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Pragmatics

PRESENTATION ON PRAGMATICS

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Pragmatics

  1. 1. PRAGMATICS Presented by Amal Assadawy 1 Roll No 31351038
  2. 2. Introduction Theterm“pragmatics”wasfirstcoinedinthe1930s bythephilosopherC.W.Morris;developedasa subfieldoflinguisticsinthe1970s. Pragmaticsisneededifwewantafuller,deeper,and generallymorereasonableaccountofhuman languagebehavior 2
  3. 3. Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others. (David Crystal) Definitions 3
  4. 4. - “The study of contextual meaning communicated by a speaker or writer, and interpreted by a listener or reader.” (G.Yule) “The study of the relation of signs to their interpreters.” (Charles Morris) - “The study of the relations between linguistic forms and its users(…)Only pragmatics allows humans into the analysis: their assumptions, purposes, goals, and actions they perform while speaking.” (G.Yule) Continue… 4
  5. 5. 1- THE STUDY OF SPEAKER MEANING WHAT PEOPLE MEAN by their utterances rather than what the words or phrases might mean by themselves. Pragmatic Meaning 5
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  7. 7. 7 2- The study of contextual meaning Importance of the CONTEXT: the circumstances and the audience or public.
  8. 8. 8 3-The study of how more gets communicated than said. • The INFERENCES made by listeners or readers in order to arrive at an interpretation of the intended meaning. • A great deal of what is UNSAID is recognized as part of what is communicated. • The study of “invisible meaning”
  9. 9. 9 4-The study of the expression of relative distance The CLOSENESS or DISTANCE of the listener or reader determines how much needs to be said. For example: A: there is a store over there (Let‘s go inside) B: no (I don‘t want to go inside) A: why not? (why do you not want to go inside?) B: I‘m tired. (I don‘t want to because I‘m tired.)
  10. 10. 10 IN OTHER WORDS … PRAGMATICS studies HOW PEOPLE MAKE SENSE OF EACH OTHER LINGUISTICALLY. For example: A: So_ did you? B: Hey_ who wouldn’t? Two friends in a conversation may imply some things and infer some others without providing any clear linguistic evidence. So, pragmatics requires us to make sense of what people have in mind.
  11. 11. pragmatics is the study of the contribution of context to meaning. Context of an utterance consists of- speaker, the sentence which is uttered, the act performed in the uttering of sentence, and the hearer. In pragmatics four types of context can be differentiated : Context 11
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  13. 13. 13 Continue… Physical context: The physical context is the location of a given word, the situation in which it is used, as well as timing, all of which aid proper understating of the words Epistemic context: the epistemic context refers to what speakers know about the world. For example, what background knowledge is shared by the speakers is part of your epistemic knowledge.
  14. 14. 14 Continue .. Linguistic context: the linguistic context refers to what has been said already in the utterance. For example, if I begin a discussion by referring to Jane Smith and in the next sentence refer to "her" as being a top notch athlete, the linguistic context lets me know that the antecedent of "her" (the person "her" refers to) is Jane Smith. Social context: the social context refers to the social relationship among speakers and hearers.
  15. 15. 15 DEIXIS DEIXIS: “pointing via langauge” To accomplish this pointing we use deictic expressions or indexicals. i.e: “What’s that?” (used to indicate sth. in the immediate context.) Deictic expressions depend on the speaker and hearer sharing the same spatial context, in face-to face spoken interaction.
  16. 16. 16 Types of deictic expressions : Person deixis: used to point people. (me, you) Place deixis : used to point location in time (now, then). i.e: “I’ll put this here, ok?” Time deixis: used to point to a time " now, then, tonight, last week "
  17. 17. 17 REFERENCE AND INFERENCE REFERENCE: an act in which a speaker or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener or reader, to identify something. Words in themselves do not refer anything. People refer. REFERRING EXPRESSIONS: linguistic forms like proper nouns, definite or indefinite noun phrases, and pronouns. The choice of one type of these expressions rather than another is based on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows.
  18. 18. 18 FOR EXAMPLE: “Look at him” (use of pronoun) “The woman in red” (definite article) “A woman was looking at you” (indefinite article and pronoun)  So, reference is tied to the speaker’s goals and beliefs about the listener knowledge in the use of language.
  19. 19. 19 INFERENCE For successful reference to occur, we must recognize the role of INFERENCE and COLLABORATION between speaker and listener in thinking what the other has in mind. Sometimes we use vague expressions relying on the listener’s ability to infer what referent we have in mind: i.e: “The blue thing”, “That stuff” We sometimes even invent names.
  20. 20. 20 THE ROLE OF CO-TEXT Co- text: the linguistic environment in which a word is used. The co-text clearly limits our range of possible interpretations we might have for a word. i.e: “Brazil wins World Cup” Brazil would be the referring expression, and the rest of the sentence the co-text.
  21. 21. 21 CO- TEXT CONTEXT Just a linguistic part of the environment in which a referring expression is used. The physical environme nt in which a word is used.
  22. 22. 22 ANAPHORIC REFERENCE The expressions used to maintain reference to something or someone already mentioned. i.e: “A man was looking at us. He then disappeared.” The initial reference is often indefinite (A man…) and is called the ANTECEDENT. The subsequent reference is definite or a prononun (He…) and is called ANAPHORA.
  23. 23. 23 SPEECH ACTS and EVENTS Actions performed via utterances are called Speech Acts. In English they are commonly known as: apology, compliment, complaint, invitation, promise, or request and apply to the speaker’s communicative intention. The circumstances surrounding the utterance are called the Speech Event and it’s their nature that determines the interpretation of an utterance as performing a particular speech act.
  24. 24. 24 POLITENESS “Polite social behaviour” within a culture. We assume that participants in an interaction are generally aware of such cultural norms and principles of politeness. Face: the public self-image of a person. It refers to that emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects the other sto recognize. Politeness in an interaction can be defined as the means employed to show awareness of another person’s face.
  25. 25. 25 Examples of social distance: respect or deference “Excuse, Mr. Buckingham, can I talk to you for a second?” Social closeness: friendliness, camaraderie, or solidarity. “Hey, Bucky, got a minute?”
  26. 26. 26 Face Wants: A person’s expectations that their pulic self-image will be respected. If a speaker says sth. that represents a threat to another individual’s expectations, regarding self- image, it’s described as a face-threatening act. When someone says an utterance that avoids a potential threat t a person’s face, it’s called face- saving act. Example
  27. 27. 27 A: “I’m going to tell him to stop that awful noise right now!!” (Face-threatening act) B: “Perhaps you could just ask him if he’s going to stop because it’s getting late and we need to sleep…” (Face- saving act)
  28. 28. 28 References Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics. London: Longman Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  29. 29. 29 Thank You…

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