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Rizal in the 19th Century Philippines
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Rizal in 19th Century - World Events

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Rizal in 19th Century - World Events

  1. 1. THE CHALLENGES AND RESPONSES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY Mindanao State University – General Santo City History 5 – O17 June 20, 2014
  2. 2. The meaning and importance of a man’s task can be understood and appreciated when viewed within a time frame and its proper historical context. To better understand and appreciate the role of Jose Rizal in the making of a Filipino nation, one has to know the developments in the century when he lived, the period when he worked.
  3. 3. NINETEENTH CENTURY Era of challenges and responses A period of major changes which affected men and society
  4. 4. 6 IMPORTANT CHANGES INTHE 19TH CENTURY 1. Struggle for nationalism 2. Gradual spread of democracy 3. Modernization of living through the Industrial Revolution 4. Advance of Science 5. March of Imperialism 6. New Current in the movement of thought and growing confidence on progress
  6. 6. NATIONS STRUGGLE FOR NATIONALISM A feeling of oneness by a group of people wo believe that they possess common traditions, culture and common ideals or goals.
  7. 7. French Revolution (1779-1789) Overthrowing of absolutism American Revolution (1775-1783) Independence from Great Britain
  8. 8. HOWTO RUNTHE GOVERNMENT? Country should be free from domination and that a country should enjoy liberty, equality and opportunity In the “good old days” when monarchs and kings ruled over the subjects
  9. 9. Greece became independent nation from the Turks on 1830. Norwegians won their freedom from Swedes in 1905. Italy became a free and united nation through the work of Camillo Cavour, Joseph Mazzini and Joseph Garibaldi in 1861. Germany was united led by Iron Chancellor Otto von Bismarck who adopted the policy of “blood and iron” in 1871.
  10. 10. 1867 1800 - 1825 Simon Bolivar “The Liberator” (Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia and part of Peru) Jose San Martin “The Liberator” (Argentina, Chile and part of Peru)
  11. 11. MEN FIGHT FOR DEMOCRACY Political ideas of the nineteenth century
  12. 12. EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ARE MULTIFARIOUS Series of changes in the industry: a. From hand work to machine work b. Domestic system to the factory system
  13. 13. BEGAN IN ENGLAND IN 1760 Manufacturing  Spinning jenny  Spinning frame  Spinning shuttle  Cotton gin  Sewing machine
  14. 14. Transportation  Steam boats  Steam locomotives  Airplanes  Automobiles  Balloons
  15. 15. Communication  Telephone  Telegraph  Wireless telegraphy  Cable  Postal service  Newspapers
  16. 16.  Establishment of factories  Employment of thousands of workers  Large scale production of manufacturing goods  Commodities became cheaper  Towns and cities grew  Improved standard of living  Division of labor practiced (capitalists and laborers)
  17. 17.  Increase in population  Advances in medical knowledge and public hygiene  Opening of more lands for cultivation and commercialization  Increase in national income  Encouraged migration
  19. 19. LIBERALS  Adopted the laissez-faire policy to stimulate the growth of factories  Allow everybody to expand as much as he wished in his individual enterprises  Industrialists became powerful and rich  Working men became poorer  Unemployment and misery resulted
  20. 20. SOCIALISTS  Government should own and manage the means of production  Benefit of all and not only for a few individuals  As long as the capitalists controlled the economic life of people, no democracy  Claude Henri, Francois Fourier and Robert Owen
  21. 21. COMMUNISTS  Authored Communist Manifesto  Earliest socialists that reforms could be achieved gradually and peacefully through normal political methods and with compensation for the private owners  Only a violent revolution could improved the lot of workingmen  Advocated  abolition of private property in land  centralization of all means of production in the hands of the state  abolition of all rights of inheritance  Confiscation of the property of emigrants and rebels  Universal and equal obligation of work
  22. 22. CATHOLICISM  Pope Leo XIII in Reform Novarum (The Conditions of Labor)  Rights must be religiously respected  Duty of public authority to prevent and punish injury  Poor and helpless have special consideration upon questioning its rights  State has the right to regulate the use of private property and to protect it  Workers have the right to form unions
  23. 23. SCIENCE BECOMES THE SERVANT OF MAN Soul of the Nineteenth century
  24. 24. MODERN IMPERIALISM STARTS A PROCESS OF HISTORIC CHANGE Activity of a nation in extending its control and authority beyond its territorial boundaries through the acquisition of new territories Purpose of securing rea materials, markets for manufactured products, additional food supplies, outlets for surplus population and fields for investment of surplus capital
  25. 25. GROWING CONFIDENCE ON PROGRESS INSPIRES OPTIMISM Man made considerable progress in various fields
  26. 26.  Democracy  Education  Science  Public Health  Literature  Music  Art
  27. 27. “The divine flame of thought is inextinguishable among Filipino people and in some way or another it has to shine and make it known. It is not possible to brutalize the inhabitants of the Philippines.”
  28. 28. QUESTIONSTO LIVE BY 1. Why is nationalism a desirable national goal? 2. Why is industrialism a continuing concern of society? 3. Do you agree with Rizal’s point of view that the pursuit of science is an ideal of man?Why?
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