  normally used as a priming sugar during bottlingnormally used as a priming sugar during bottling  ¾ cup sugar dissolved in 2 cups water for every¾ cup sugar dissolved in 2 cups water for every five gallons of beerfive gallons of beer
  27. 27. Brown SugarsBrown Sugars  Refined white sugars with some molasses added to itRefined white sugars with some molasses added to it  Should be boiled in the wort before fermentationShould be boiled in the wort before fermentation
  28. 28. MolassesMolasses  Uncrystalized sugar impurities that are removed when sugar isUncrystalized sugar impurities that are removed when sugar is refinedrefined  Some are fermentableSome are fermentable  Will add color and flavor to the beerWill add color and flavor to the beer  Very strong flavor (limit the amount of use)Very strong flavor (limit the amount of use)  Adds a rich and buttery flavorAdds a rich and buttery flavor  Three gradesThree grades  Light (higher sucrose)Light (higher sucrose)  MediumMedium  Blackstrap (less sugar, more aromatics)Blackstrap (less sugar, more aromatics)  Should be boiled with the wortShould be boiled with the wort  For carbonation, 1 cup molasses for five gallons of beerFor carbonation, 1 cup molasses for five gallons of beer
  29. 29. Corn SyrupCorn Syrup  Different varieties have different sugar levelsDifferent varieties have different sugar levels  Some highly fermentableSome highly fermentable  Some will have unfermentable sugars which will add someSome will have unfermentable sugars which will add some sweetnesssweetness  Only use brewing gradesOnly use brewing grades  Household varieties will have some flavorings andHousehold varieties will have some flavorings and preservatives added to the mixpreservatives added to the mix  Needs to be boiledNeeds to be boiled
  30. 30. HoneyHoney  Derived from the nectar of flowersDerived from the nectar of flowers  Many different types of sugars foundMany different types of sugars found  High degree of fermentable sugarsHigh degree of fermentable sugars  Also contains sugar ripening enzymes, wild yeast spores,Also contains sugar ripening enzymes, wild yeast spores, pollen, beeswax and waterpollen, beeswax and water  Gives a dry crispness, lighter body and higher alcoholGives a dry crispness, lighter body and higher alcohol  use in amounts less than 30 %use in amounts less than 30 %  Must be used with barley malt to provide nutrients forMust be used with barley malt to provide nutrients for the yeast in fermentationthe yeast in fermentation  Always boil to pasteurize it (extra matter can be skimmedAlways boil to pasteurize it (extra matter can be skimmed off)off)
  31. 31. Irish MossIrish Moss  Negatively charged ionsNegatively charged ions  Combine with the positively charged precipitatedCombine with the positively charged precipitated proteins during the boil to bond and remove themproteins during the boil to bond and remove them from the wortfrom the wort
  32. 32. WaterWater  Over 90% of beer is waterOver 90% of beer is water  Water quality very importantWater quality very important  Contributes to the specific brewingContributes to the specific brewing styles of various regionsstyles of various regions  Related to the amount of dissolved saltsRelated to the amount of dissolved salts and mineralsand minerals
  33. 33. CalciumCalcium  increases the extract from both the hops and maltincreases the extract from both the hops and malt during mashingduring mashing  decreases colordecreases color  reduces haze by allowing the yeast to more easilyreduces haze by allowing the yeast to more easily sediment outsediment out  removes proteins, tannins and husk flavors from theremoves proteins, tannins and husk flavors from the wortwort
  34. 34. SulfateSulfate  Enhances hop bitterness and drynessEnhances hop bitterness and dryness SodiumSodium  Enhances other flavors allowing for the beer to taste betterEnhances other flavors allowing for the beer to taste better ChlorideChloride  Fuller textureFuller texture  Enhances sweetnessEnhances sweetness DissociationDissociation  Splitting of chemical compounds into ionsSplitting of chemical compounds into ions  Ions are available to bond and interact with other ingredientsIons are available to bond and interact with other ingredients
  35. 35. HopsHops
  36. 36. HopsHops  ‘‘to climb’to climb’  Cone like flowers that grow on vinesCone like flowers that grow on vines  Provide a degree of bitterness to balanceProvide a degree of bitterness to balance the sweetness of the maltthe sweetness of the malt  Settles and preserve beerSettles and preserve beer  Enhances head retentionEnhances head retention  Hops added at the beginning of the boilHops added at the beginning of the boil impart dryness and bitternessimpart dryness and bitterness
  37. 37. HopsHops  Only been used for approximately the last 200Only been used for approximately the last 200 yearsyears  Majority comes from Germany, southernMajority comes from Germany, southern England, southern Australia, Tasmania andEngland, southern Australia, Tasmania and Washington StateWashington State  Many different varieties with individualMany different varieties with individual characteristicscharacteristics  Based upon bitterness, flavor and aromaBased upon bitterness, flavor and aroma  Very perishable (heat and oxygen)Very perishable (heat and oxygen)  Normally dried to preserve characteristicsNormally dried to preserve characteristics
  38. 38. LupulinLupulin  Small capsules of resin located at theSmall capsules of resin located at the base of the flower (yellowish powder)base of the flower (yellowish powder)  Will go rancid due to oxidationWill go rancid due to oxidation  When rubbed, capsules will releaseWhen rubbed, capsules will release aromatic oils along with the resinaromatic oils along with the resin
