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1.3 session by klanarong cassava as a biofuel-bioenergy crop ghana

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1.3 session by klanarong cassava as a biofuel-bioenergy crop ghana

  1. 1. Overview of potential of cassava as a food crop And as a feedstock for biofuels Klanarong Sriroth (aapkrs@ku.ac.th) Cassava and Starch Technology Rerearch Unit (CSTRU)Cassava and Starch Technology Rerearch Unit (CSTRU) Kasetsart University, ThailandKasetsart University, Thailand
  2. 2. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy cropCassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop
  3. 3. Cassava: The best alternativeCassava: The best alternative Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop
  4. 4. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop World Productions of cassava (2009)World Productions of cassava (2009) Production (1,000 t)Production (1,000 t) Area (1,000 ha)Area (1,000 ha) Yield (t/ha)Yield (t/ha) WorldWorld -Africa-Africa -LAC-LAC -Asia-Asia --CambodiaCambodia -China-China -India-India -Indonesia-Indonesia -Laos-Laos -Malaysia-Malaysia -Myanmar-Myanmar -Philippines-Philippines -Sri Lanka-Sri Lanka -Thailand-Thailand -Timor-Leste-Timor-Leste -Vietnam-Vietnam 240,989240,989 124,615124,615 (51.70%)(51.70%) 34,67734,677 (14.38%)(14.38%) 81,47381,473 (33.80%)(33.80%) 3,4973,497 4,5114,511 9,6239,623 22,03922,039 152152 430430 211211 2,0432,043 277277 30,08830,088 4949 8,5568,556 19,05819,058 12,33212,332 2,6672,667 4,0364,036 157157 270270 280280 1,1751,175 1010 4141 1616 215215 2323 1,3261,326 1212 508508 12.6412.64 10.1010.10 13.0013.00 20.1820.18 22.2722.27 16.6716.67 34.3634.36 18.7418.74 14.7014.70 10.4810.48 12.7812.78 9.469.46 11.6411.64 22.6722.67 4.124.12 16.8116.81 Source : FAOSTAT, Sep 2010.
  5. 5. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Genotype Environment Management
  6. 6. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Yield of cassava : increase 1 ton/ha (per year) Productions of cassava in 2009 Yield = 12.64 tons/ha Area = 19,058,000 ha
  7. 7. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Productions increase from 2009Productions increase from 2009 = 259,951,120= 259,951,120 -- 240,989,000240,989,000 == 18,962,12018,962,120 tonstons Productions of cassava in 2010Productions of cassava in 2010 = 13.64 * 19,058,000= 13.64 * 19,058,000 = 259,951,120 tons= 259,951,120 tons
  8. 8. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Advantage as Food CropsAdvantage as Food Crops
  9. 9. ““Growth tolerance to poorGrowth tolerance to poor environmental condition ”environmental condition ” Advantage as Food Crops
  10. 10. Advantage as Food Crops Root yield (t/ha) of cassava roots of different varieties Variety Harvest time (months) 10 months 12 months Without water stresss With water stress Without water stress With water stress Rayong 1 24.6 + 1.8 14.9+ 2.7 29.8+ 5.8 24.8+ 2.5 Rayong 5 35.2 + 4.5 17.9 + 1.1 41.8 + 5.1 26.9 + 4.9 Rayong 60 26.8 + 3.6 18.7 + 3.9 34.7 + 7.8 30.6 + 2.9 Rayong 90 26.6 + 1.8 16.7 + 4.4 34.9 + 3.4 26.2 + 7.8 KU50 27.8 + 2.9 18.2 + 0.5 34.9 + 6.3 28.8 + 4.4 CMR 33-57-81 41.9 + 3.9 21.3 + 8.1 51.1 + 7.6 28.8 + 7.2 Source : Santisopasri et al., 2001. Industrial crop and Products., 13, p.115-129.
  11. 11. ““All year round planting/harvesting”All year round planting/harvesting” Advantage as Food Crops
  12. 12. ““ Possibility toPossibility to increase root productivity ”increase root productivity ” Improved varieties + Cost-effective cultivation practices = High productivity Advantage as Food Crops
  13. 13. ““Possibility to increasePossibility to increase High root productivity”High root productivity” Advantage as Food Crops
  14. 14. High Root ProductivityHigh Root Productivity Thai average = 20 T/ha World = 11 T/ha Reported ~ 90 T/ha Advantage as Food Crops
  15. 15. “Continuous development of high yield-improved varieties” Advantage as Food Crops
  16. 16. Rayong5Rayong5 Rayong90Rayong90 Advantage as Food Crops
  17. 17. KU50KU50 Huaybong 60Huaybong 60 Advantage as Food Crops
  18. 18. ““Less input in plantingLess input in planting and harvestingand harvesting”” Advantage as Food Crops
  19. 19. HarvestingHarvesting 1 man day = 8 hours = 1.20 ton Advantage as Food Crops
  20. 20. Harvesting IndexHarvesting Index = Root yield= Root yield (HI)(HI) BiomassBiomass = 50%= 50% HarvestingHarvesting Advantage as Food Crops
  21. 21. ““High-quantity/qualityHigh-quantity/quality carbohydrate source”carbohydrate source” Advantage as Food Crops
  22. 22. Advantage as Food Crops Cultivars Protein (% w/w) Lipid (% w/w) Ash (% w/w) Phosphorus (mg/kg) Rayong 1 0.17 + 0.04 nil 0.10 + 0.02 2.45 + 0.08 Rayong 60 0.15 + 0.02 0.01 0.15 + 0.04 2.20 + 0.14 Rayong 90 0.28 + 0.06 nil 0.08 + 0.01 2.04 + 0.05 KU 50 0.30 + 0.04 0.01 0.15 + 0.02 2.04 + 0.05 Proximate analysis of Cassava starches Source : Sriroth et al., 1999. Carbohydrate Plymer. 38, p.161-170.
