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Urban Landscape Elements


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Urban Landscape Elements slides for Sustainable Urban Landscape Design course.
Master Sustainable Urban Design, Razak Faculty, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Published in: Education

Urban Landscape Elements

  1. 1. Urban Landscape Elements By Dr Mohammad Hussaini bin Wahab
  2. 2. People value landscape for many different reasons, not all of them related to traditional concepts of aesthetics and beauty. What is LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  3. 3. It encompasses much more than just the landscape. It is a collaboration of the landscape and everything in it - buildings and structures, people, streets and walkways, open space, social spaces, and functional spaces. Urban Landscape Elements
  4. 4. •  They embody expressive relationships that mirror changing cultural relationships between nature and city. •  They are physical relationships with a potentially powerful role in structuring the city. •  They are social relationships that demonstrate the value of infrastructure in making places. What is URBAN LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  5. 5. •  AESTHETICS •  Planting or constructing for visual pleasure as well as spiritual fulfillment •  FUNCTIONAL •  Planting or constructing for pragmatic reasons such as shade, boundary statements, buffers, etc Functions of a landscape? Urban Landscape Elements
  6. 6. What is URBAN ENVIRONMENT? It can be defined as the multidisciplinary activity of shaping and managing the urban environment where it is concerned with both the process of   shaping the space and   the effect of the space which is being shape within the context of place ( Madanipour, 1996). Urban Landscape Elements
  7. 7. Tenerife Urban Landscape by Anne Chaffer Urban Landscape Elements
  8. 8. Urban Landscape Elements Three level of sustainable development within the urban context Achieving a livable urban fabric is accomplished through the main overlapping and interconnecting of three levels; the city structure, its urban spaces and local design. City structure : Roads, Areas Urban spaces : Buildings , streets Local places : Landscape of places / urban environment It takes great places to create great cities ( Project for Public spaces)
  9. 9. A Sustainable Local Place: (Landscape of Places) How to make such spaces attractive for human use? The sense of place at the local level stems from its ability to support human activities, through shape and landscape elements. 1.  Shape of Places Shape of places is defined by space edges, facades. Buildings’ facades should offer an active frontage onto places, through adding interests and vitality. It is better for facades’ openings to overlook places; the more openings onto places the better for safety, security (Newman), and liveability (Gehl), hence the space is considered socially sustainable. Amenity and safety of spaces are accomplished through creating a desirable view where buildings’ opening overlook to provide good surveillance of the street and the activity within, thus producing a safe space, (Newman) It appears that a variety of land-uses stimulating many activities is a necessity of a lively street, thus stimulating sustainable places socially and economically, (Moughtin (street and squares) (2001) Urban Landscape Elements
  10. 10. A Sustainable Local Place: (Landscape of Places) 2. Landscape within Places Landscape nourishes the aesthetic sense, improve air, and add human scale to spaces between buildings thus altering spaces to places. Landscape’s basic role in the urban form of cities is directed to create physical continuity between buildings with different characteristics, and produce a highly legible space that is easy to understand. Nature and landscape in the city are significant for improving the quality of life of life in urban areas and assist sustainable development in every sense of the word: ecologically, socially and economically. Urban Landscape Elements
  11. 11. Urban Landscape Elements Landscape elements should primarily relate in its expression, patterning, levels and visual qualities to the physical characteristics of places, human scale and activities. Landscape is mainly divided to three parts the soft, the hard and the furniture.
  12. 12. Urban Landscape Elements Sustainable Urban Development City Structure Urban Spaces Local Spaces Landscape Elements Landscape Within Spaces Shape of Spaces Hard ElementsSoft Elements  Nature Plants, trees etc  Man-made Streetscape
  13. 13. •  Organic components of landscape which require time to mature or effectual and dependent on climatic factors. SOFT LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  14. 14. •  Non-organic component of landscape which is effectual once it is constructed and non-dependent of climatic factors HARD LANDSCAPE? Urban Landscape Elements
  15. 15. Urban Landscape Elements What is street furniture? • Element that are placed in landscape or streetscape for several purposes.   Comfort and convenience : benches, kiosks, litter bins, public toilet   Ornamentation : fountains, sculptures, planters, tree guard   Communication : phone booth, post boxes, clocks   Circulation and protection : signs and symbols, bus shelters, railing, bollards • Street furniture constitute a very important part in any urban setting where it not only provide aesthetic value, but also provide functional efficiency, create sense of environmental clarify, as well as a sense of continuity and harmony of the total urban environment. • Street furniture can stengthen the link between a development and its surrounding can personalize the setting, can enhance the positive aspect of the surrounding built environment.
