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Hassan Z. Harraz
hharraz2006@yahoo.com
Spring 2018
@Hassan Harraz 2018
Hydraulic Fracturing,
Hydrofracturing
Scope and Objective
• This lecture reviews hydraulic fracturing and alternative
fracturing technologies, by searching the ...
@Hassan Harraz 2018
Outlines
• Why Unconventional Gas Reservoirs need to be Hydraulically Fractured
• The importance of co...
1) INTRODUCTION
What is fracking’?
Basics Facts
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 7
All activities at well site (Drilling, Fracking,
Flaring, Storage of Water/Chemicals)
2) HYDRAULIC FRACTURING PROCESS
 Drill the well:
 Case and Cement possible hazard areas:
 Perforate casing and cementin...
What Changed the Game?
Horizontal Well with Multi-Stage Fracturing
Source: EnCana
• Natural gas production from
shallow, f...
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 10
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 11
Vertical Wells vs. Long Reach Horizontal Wells
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 12
Protection
Casing
Protection
Casing
2.1) Vertical Drilling
2.2) Horizontal Drilling
2.3) Rotary Drilling
3) WELL OPERATIONS AND INPUTS
• In general, a fracturing fluid can be thought as the
sum of three main components:
Fracturing Fluid = Base Fluid + Addit...
Differentfluidsused for hydraulicfracturing(adaptedandexpandedfrom (EPA 2004, and PetroWiki -
Societyof PetroleumEngineers...
3.2) Wellbore Casing
3.3) Casing and Cementing
3.4) Venting and Flaring
4) Perforating the Formation
Perforated using a “perf
gun”
Perforating guns use
explosive charges to
fracture:
Casing
...
Shale Gas Extraction/ Tapping the Gas:
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 24
Shale Gas Extraction/ Tapping the Gas:
Distance
between shale
formation and
ground water
t...
Diagram showing the general features of a
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 25
Key Considerations for Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas
Shales
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 26
Why are we fracking
Why We Fracture Shale Gas Wells…!
Complex Hydraulic Fracturing
• Requirement for sealed natural fracture shale gas
systems
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 29
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 30
Source: http://warrenpohatu.blogspot.com/2011/12/what-is-fracking-cuz.html
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 31
6.1.1) Process of hydraulic fracturing
• We are injecting a fluid at high pressure, which overcomes
the tensile strength o...
Multilateral Wells
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 33
6.1.2) The Hydraulic Fracturing Processes
6.1.2) The Hydraulic Fracturing Processes..(Cont.)
Functions of the Fracturing Fluid
5) Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Their Contents
UH OH… Did He Say Chemicals?
(Earthworksaction.org)
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 38
Basic Fracturing Fluid Materials
Proppant
Types of Proppant
Fracturing Challenges in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs
Post Fracture Treatment Monitoring Methods
Fracture Treatment Validation Via Microseismic Monitoring
Is the fracture staying in zone vertically?
Image courtesy Steve...
A picture that shows you how to work the hydraulic fracturing
method foam for the extraction of natural gas-Petroleum
comp...
Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic Fracturing
Advantages Disadvantages
Increase in production of natural gas Water ...
References
1. Carr, M. (2012). Natural Gas to Be Most-Used Fuel in U.S. by 2030, IEA Says. Bloombeg.
Retrieved from http:/...
1. “Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale”
http://www.earthworksaction.org/pubs/OGAPMarcellusShaleReport‐6‐12‐08.pdf
2. ...
Are Ground Water Resources Safe?
Source:
http://mnprogressiveproject.com/minnesota-
needs-to-do-its-part-to-end-fracking/
...
Are Ground Water Resources Safe?
Source: www.energyindepth.com
@Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 57
What about Surface Water?
Outline of Lectures:
Topic 1: Natural Gas (Overview).
Topic 2: Unconventional Gas Reservoir
Topic 3: Shale Gas
Topic 4:Coa...
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
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Hydraulic Fracturing

This lecture reviews hydraulic fracturing and alternative fracturing technologies, by searching the open literature, patent databases and commercial websites.
For each identified technique, an overview is given.
The technique is then briefly explained, and its rationale (reasons for use) is identified. Potential advantages and disadvantages are identified, and some considerations on costs are given.
Finally, the status of the technique (for instance, commercially applied, being developed, concept, etc.) is given for its application to shale gas production.

Why Unconventional Gas Reservoirs need to be Hydraulically Fractured; The importance of complex hydraulic fracture geometry; The Hydraulic Fracturing Process described; Fracturing Materials; What Can We Control During a Fracture Treatment?; Why cause and effect with respect to production are not always obvious; Key Considerations for Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas Shales; Why We Fracture Shale Gas Wells…!; The Hydraulic Fracturing Processes; Functions of the Fracturing Fluid; Fracturing Challenges in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs; Post Fracture Treatment Monitoring Methods; Fracture Treatment Validation Via Microseismic Monitoring