  23. 23. ““Simple conversion to dried chips forSimple conversion to dried chips for effective storage and transportation”effective storage and transportation” Dried ChipsDried Chips Advantage as Food Crops
  24. 24. Cassava ChipCassava Chip Cassava ChipCassava Chip Conversion : 2.25 kg fresh roots / 1 kg chip (25% starch content) (14% moisture content) Advantage as Food Crops
  25. 25. Advantage as Food Crops
  26. 26. Advantage as Food Crops Modification Function Application Native starch ““Variation of Usage as Food”Variation of Usage as Food” Source: CSTRU, 2009.
  27. 27. Industrial applications Confectionery Pharm aceuticals Textile Paper Noodles M eatProducts Bakery products SaucesCosmetics Adhesives & corrugated board Dairy products Packaging Advantage as Food Crops
  28. 28. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Potential as Feedstock for Fuel
  29. 29. Gasohol is a blend of anhydrous ethanol ‘derived from agricultural products’ with gasoline ! E10 E20 E85 Advantages of Cassava as Feedstock for FuelAdvantages of Cassava as Feedstock for Fuel
  30. 30. Advantages of Cassava as Feedstock for FuelAdvantages of Cassava as Feedstock for Fuel Sriroth et al,. 2010. The promise of a technology revolution in cassava bioethanol From Thai practice to the world practice , Fuel. ( Available source:http://www.elsevier.com/locate/fuel )
  31. 31. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Advantage of cassava as Feedstock forAdvantage of cassava as Feedstock for Ethanol fermentation byEthanol fermentation by Yeast FermentationYeast Fermentation Source: Sriroth et al,. 2010. Fuel 89, p.1333-1338. www.praj.com
  32. 32. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Advantage in Fermentable to Non-Fermentable Solids Ratio (F/N ratio) CassavaCassava Fermentable glucose (up to 99%Fermentable glucose (up to 99%)) can be obtained from conventionalcan be obtained from conventional hydrolysis of cassava starchhydrolysis of cassava starch..
  33. 33. MolassesMolasses Case I : Brix = 85 Total Sugars = 51 Non-fermentable Solids = 85-51 = 34 F/N ratioF/N ratio = 51/34 = 1.50= 51/34 = 1.50 Case II : Brix = 85 Total Sugars = 40 Non-fermentable Solids = 85-40 = 45 F/N ratioF/N ratio = 40/45 = 0.88= 40/45 = 0.88 F/N ratioF/N ratio
  34. 34. F/N ratio < 0.9F/N ratio < 0.9 retards fermentation rate by average 15-20%retards fermentation rate by average 15-20% F/N ratioF/N ratio (www.praj.com)
  35. 35. Ash content > 10%Ash content > 10% can retard the rate of fermentationcan retard the rate of fermentation by 5-10%by 5-10% Ash content Max = 3.0% Ash content 10-16% Advantage of its Low Ash ContentAdvantage of its Low Ash Content (www.praj.com)
  36. 36. Advantage of Absence of Volatile AcidsAdvantage of Absence of Volatile Acids > 5000 ppm reduce fermention rate by 30-40% > 7000 ppm reduce fermention rate by 40-50% Volatile Acids Cassava chips : None Molasses : Acetic acid, Formic acid etc. (www.praj.com)
  37. 37. Advantage of no caramelizationAdvantage of no caramelization in cassavain cassava > 0.40 OD retards fermentation rate by 20-25%> 0.40 OD retards fermentation rate by 20-25% (Measured as color in OD units(Measured as color in OD units at 375 nm of 0.1% Solution)at 375 nm of 0.1% Solution) (www.praj.com)
  38. 38. Advantage in waste utilizationAdvantage in waste utilization Solid wasteSolid waste Liquid wasteLiquid waste
  39. 39. Stillage from cassava chips Stillage from molasses 1. COD (mg/L) 40,000-60,000 100,000-150,000 2. BOD (mg/L) 15,000-30,000 40,000-70,000 3. TKN (mg/L) 350-400 1,500-2,000 4. Total Solids (mg/L) 60,000-65,000 100,000-120,000 5. Total Suspended Solid (mg/L) 3,000-20,000 14,000-18,000 6. Total Volatile Solids (mg/L) 20,000-40,000 n.a 7. Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L) 50,000 105,000-300,000 8. pH 3.5-4.3 4.1-4.6 Sriroth et al., 2006. n.a = not applicable Waste ManagementWaste Management Stillage quality from ethanol factories in ThailandStillage quality from ethanol factories in Thailand
  40. 40. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop ““Advantage of Well-developed technologyAdvantage of Well-developed technology for ethanol production from cassava”for ethanol production from cassava”