  16. 16. Urban Landscape Elements Landscape Elements / Features: • Street Planting • Paths : Bikeway, Pedestrian Way, Five-foot Corridor • Signage System • Outdoor Lighting • Street Furniture : Phone Booth , Seating, Bollard • Shelter : Kiosk, Bus Pavilion • Structure: Clock Tower, Observatory Tower • Sculpture • Paving • Landscape Planting • Pocket Space, Pocket Park • etc
  17. 17. It is necessary to recognize the interactive relationship between people and landscaped areas and to connect both elements in a way that optimize each. a.  Encourage people’s use of spaces: Landscape design should be achieved where increasing community interaction, hence decreasing social isolation and encouraging various types of interactions. b. Support different patterns of activities: Landscape elements should be designed to be functional thus allowing easy accomplishment of essential activities with different forms and patterns to occur. c. Improve the visual aspects of space: Landscape act as a screen for objectionable undesired views. Trees and vegetation are often important in the perceptual image of spaces. The trunks and branches create screen. d. Enhance legibility: Produce a highly legible space that is easy to understand through landmark, signs and space disposition. Improving the quality and attractiveness of movement routes as well as reinforcing community identity through well designed landscape elements as signage and street furniture. Urban Landscape Elements
  18. 18. Urban Landscape Elements e.  A sense of wellbeing: Produce a safe place protected from various types of pollution, landscape elements should be safe for human use. The existence of the soft landscape can help to visually counteract the stress experienced in cities as a result of traffic, pollution and noise. f. Provision of high quality imaginable places: Landscape plays an important role in improving the image of public transportation through well position, location and designed stops. g. Enhance human scale: Landscape elements influence scale of outdoor spaces through pattern and size. h. Self belongingness: Landscape elements that enhance the identity of space: London telephone box.
  19. 19. Urban Landscape Elements The benefits that high quality urban landscape element can bring include: • Helping to build a sense of community. • Reducing crime and anti-social behaviour. • Promoting tourism. • Attracting new businesses and help existing businesses. • Promoting walking and cycling. • Promoting access to public transport. • Boosting the morale of communities and individuals. • Building a sense of ownership and pride in our street environment. • Improving accessibility for all. • Improving levels of highway safety. • Enhancing the overall townscape.
  20. 20. Urban Landscape Elements “Streetscape design in the broadest sense refers to the design of street, including roadbed, sidewalks, landscape planting and character of the adjacent building façade or setback” Source: American Planning Association
  21. 21. Urban Landscape Elements Most of the streetscape amenities are located in the curb zone of the sidewalk. Some intersections points, streetscape is enlarged such as paving area, planting, public arts, benches, etc
  22. 22. Urban Landscape Elements Identify dimension and character
  23. 23. Urban Landscape Elements Identify dimension and character
  24. 24. Urban Landscape Elements
  25. 25. Urban Landscape Elements What Makes a Great Place? PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES sociability uses & activities access & linkages comfort & image Welcoming evening use volunteerism street life transit usage parking usage patterns pedestrian activity Walkable Convenient Accessible Charm Clean Attractive Historic Safe building conditions environmental data sanitation rating crime stats Cooperative Neighborly property values land-use patterns retail sales business ownership Special Real Fun Active Vital Connected Key Attributes Intangibles Measurements PLACE
  26. 26. The form of the _good city_ should offer its inhabitants: 
 A variety of activities & experiences. The best of urban places offer a mixture of uses: living, working, shopping & playing all gain from being linked as opposed to being zoned & separated, even if narrow sectoral rules of optimal efficiency are transgressed. å
 Urban Landscape Elements
  27. 27. Access to different activities, resources, information & places for all sectors of the population. The city should be permeable to all, regardless of age, ability or income. It should offer choices in terms of mobility & be appropriate to pedestrians & cyclists as well as car drivers. Urban Landscape Elements
  28. 28. Protection & security, together with shelter & comfort. The gains in public health must be maintained, but new considerations of surveillance & safety have also to be considered. Urban Landscape Elements
  29. 29. The opportunity for people to personalise their own surroundings. An environment should provide private spaces offering the opportunity for personal expression & public spaces robust enough to accommodate changes by their users. Urban Landscape Elements
  30. 30. Clarity of perception & stimulation to its users. Additionally, the city form must be responsive to the distribution of activities & patterns of movement. Urban Landscape Elements
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  34. 34. When you design your community around people and places … you get more people and places. Urban Landscape Elements