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Hydraulic Fracturing

  1. 1. Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com Spring 2018 @Hassan Harraz 2018 Hydraulic Fracturing, Hydrofracturing
  2. 2. Scope and Objective • This lecture reviews hydraulic fracturing and alternative fracturing technologies, by searching the open literature, patent databases and commercial websites. • For each identified technique, an overview is given. • The technique is then briefly explained, and its rationale (reasons for use) is identified. Potential advantages and disadvantages are identified, and some considerations on costs are given. • Finally, the status of the technique (for instance, commercially applied, being developed, concept, etc.) is given for its application to shale gas production. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 2
  3. 3. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Outlines • Why Unconventional Gas Reservoirs need to be Hydraulically Fractured • The importance of complex hydraulic fracture geometry • The Hydraulic Fracturing Process described • Fracturing Materials • What Can We Control During a Fracture Treatment? • Why cause and effect with respect to production are not always obvious • Key Considerations for Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas Shales • Why We Fracture Shale Gas Wells…! • The Hydraulic Fracturing Processes • Functions of the Fracturing Fluid • Fracturing Challenges in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs • Post Fracture Treatment Monitoring Methods • Fracture Treatment Validation Via Microseismic Monitoring 3
  4. 4. 1) INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. What is fracking’?
  6. 6. Basics Facts
  7. 7. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 7 All activities at well site (Drilling, Fracking, Flaring, Storage of Water/Chemicals)
  8. 8. 2) HYDRAULIC FRACTURING PROCESS  Drill the well:  Case and Cement possible hazard areas:  Perforate casing and cementing with Perforating Gun  Pump fracturing fluid down hole  Production
  9. 9. What Changed the Game? Horizontal Well with Multi-Stage Fracturing Source: EnCana • Natural gas production from shallow, fractured shale formations not new • What “changed the game” was the recognition that one could “create a permeable reservoir” and high rates of gas production by using intensively stimulated horizontal wells @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 9
  10. 10. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 10
  11. 11. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 11
  12. 12. Vertical Wells vs. Long Reach Horizontal Wells @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 12 Protection Casing Protection Casing
  13. 13. 2.1) Vertical Drilling
  14. 14. 2.2) Horizontal Drilling
  15. 15. 2.3) Rotary Drilling
  16. 16. 3) WELL OPERATIONS AND INPUTS
  17. 17. • In general, a fracturing fluid can be thought as the sum of three main components: Fracturing Fluid = Base Fluid + Additives + Proppant @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 17
  18. 18. Differentfluidsused for hydraulicfracturing(adaptedandexpandedfrom (EPA 2004, and PetroWiki - Societyof PetroleumEngineers, 2013)
  19. 19. 3.2) Wellbore Casing
  20. 20. 3.3) Casing and Cementing
  21. 21. 3.4) Venting and Flaring
  22. 22. 4) Perforating the Formation Perforated using a “perf gun” Perforating guns use explosive charges to fracture: Casing Cementing Formation @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 22
  23. 23. Shale Gas Extraction/ Tapping the Gas:
  24. 24. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 24 Shale Gas Extraction/ Tapping the Gas: Distance between shale formation and ground water typically > 1 mile Vertical fractures rarely grow more than about 300 feet, and are usually much less
  25. 25. Diagram showing the general features of a @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 25
  26. 26. Key Considerations for Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas Shales @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 26
  27. 27. Why are we fracking
  28. 28. Why We Fracture Shale Gas Wells…!
  29. 29. Complex Hydraulic Fracturing • Requirement for sealed natural fracture shale gas systems @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 29
  30. 30. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 30
  31. 31. Source: http://warrenpohatu.blogspot.com/2011/12/what-is-fracking-cuz.html @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 31
  32. 32. 6.1.1) Process of hydraulic fracturing • We are injecting a fluid at high pressure, which overcomes the tensile strength of the rocks and breaks them. Fig. depicting shale will sustain maximum amount of strain at some confining pressure before fracturing. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 32
  33. 33. Multilateral Wells @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 33
  34. 34. 6.1.2) The Hydraulic Fracturing Processes
  35. 35. 6.1.2) The Hydraulic Fracturing Processes..(Cont.)
  36. 36. Functions of the Fracturing Fluid
  37. 37. 5) Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Their Contents
  38. 38. UH OH… Did He Say Chemicals? (Earthworksaction.org) @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 38
  39. 39. Basic Fracturing Fluid Materials
  40. 40. Proppant
  41. 41. Types of Proppant
  42. 42. Fracturing Challenges in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs
  43. 43. Post Fracture Treatment Monitoring Methods
  44. 44. Fracture Treatment Validation Via Microseismic Monitoring Is the fracture staying in zone vertically? Image courtesy Steve Sadoskas, Baker Microseismic @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 45
  45. 45. A picture that shows you how to work the hydraulic fracturing method foam for the extraction of natural gas-Petroleum companies in Egypt using hydraulic breakers-Must prevent it how to work the hydraulic fracturing method foam for the extraction of natural gas-Petroleum companies in Egypt @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 46
  46. 46. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic Fracturing Advantages Disadvantages Increase in production of natural gas Water contamination of chemicals Increase in economic activities Ingredients for fracking process unknown to public Price for drilling natural gas low Major health concerns for people that live nearby drilling @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 47
  47. 47. References 1. Carr, M. (2012). Natural Gas to Be Most-Used Fuel in U.S. by 2030, IEA Says. Bloombeg. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-11-12/natural-gas-to-become-largest-fuel-in-u-s-by-2030-iea-says.html 2. Earthworks. (2012) Hydraulic Fracturing 101. Retrieved fromearthworksaction.org/issues/detail/hydraulic_fracturing_101 3. Fracking risks to groundwater analysed. (2012). TCE: The Chemical Engineer, (849), 6-7. 4. Gruver, M. (2011) EPA: First Evidence Surfaces Linking Fracking, Water Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.sltrib.com 5. Hart, M., Weiss, D. (2011) Making Fracking Safe in the East and West: Environmental Safeguards on Shale Gas Production Needed as China Begins Development. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/report/2011/10/21/10407/making-fracking-safe-in-the-east-and-west/ 6. Hines, D.A. (2012). The “Halliburton Loophole”: Exemption of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids from Regulation Under the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act 7. Hydrocarbon. (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hydrocarbons?show=0&t=1352739738 8. Kamarshi, B., Kurtz, J., Soulsby, R. (2012) Fracking: Considerations for Risk Management and Financing http://insight.milliman.com/article.php?cntid=8107 9. Montgomery, C., Smith, M. (2010) Hydraulic Fracturing: History of An Enduring Technology. http://www.spe.org/jpt/print/archives/2010/12/10Hydraulic.pdf 10. Myers, T. (2012). Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers. Ground Water, 50(6), 872-882. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00933.x 11. Natural Gas. (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/natural%20gas 12. NaturalGas.org. (N.D.) Overview of Natural Gas: History. http://www.naturalgas.org/overview/overview.asp 13. Retrain-America. (2010). Preparing America for the Oil & Gas Industry: About Retrain America. Retrieved from http://retrain-america.com/about_retrain.html 14. Swarthmore Colleg Environmental Studies. (2012). Natural Gas Drilling in the Marcellus Shale: Economic Impact. Retrieved from http://www.swarthmore.edu/academics/environmental-studies-capstone/economic-impact.xml#_ftn1 15. U.S. Department of Energy. (2012) How Fossil Fuels are Formed. http://www.fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/gen_howformed.html 16. U.S. Department of Energy. (2011). Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America’s Energy Challenges. (6)3. Retrieved from http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/brochures/Shale_Gas_March_2011.pdf 17. Weber, N. (2012). Fracking Too Risky. Retrieved from: http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/opinion/55107435-82/fracking-process-effects-conservatives.html.csp @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 48
  48. 48. 1. “Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale” http://www.earthworksaction.org/pubs/OGAPMarcellusShaleReport‐6‐12‐08.pdf 2. “Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale” http://www.earthworksaction.org/pubs/OGAPMarcellusShaleReport‐6‐12‐08.pdf 3. “The Environmental Review Process for Natural Gas Exploration in the Marcellus Shale” http://www.dec.ny.gov/energy/46288.html#horizontal 4. “EngineeringNatural Gas from U.S. Shale Deposits” http://buildipedia.com/operations/engineering‐operations‐news/engineering natural‐gas‐from‐us‐shale‐deposits?print=1&tmpl=component 5. “The Use of Clays in Drilling Fluids” http://www.clays.org/journal/archive/volume%201/1‐1‐269.pdf 6. “Hydraulic Fracturing Facts” http://www.hydraulicfracturing.com/FAQs/Pages/information.aspx 7. “HydraulicFracturing Overview” http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/oilgas/new_forms/marcell us/Reports/DEP%20Fracing%20overview.pdf 8. “Hydraulic Fracturing Facts” http://www.hydraulicfracturing.com/FAQs/Pages/information.aspx 9. “Sources of Oil and Gas Air Pollution” http://www.earthworksaction.org/airpollutionsources.cfm 10. “Sources of Oil and Gas Air Pollution” http://www.earthworksaction.org/airpollutionsources.cfm 11.“Natural Gas Processing” http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch05/final/c05s03.pdf 12.Source: Freeing Up Energy, Hydraulic Fracturing: Unlocking America’s Natural Gas Resources, API, July 19, 2010. (API, Freeing Up Energy). @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 49
  49. 49. Are Ground Water Resources Safe? Source: http://mnprogressiveproject.com/minnesota- needs-to-do-its-part-to-end-fracking/ @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 55
  50. 50. Are Ground Water Resources Safe? Source: www.energyindepth.com @Hassan Harraz 2018 Fracking 57
  51. 51. What about Surface Water?
  52. 52. Outline of Lectures: Topic 1: Natural Gas (Overview). Topic 2: Unconventional Gas Reservoir Topic 3: Shale Gas Topic 4:Coalbed Methane (CBM) Topic 5: Tight Reservoir Topic 6: Gas Hydrates Topic 7: Hydraulic Fracturing. Topic 8 : Separating and Treating Well Fluids Topic 9 : Natural Gas Processes Topic 10 : Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Life Cycle Overview. Topic 11 : Egyptian Natural Gas Resource (Overview). @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 59

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