  39. 39. Hop BitternessHop Bitterness  Two types of hop resinsTwo types of hop resins  Alpha and betaAlpha and beta  Alpha acids contribute the highest amount ofAlpha acids contribute the highest amount of bitternessbitterness  Expressed in terms of alpha acid percentageExpressed in terms of alpha acid percentage  Measured in the weight relative to the weight of theMeasured in the weight relative to the weight of the hop flowerhop flower  Example 6% alpha acid (A.A.U.) would compriseExample 6% alpha acid (A.A.U.) would comprise 6% of the hop flower’s weight6% of the hop flower’s weight
  40. 40. Hop BitternessHop Bitterness  Resins not soluble in waterResins not soluble in water  Therefore, must boil the hops into theTherefore, must boil the hops into the wort for a period of time to ensurewort for a period of time to ensure proper mixingproper mixing  4-5.5 % low bittering value4-5.5 % low bittering value  5.5 – 8 %, medium range5.5 – 8 %, medium range  8 – 13 % very powerful bittering value8 – 13 % very powerful bittering value
  41. 41. IsomerizationIsomerization  Allows the alpha acids to becomeAllows the alpha acids to become soluble in watersoluble in water  Beta acids only soluble whenBeta acids only soluble when oxidized (not desirable)oxidized (not desirable)
  42. 42. International Bitterness UnitsInternational Bitterness Units  a given amount of IBUs in a beera given amount of IBUs in a beer does not equate to the same amountdoes not equate to the same amount of bitterness perceivedof bitterness perceived  1 IBU = 1 mg of isomerized alpha1 IBU = 1 mg of isomerized alpha acid in 1 liter of wort or beeracid in 1 liter of wort or beer
  43. 43. Homebrew Bitterness UnitHomebrew Bitterness Unit  Formula used to switch betweenFormula used to switch between different styles of hops but to retain thedifferent styles of hops but to retain the same level of bitternesssame level of bitterness  HBU = % alpha acid of hops x ouncesHBU = % alpha acid of hops x ounces of hopsof hops
  44. 44. Finishing HopsFinishing Hops  Flavor of the hops stored within the oilsFlavor of the hops stored within the oils inside the lupilin glandinside the lupilin gland  Soluble in water and very volatile inSoluble in water and very volatile in naturenature  Essence will be destroyed if boiled for aEssence will be destroyed if boiled for a long period of timelong period of time  Added within the last 15 minutes of theAdded within the last 15 minutes of the boilboil
  45. 45. Hop OilsHop Oils  Very small amounts can be used to addVery small amounts can be used to add aroma or flavoraroma or flavor  Added in at the end of the boil orAdded in at the end of the boil or just before bottlingjust before bottling  Not water solubleNot water soluble  Must be dissolved in a solventMust be dissolved in a solvent
  46. 46. Hop PelletsHop Pellets  Pulverized hop flowers compressed and extrudedPulverized hop flowers compressed and extruded into pelletsinto pellets  Very little storage spaceVery little storage space  Hard to remove from the wortHard to remove from the wort  better control the freshness of the hopsbetter control the freshness of the hops  Perishable over timePerishable over time  Can blend different styles of hops to come outCan blend different styles of hops to come out with an overall desired effectwith an overall desired effect
  47. 47. Hop ExtractsHop Extracts  Liquid bittering essence of the hopsLiquid bittering essence of the hops  Have no flavor and aroma valueHave no flavor and aroma value  Very bitterVery bitter Hop plugsHop plugs  Whole hop flowers compressed intoWhole hop flowers compressed into half oz diskshalf oz disks
  48. 48. Dry HoppingDry Hopping  Fresh hops added during maturation orFresh hops added during maturation or conditioningconditioning  ¼ oz per 5 gallons of beer¼ oz per 5 gallons of beer  Heighten the aroma and flavorHeighten the aroma and flavor  Have the problem of bacterialHave the problem of bacterial contamination from the addition withoutcontamination from the addition without boilingboiling
  49. 49. YeastYeast
  50. 50. AlesAles  Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSaccharomyces cerevisiae  Use a top fermenting yeast, producing a foamy headUse a top fermenting yeast, producing a foamy head (flocculation)(flocculation)  Not totally efficientNot totally efficient  Leave behind certain sugars and estersLeave behind certain sugars and esters  Give a fruity complexityGive a fruity complexity  Temperature from 59 F to 77FTemperature from 59 F to 77F  Typically spend one week in primary fermentationTypically spend one week in primary fermentation  Warm conditioning enhances the fruity flavorsWarm conditioning enhances the fruity flavors  cold maturation makes cleaner and rounder flavorscold maturation makes cleaner and rounder flavors
  51. 51. LagersLagers  Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (uvarum)Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (uvarum)  Bottom fermentation yeastBottom fermentation yeast  Typically spend 2 weeks at primaryTypically spend 2 weeks at primary fermentationfermentation  Work at colder temperatures more slowlyWork at colder temperatures more slowly than ale yeasts 41-48 F (can get down to 32than ale yeasts 41-48 F (can get down to 32 F)F)  Consume more of the sugarConsume more of the sugar  Dryer, cleaner flavorDryer, cleaner flavor

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