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  42. 42. Trees and Planting Trees enhance our environment. Adding living color, cover and beauty. Bringing nature to every heart of our cities. Soft landscape / urban trees planting assists the ecological health of the environment through the following: a. Enhancing the microclimate: 1. Noise Abatement Landscape elements absorb noise. Plants diffract and break up sound waves, changing their direction and reducing their intensity when sufficiently massed. To be effective in controlling noise, plants should be used with masonry walls or similar noise buffering structures. 2. Temperature Modification Plants raise local humidity by absorbing rainwater and/or delaying it entering the drainage system, make the ambient temperature more temperate. Direct radiation from the sun creates uncomfortably high temperatures.Locating densely foliated trees and shrubs can reduce heat gain. Urban Landscape Elements
  43. 43. 3. Wind Control Plants can modify wind speed on the ground. Dense masses of large evergreen trees planted can influence energy efficiency of facilities and increase the livability of outside spaces. b. Reducing pollution: Intake of CO2, release of oxygen, filtering of toxins and dust (foliage acts as an impingement filter, trapping airborne particles until they are washed away by rain (Borcke, C. (2003)). c. Glare Control: Trees, shrubs and other vegetation can effectively reduce glare and reflection when placed between the light source and the observer. d.  Surface Erosion Control Wind and water can erode valuable top soil. Plants especially grasses, can prevent or control erosion by stabilizing the soil through their root structure. Exposed soil on cut banks and steep slopes should be immediately planted with grasses and / or native low-growing shrubs and spreading groundcovers. Urban Landscape Elements
  44. 44. Urban Landscape Elements Trees and Planting Plant the largest trees you can afford, with secure stakes and guards, and grilles to allow water to reach the roots. Take guidance from specialists on appropriate species and always keep them well maintained. For town centres, avoid using 'shrubs in tubs' and planters that cause obstruction to pedestrians. Hanging baskets provide an almost instant splash of colour and it is relatively easy to get sponsorship for their provision. Use brackets off walls and existing columns as supports.
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  50. 50. Urban Landscape Elements Signage Strategies for signage should be included at an early stage in the design process, as the design of a layout can influence the need for signage. Make a place legible Signage can be a major clutter problem and can often be misleading. Not infrequently, the only signage provided is for vehicles, so that the stranger on foot can find himself circulating around one-way systems. The answer lies in:   Consistent and coordinated design of these elements over a wide area.   Making the structure of the place legible so as to minimise the need for signs, especially those concerned with traffic direction and control.   Concentrating pedestrian signage in a designed locality at specific nodal points.   Signage can also be used to enhance place identity.
  51. 51. Urban Landscape Elements Signage
  52. 52. Urban Landscape Elements Signage
  53. 53. Urban Landscape Elements Signage
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  55. 55. Urban Landscape Elements Lighting Lighting columns should be located so that they are not obtrusive or cause difficulties for people with disabilities. For example, in denser or courtyard developments wall mounted lighting can be effective. The location of lights should also ensure a sufficient spread of light over the footway, as well as the street. The shape and colour of light can also generate three-dimensional sculpture, transforming the perception of a place and dramatically painting its night landscape.The more light-the more encouragement of night - time activities. Civic Center Englewood,Colorado Decorative Wall Sconce Hanging light gateway Street Light Ottawa battery park city lighting fixture Quality lighting has helped bring the Melaka to life.
  56. 56. Urban Landscape Elements Lighting • Energy usage: quantity and quality of light • The visual impact of the equipment • Light pollution • Location of the equipment
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  58. 58. Urban Landscape ElementsUrban Design: Streetscape
  59. 59. Urban Landscape Elements Lighting
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  64. 64. Urban Landscape Elements Lighting
  65. 65. Urban Landscape Elements Litter bins The size, setting and maintenance of litter bins is important in an effective street cleansing policy. In busy areas, bins should have a capacity between 80 and 200 litres. They should be sited close to fast food outlets and where pedestrian traffic is greatest, but not too close to seats and not directly on pedestrian thoroughfares. Large bins should be set against the building line, leaving sufficient sweeping space. A minimum clearance of 1.5 metres is required to allow wheelchair users free movement.
  66. 66. Urban Landscape Elements Bollards Select a design consistent with other similar items, such as bases of finger posts (pedestrian direction signs), supports for railings and traffic signs. They should not dominate the pedestrian environment but will need to be around 900mm high in areas where vehicles are permitted. They can be painted in black or muted colours, and can have integral or fitted town plaques.
