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Ohchr Huridocs Indicators


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Ohchr Huridocs Indicators

  1. 1. Using Indicators to Promote and Monitor the Implementation of Human Rights Nicolas Fasel, UN-OHCHR Geneva, 14-18 January 2008 Workshop - HURIDOCS
  2. 2. Outline - OHCHR work on indicators <ul><li>Context and background </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Salient features of the framework </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Status of work </li></ul>
  3. 3. Context and background <ul><li>Request from Human Rights Treaty Bodies (ICM) for assistance in making use of statistical information </li></ul><ul><li>Report (HRI/MC/2006/7) outlining preliminary conceptual/methodological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Request for further validation, including through country level piloting, and </li></ul><ul><li>to develop further lists of indicators for additional human rights </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rationale for indicators <ul><li>Tools to complement qualitative and quasi-judicial assessments </li></ul><ul><li>to facilitate implementation of human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Measure progress / help setting priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen transparency and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate self-assessment by State and reporting to treaty bodies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Salient features of the framework <ul><li>Reflect the normative framework and content of HR in indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Common approach for CPR and ESCR, strengthening indivisibility of HR </li></ul><ul><li>Translate narrative on normative content of HR into attributes and configuration of structural, process and outcome indicators </li></ul>
  6. 6. Salient features of the framework <ul><li>Configuration of indicators to assess steps taken by State party in addressing its obligations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from commitment/acceptance of human rights standards (structural indicators); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to efforts being undertaken to meet the obligations that flow from standards (process indicators); and on to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>results of those efforts (outcome indicators) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Salient features of the framework <ul><li>Structural indicators </li></ul><ul><li>reflect ratification / adoption of legal instruments and existence of basic institutional mechanisms deemed necessary for facilitating realisation of concerned right </li></ul><ul><li>Process indicators </li></ul><ul><li>relate the state policy instruments with milestones (which cumulate into outcomes), hence capture accountability as well as the notion of progressive realisation </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome indicators </li></ul><ul><li>capture attainments, individual and collective, that reflect the status of realisation of the human rights in given context </li></ul>
  8. 8. Salient features of the framework <ul><li>A framework that helps identify contextually meaningful indicators based on accepted universal standards </li></ul><ul><li>helps reflect human rights norms and principles (e.g. non-discrimination and equality, effective remedies, participation, empowerment, accountability) in indicators </li></ul>
  9. 9. Salient features of the framework <ul><li>Focus on indicators reflecting HR concern of non-discrimination and accessibility to relevant goods & services </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on disaggregation of data / indicators by prohibited grounds of discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>An illustrative – not an exhaustive – listing of indicators </li></ul>
  10. 10. Salient features of the framework <ul><li>Focus on two categories of data-generating mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statistical survey/administrative records (official statistical systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ events-based data” on HUMAN RIGHTS violations” (HR organisations and non-governmental sources) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Households perception/opinion surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data based on expert judgments </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Illustration: right to adequate food Prop. of pop. below minimum level of dietary energy consumption* (…) Per capita availability of major food items of local consumption Number of recorded deaths/incidence of food poisoning related to adulterated food <ul><li>Prop. of underweight children below age five* </li></ul><ul><li>Prop. adults with body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 </li></ul>Outcome indicators Share of household consumption of major food items fur vulnerable population met through publicly assisted programmes (…) <ul><li>Proportion of per capita availability of major food items sourced through domestic production, import and food aid </li></ul><ul><li>Share of public budget spent on strengthening domestic agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>(…) </li></ul>Prop. of food producing and distributing establishments inspected for food quality standards (…) Prop. of vulnerable population covered under public nutrition supplement programmes (…) Process indicators <ul><li>International human rights instruments, relevant to the right to adequate food, ratified by the State </li></ul><ul><li>Date of entry into force and coverage of the right to adequate food in the Constitution or other forms of superior law </li></ul><ul><li>Type of accreditation of NHRIs by the rules of procedures of the International Coordinating Committee of National Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>(...) </li></ul>Structural indicators Food accessibility Food availability Food safety and consumer protection Nutrition
  12. 12. Illustration: right to health <ul><li>Maternal mortality ratio </li></ul>Prop. of births attended by skilled health personnel (…) Reproductive health Prop. of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis (…) Incidence of death associated with and prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases Incidence of deaths, injury and diseases caused by unsafe natural and occupational environment <ul><li>Under-five mortality rate </li></ul>Outcome indicators Prop. of population covered by health insurance (…) <ul><li>Prop. of population covered under awareness raising programmes on transmission of diseases (e.g. HIV/AIDS) (…) </li></ul>Prop. of population with access to improved sanitation (…) Prop. of one-year-olds immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) (…) Process indicators <ul><li>International human rights treaties, relevant to the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, ratified by the State </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated proportion of births and deaths recorded through vital registration system </li></ul><ul><li>Timeframe and coverage of national policy on health (…) </li></ul>Structural indicators Accessibility to health facilities and essential medicines Prevention, treatment and control of diseases Natural and occupational environment Child mortatliy and health care
  13. 13. Illustration: right to life Executions under death penalty in the reporting period (…) Under five mortality rate (…) Reported cases of disappearances (…) <ul><li>Reported cases of arbitrary deprivation of life </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence of homicides per 100,000 population </li></ul><ul><li>(…) </li></ul>Outcome indicators Number of convicted persons on death row (…) Prop. of population with sustainable access to an improved water source (…) Proportion of communications transmitted by UN Working Group on disappearances clarified by government (…) Proportion of communications sent by the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions responded to effectively by government (…) Process indicators <ul><li>International human rights instruments, relevant to the right to life, ratified by the State </li></ul><ul><li>Date of entry into force and coverage of domestic laws for implementing the right to life </li></ul><ul><li>(...) </li></ul>Structural indicators Death penalty Health and nutrition Disappearance of individuals Arbitrary deprivation of life
  14. 14. Status of the work <ul><li>List of illustrative indicators on : </li></ul><ul><li>right to life </li></ul><ul><li>right to liberty and security of person </li></ul><ul><li>right to participate in public affairs </li></ul><ul><li>right not to be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment </li></ul><ul><li>+ right to a fair trial </li></ul><ul><li>+ right to freedom of opinion and expression </li></ul><ul><li>right to adequate food </li></ul><ul><li>right to health </li></ul><ul><li>right to adequate housing </li></ul><ul><li>right to education </li></ul><ul><li>+ right to work </li></ul><ul><li>+ right to social security </li></ul>Development of “metasheets” on each indicator (definition, sources, rationale, method of computation, level of disaggregation, periodicity, comments and limitations)
  15. 15. Validation process <ul><li>Ongoing regional/country level workshops and consultation (Uganda, Guatemala, India, Brazil) </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of conceptual and methodological framework being recognised by national human rights stakeholders (NHRIs, national statistical agency, policy makers and NGOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from validations being reflected in indicators lists and/or metasheets </li></ul>