  41. 41. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Cassava Chips Milling α-amylase glucoamylase yeast Distillation &Dehydration Liquefaction SSF Simultaneous SaccharificationSimultaneous Saccharification and Fermentaion processand Fermentaion process
  42. 42. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Mass Balance of Ethanol from Cassava Chip T/D = Ton/Day, TS = Total Solid ,L/D =Liter/day Fermentation efficiency 90%, Distillation efficiency 98.5% M i l l i n g M i x i n g L i q u e f a c t i o n S S F F e r m e n t a t i o n D i s t i l l a t i o n M o l e c u l a r S i e v e D e h y d r a t i o n F u e l E t h a n o l C a s s a v a C h i p C O 2 T h i c k S l o p F u s e l o i l S t e a m W a t e r - M o i s t u r e 1 5 % - S t a r c h c o n t e n t 6 5 % ( w e t b a s i s ) 3 6 2 . 1 7 T / D 8 5 . 0 0 % T S 1 , 7 9 4 . 4 3 T / D 1 7 . 1 6 % T S 1 , 9 1 4 . 4 3 T / D 1 6 . 0 8 % T S 1 , 7 9 9 . 4 5 T / D 7 . 4 2 % ( w / w ) A l c o h o l 1 2 4 . 5 8 T / D 9 5 % A l c o h o l 0 . 5 0 T / D 1 , 4 9 6 . 8 4 T / D 6 . 5 % T S 1 1 4 . 9 8 T / D 1 1 8 . 3 5 T / D o r 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 L / D 1 , 2 4 8 . 5 0 T / D 1 2 0 T / D 6 . 2 3 T / D 1 7 7 . 5 3 T / D S p e n t w a s h r e c y c l e S p e n t w a s h r e c y c l e
  43. 43. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Distillation & Dehydration Cassava Chips Milling Fermentation yeast Enzymes Simultaneous Liquefaction,Simultaneous Liquefaction, Saccharification andSaccharification and Fermentation processFermentation process (SLSF)(SLSF) UNCOOKED SINGLE-STEPUNCOOKED SINGLE-STEP
  44. 44. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop SEMs of corn starches treated with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) 6 - hr incubation 12 - hr incubation 24 - hr incubation 48 - hr incubation CassavaCassava CornCorn
  45. 45. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop To increase ethanol concentration 18% (v/v) or 14.6% (w/w) Increase the total solid/starch content (>30% Total dissolved solid) by increasing the feedstock to water ratio VHG (very high gravity) technology in fuel alcohol production
  46. 46. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Mash viscosity reduction by enzyme cocktail VHG technology development for cassava roots
  47. 47. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Ethanol Fermentation VHGVHG TechnologyTechnology DevelopmentDevelopment Process waterProcess water 9999 TonsTons MixingMixing (total solid = 25%)(total solid = 25%) 140 Tons140 Tons Milling WaterWater 59 Tons59 Tons Fresh RootFresh Root (moisture content =(moisture content = 60-70%)60-70%) 100 Tons100 Tons CassavaCassava ChipChip (moisture content = 14%)(moisture content = 14%) 4141 TonsTons Process water saving Sun Drying
  48. 48. Pilot scale ethanol plant at ThailandPilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  49. 49. Pilot scale ethanol plant at ThailandPilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  50. 50. Filtration Screw Press Pilot scale ethanol plant at ThailandPilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  51. 51. Solar CollectorSolar Collector Pilot scale ethanol plant at ThailandPilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  52. 52. Technology transfer for ethanol production
  53. 53. Distillation Pilot PlantDistillation Pilot Plant
  54. 54. On going development Fermenter Molecular sieve Ethanol 90-95% Cassava Chip / Root VHG-SLSF process
  55. 55. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop ConclusionsConclusions CassavaCassava :: The WINNERThe WINNER for an alternativefor an alternative food and biofuelfood and biofuel FoodFood - Improved yield with variation productions- Improved yield with variation productions FuelFuel – Reduction of energy for– Reduction of energy for ethanol productionethanol production (SLSF / VHG)(SLSF / VHG)
  56. 56. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop THANK YOU aapkrs@ku.ac.thaapkrs@ku.ac.th www.cassava.orgwww.cassava.org www.thailandethanol.comwww.thailandethanol.com

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