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  69. 69. People with a disability Groups of people with a disability must always be consulted regarding the choice of materials and construction in urban design, as there can be conflicts of interest. Dropped kerbs for wheelchair users can cause problems for the blind and partially sighted, who rely on a normal kerb. Urban Landscape Elements
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  73. 73. Urban Landscape Elements Seating Every seat must be comfortable, robust, vandal-proof and easy to maintain, in materials sympathetic to other street furniture. Do not position seats directly beneath trees or too close to litter bins and ensure that ground fixings are secure without being visually intrusive.
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  76. 76. Urban Landscape Elements Toilets Public toilets should be available at most hours and kept properly maintained. Some single, self cleansing toilets include advertising to subsidise their cost.
  77. 77. Urban Landscape Elements Cycle racks To help reduce pollution in town centres we need to encourage cyclists and provide racks where cycles can be secured. There are some good modern designs available.
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  79. 79. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts and Entertainment Public art, such as sculpture, fountains, murals, distinctive lighting or other forms, plays a major role in making a town centre or street distinctive and memorable. Competitions for art will raise awareness and many towns have annual street festivals. A good idea is to identify areas in the town centre that can provide regular performing art attractions.
  80. 80. WHAT IS ART IN URBAN LANDSCAPE?  Means of communication  Commemorating  Place making  Landmarks  Revitalization  Unifying/coordinating  Functional/utilitarian Urban Landscape Elements An inscription of identity in an urban landscape.
  81. 81. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts
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  83. 83. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts Street furniture in Tokyo One of the most eye-catching aspects of roppongi hills is its incorporation of public art and design into the urban landscape. 11 designers contributed to roppongi hills streetscape project: andrea ranzi, ettore sottsas, droog design, ron arad, jasper morrison, tokujin yoshioka, thomas sandell, karim rashid, shigeru uchida, toyo ito, katsuhiko hibino. the designers were approached to develop an idea for street furniture : 'a resting place exploring the images of forest in urban life'.their works represent a wide variety of styles, they are thought provoking, highly interactive and provide visitors with opportunities for thought and relaxation’.
  84. 84. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts
  85. 85. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts
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  87. 87. Urban Landscape Elements Public Arts
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  89. 89. Urban Landscape Elements Bus shelters The installation of shelters, to protect waiting passengers from weather and splashing from vehicles, can be subsidised or wholly paid for by advertising. They ought to include bus timetable information, seating and lighting. The new designs even incorporate facilities such as telephones
  90. 90. Urban Landscape Elements Bus Shelter as a Public Art
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  92. 92. Urban Landscape Elements Paving materials
  93. 93. Urban Landscape Elements Paving materials
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  96. 96. Urban Landscape Elements Paving materials Significant identity: symbol and motif Kuching Riverfront Sarawak
  97. 97. Shibaura Island Urban Landscape Elements
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  111. 111. Urban Landscape Elements IMPLEMENTING A SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE To achieve the maximum social, economic and environmental benefit from the use of landscape elements in urban spaces.
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  115. 115. CONCLUSION: Urban design of cities should attain the three qualities of utility, durability and ability to bring to the user a sense of well-being and emotional satisfaction. For places to be well-used & well-loved, they must be safe, comfortable, varied & attractive. They also need to be distinctive, & offer variety, choice & fun. Vibrant places offer opportunities for meeting people, playing in the street & watching the world go by Support should be given to create public places that are friendly to a variety of users. Providing footpaths, cycle-ways, street parking and attractive landscape elements encourages opportunities for spontaneous community interaction. In the people’s experience of a place, the physical elements, activities and meanings combined together to form the sense of place and character of a city ( Montgomery, 1998) Urban Landscape Elements
  116. 116. REFERENCES: 1. Kevin Lynch’s (1960) ‘Image of the City’ , MIT Press 2. Gordon Cullen’s (1961) ‘Townscape’ , 3. RELPH E, (1976) : ‘Place and Placelessness’ , Pion Limited (USA) 4. ALEXANDER, C (1977), ‘A Pattern Language’ , Oxford University Press 5. RAPOPORT, A. (1974), ‘Human Aspect of Urban Form’ , Pegamon Press 6. ROWE, C. (1980), ‘Urban Space’ , Academy Editions, London 7. KRIER, R, (1979), ‘On Street’ , Academy Editions, London 8. BORCKE, CHRISTINA VON (2003), “Landscape and nature in the city”, in Sustainable Urban Design: an environmental approach, Randall Thomas, editor. 9. CARMONA M. , HEATH T. , TIESDELL S. (2003), “Public Places, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design”, Architecture Press 10. MOUGHTIN C. , TIESDELL S. (1999), “Urban Design, ornament and decoration”, Architectural Press, second edition. Urban Landscape Elements
  117. 117. Urban Landscape Elements THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION