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Session 1.3 Overview of potential of cassava as a food crop and as a feedstock for biofuels - session by Klanarong

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Session 1.3 Overview of potential of cassava as a food crop and as a feedstock for biofuels - session by Klanarong

  1. 1. Overview of potential of cassava as a food crop And as a feedstock for biofuels Klanarong Sriroth (aapkrs@ku.ac.th) Cassava and Starch Technology Rerearch Unit (CSTRU) Kasetsart University, Thailand
  2. 2. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop
  3. 3. Cassava: The best alternative Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop
  4. 4. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop World Productions of cassava (2009) Source : FAOSTAT, Sep 2010. 12.64 10.10 13.00 20.18 22.27 16.67 34.36 18.74 14.70 10.48 12.78 9.46 11.64 22.67 4.12 16.81 19,058 12,332 2,667 4,036 157 270 280 1,175 10 41 16 215 23 1,326 12 508 240,989 124,615 (51.70%) 34,677 (14.38%) 81,473 (33.80%) 3,497 4,511 9,623 22,039 152 430 211 2,043 277 30,088 49 8,556 World -Africa -LAC -Asia - Cambodia -China -India -Indonesia -Laos -Malaysia -Myanmar -Philippines -Sri Lanka -Thailand -Timor-Leste -Vietnam Yield (t/ha) Area (1,000 ha) Production (1,000 t)
  5. 5. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Genotype Environment Management
  6. 6. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Yield of cassava : increase 1 ton/ha (per year) Productions of cassava in 2009 Yield = 12.64 tons/ha Area = 19,058,000 ha
  7. 7. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Productions increase from 2009 = 259,951,120 - 240,989,000 = 18,962,120 tons Productions of cassava in 2010 = 13.64 * 19,058,000 = 259,951,120 tons
  8. 8. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Advantage as Food Crops
  9. 9. “ Growth tolerance to poor environmental condition ” Advantage as Food Crops
  10. 10. Advantage as Food Crops Root yield (t/ha) of cassava roots of different varieties Source : Santisopasri et al., 2001. Industrial crop and Products., 13, p.115-129. 28.8 + 7.2 51.1 + 7.6 21.3 + 8.1 41.9 + 3.9 CMR 33-57-81 28.8 + 4.4 34.9 + 6.3 18.2 + 0.5 27.8 + 2.9 KU50 26.2 + 7.8 34.9 + 3.4 16.7 + 4.4 26.6 + 1.8 Rayong 90 30.6 + 2.9 34.7 + 7.8 18.7 + 3.9 26.8 + 3.6 Rayong 60 26.9 + 4.9 41.8 + 5.1 17.9 + 1.1 35.2 + 4.5 Rayong 5 24.8 + 2.5 29.8 + 5.8 14.9 + 2.7 24.6 + 1.8 Rayong 1 With water stress Without water stress With water stress Without water stresss 12 months 10 months Harvest time (months) Variety
  11. 11. “ All year round planting/harvesting” Advantage as Food Crops
  12. 12. “ Possibility to increase root productivity ” Improved varieties + Cost-effective cultivation practices = High productivity Advantage as Food Crops
  13. 13. “ Possibility to increase High root productivity” Advantage as Food Crops
  14. 14. High Root Productivity Thai average = 20 T/ha World = 11 T/ha Reported ~ 90 T/ha Advantage as Food Crops
  15. 15. “ Continuous development of high yield-improved varieties” Advantage as Food Crops
  16. 16. Rayong5 Rayong90 Advantage as Food Crops
  17. 17. KU50 Huaybong 60 Advantage as Food Crops
  18. 18. “ Less input in planting and harvesting ” Advantage as Food Crops
  19. 19. Harvesting 1 man day = 8 hours = 1.20 ton Advantage as Food Crops
  20. 20. Harvesting Index = Root yield (HI) Biomass = 50% Harvesting Advantage as Food Crops
  21. 21. “ High-quantity/quality carbohydrate source” Advantage as Food Crops
  22. 22. Advantage as Food Crops Proximate analysis of Cassava starches Source : Sriroth et al., 1999. Carbohydrate Plymer. 38, p.161-170. 2.04 + 0.05 0.15 + 0.02 0.01 0.30 + 0.04 KU 50 2.04 + 0.05 0.08 + 0.01 nil 0.28 + 0.06 Rayong 90 2.20 + 0.14 0.15 + 0.04 0.01 0.15 + 0.02 Rayong 60 2.45 + 0.08 0.10 + 0.02 nil 0.17 + 0.04 Rayong 1 Phosphorus (mg/kg) Ash (% w/w) Lipid (% w/w) Protein (% w/w) Cultivars
  23. 23. “ Simple conversion to dried chips for effective storage and transportation” Dried Chips Advantage as Food Crops
  24. 24. Cassava Chip Conversion : 2.25 kg fresh roots / 1 kg chip (25% starch content) (14% moisture content) Advantage as Food Crops
  25. 25. Advantage as Food Crops
  26. 26. Advantage as Food Crops Modification Function Application Native starch “ Variation of Usage as Food” Source: CSTRU, 2009.
  27. 27. Industrial applications Confectionery Pharmaceuticals Textile Paper Noodles Meat Products Bakery products Sauces Co smetics Adhesives & corrugated board Dairy products Packaging Advantage as Food Crops
  28. 28. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Potential as Feedstock for Fuel
  29. 29. Gasohol is a blend of anhydrous ethanol ‘derived from agricultural products’ with gasoline ! E10 E20 E85 Advantages of Cassava as Feedstock for Fuel
  30. 30. Advantages of Cassava as Feedstock for Fuel Sriroth et al,. 2010. The promise of a technology revolution in cassava bioethanol From Thai practice to the world practice , Fue l. ( Available source: http :// www . elsevier . com / locate / fuel )
  31. 31. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Advantage of cassava as Feedstock for Ethanol fermentation by Yeast Fermentation Source: Sriroth et al,. 2010. Fue l 89, p.1333-1338. www.praj.com
  32. 32. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Advantage in Fermentable to Non-Fermentable Solids Ratio (F/N ratio) Cassava Fermentable glucose (up to 99% ) can be obtained from conventional hydrolysis of cassava starch .
  33. 33. Molasses Case I : Brix = 85 Total Sugars = 51 Non-fermentable Solids = 85-51 = 34 F/N ratio = 51/34 = 1.50 Case II : Brix = 85 Total Sugars = 40 Non-fermentable Solids = 85-40 = 45 F/N ratio = 40/45 = 0.88 F/N ratio
  34. 34. F/N ratio < 0.9 retards fermentation rate by average 15-20% F/N ratio (www.praj.com)
  35. 35. Ash content > 10% can retard the rate of fermentation by 5-10% Ash content Max = 3.0% Ash content 10-16% Advantage of its Low Ash Content (www.praj.com)
  36. 36. Advantage of Absence of Volatile Acids > 5000 ppm reduce fermention rate by 30-40% > 7000 ppm reduce fermention rate by 40-50% Volatile Acids Cassava chips : None Molasses : Acetic acid, Formic acid etc. (www.praj.com)
  37. 37. Advantage of no caramelization in cassava > 0.40 OD retards fermentation rate by 20-25% (Measured as color in OD units at 375 nm of 0.1% Solution) (www.praj.com)
  38. 38. Advantage in waste utilization Solid waste Liquid waste
  39. 39. Sriroth et al., 2006. n.a = not applicable Waste Management Stillage quality from ethanol factories in Thailand Stillage from cassava chips Stillage from molasses 1. COD (mg/L) 40,000-60,000 100,000-150,000 2. BOD (mg/L) 15,000-30,000 40,000-70,000 3. TKN (mg/L) 350-400 1,500-2,000 4. Total Solids (mg/L) 60,000-65,000 100,000-120,000 5. Total Suspended Solid (mg/L) 3,000 - 20,000 14,000-18,000 6. Total Volatile Solids (mg/L) 20,000-40,000 n.a 7. Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L) 50,000 105,000-300,000 8. pH 3.5-4.3 4.1-4.6
  40. 40. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop “ Advantage of Well-developed technology for ethanol production from cassava”
  41. 41. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Cassava Chips Milling  -amylase glucoamylase yeast Distillation &Dehydration Liquefaction SSF Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentaion process
  42. 42. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Mass Balance of Ethanol from Cassava Chip T/D = Ton/Day, TS = Total Solid ,L/D =Liter/day Fermentation efficiency 90%, Distillation efficiency 98.5%
  43. 43. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Distillation & Dehydration Cassava Chips Milling Fermentation yeast Enzymes Simultaneous Liquefaction, Saccharification and Fermentation process (SLSF) UNCOOKED SINGLE-STEP
  44. 44. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop SEMs of corn starches treated with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) 6 - hr incubation 12 - hr incubation 24 - hr incubation 48 - hr incubation Cassava Corn
  45. 45. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop To increase ethanol concentration 18% (v/v) or 14.6% (w/w) Increase the total solid/starch content (>30% Total dissolved solid) by increasing the feedstock to water ratio VHG (very high gravity) technology in fuel alcohol production
  46. 46. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Mash viscosity reduction by enzyme cocktail VHG technology development for cassava roots
  47. 47. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Ethanol Fermentation VHG Technology Development Process water 99 Tons Mixing (total solid = 25%) 140 Tons Milling Water 59 Tons Fresh Root (moisture content = 60-70%) 100 Tons Cassava Chip (moisture content = 14%) 41 Tons Process water saving Sun Drying
  48. 48. Pilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  49. 49. Pilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  50. 50. Filtration Screw Press Pilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  51. 51. Solar Collector Pilot scale ethanol plant at Thailand
  52. 52. Technology transfer for ethanol production
  53. 53. Distillation Pilot Plant
  54. 54. On going development Fermenter Molecular sieve Ethanol 90-95 % Cassava Chip / Root VHG-SLSF process
  55. 55. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop Conclusions Cassava : The WINNER for an alternative food and biofuel Food - Improved yield with variation productions Fuel – Reduction of energy for ethanol production (SLSF / VHG)
  56. 56. Cassava as a biofuel/bioenergy crop THANK YOU [email_address] www.cassava.org www.thailandethanol.com

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