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Philippine literature during the spanish period


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Philippines Literature

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Philippine literature during the spanish period

  1. 1. Reported by: Flores, Denzel Lewis A. Lapidario, Cristina Marie A. Oseo, Vencent C.
  2. 2. • Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. Literature started to flourish during his time. The spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in 1872.
  3. 3. 1. Spanish language became the literary language this time 2. European legends and traditions 3. Ancient literature was collected and translated to Tagalog 4. Grammar books were printed in Filipino 5. Religious tone
  4. 4. Doctrina Christiana (Christian Docrtine) • The Doctrina Christiana was an early book of Roman Catholic Catechism, written in 1593 by Fray Juan de Plasencia, and is believed to be one of the earliest books printed in the Philippines. • The Doctrina Christiana is remarkable not only for having been printed at such an early period in an elaborated blackletter of the Spanish language, but also for having copies made in Tagalog, both in Latin script and the commonly used Baybayinscript of the natives at the time, plus another translation in traditional Chinese.
  5. 5. • Spanish language frontal text: “Doctrina Christiana en Lengua Espanola Y Tagala corregida Reglos por Los Religiosos de las Ordenes Impressa con Licencia en (San) Gabriel de las Orden de (Santo) Domingo. En Manila, 1593.”In English: “Christian Doctrine in Spanish and Tagalog Language, with correct rules for the Religious Order. Printed with Licence (Imprimatur) in Saint Gabriel of the Holy Dominican Order. In Manila, 1593.
  6. 6. Nuestra Señora Del Rosario • Book which contains the story of different saints, novena and various questions about Christianity.
  7. 7. Ang Barlaan at Josaphat • The first nover to be printed in the Philippines. Translated by Padre Antonio de Borja in 1712. This literary work contains religious teachings that will guide the people in the holy works through the acts of the main character Barlaan and Josaphat.
  8. 8. Urbana at Feliza • Written by Padre Modest De Castro from Binan, Laguna. He was called as the Father of Classical Prose in the Tagalog region. • The story is all about two sisters exchanging letters to each other. Urbana as the eldest sister always gives an advice to her younger sister Feliza who’s studying in Manila.
  9. 9. Ang Mga Dalit Kay Maria • Collection of songs praising the Virgin Mary. Fr. Mariano Sevilla wrote this in 1865. • This became popular during “Flores de Mayo”
  10. 10. Rizal’s Literary Works
  11. 11. • National Hero Jose Rizal (1861 - 1896) chose the realistic novel as his medium. Choosing Spanish over Tagalog meant challenging the oppressors on the latter’s own turf. By writing in prose, Rizal also cut his ties with the Balagtas tradition of the figurative indirection which veiled the supposed subversiveness of many writings at that time. • Rizal’s two novels, the Noli Me Tangere and its sequel El Filibusterismo, chronicle the life and ultimate death of Ibarra, a Filipino educated abroad, who attempts to reform his country through education. At the conclusion of the Noli, his efforts end in near-death and exile from his country. In the Filibusterismo, he returns after reinventing himself as Simoun, the wealthy jeweler, and hastens social decay by further corrupting the social fabric till the oppressed react violently to overthrow the system. But the insurrection is foiled and Simoun suffers a violent death. • In a sense, Rizal’s novels and patriotic poems were the inevitable conclusion to the campaign for liberal reforms known as the Propaganda Movement, waged by Graciano Lopez Jaena, and M.H. del Pilar. The two novels so vividly portrayed corruption and oppression that despite the lack of any clear advocacy, they served to instill the conviction that there could be no solution to the social ills but a violent one.
  12. 12. Noli Me Tangere • Noli Me Tángere (Touch me Not) is a novel written by José Rizal, considered as one of the national heroes of thePhilippines, during the colonization of the country by Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling government. The title, in Latin meaning Touch me not, refers to John 20:17 in the Bible (King James Version) as Mary Magdalene tried to touch the newly risen Jesus, He said "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father.“ Early English translations of the novel used titles like An Eagle Flight (1900) and The Social Cancer(1912), disregarding the symbolism of the title, but the more recent translations were published using the original Latintitle. It has also been noted by French writer D. Blumentritt that “Noli me tangere” was a name used by ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids. That as an ophthalmologist himself Rizal was influenced by this fact is suggested in his dedication, “To My Country”. • Originally written in Spanish, the book is more commonly published and read in the Philippines in either Filipino orEnglish. Together with its sequel, El Filibusterismo, the reading of Noli is obligatory for high school students throughout the archipelago.
  13. 13. El Filibusterismo • El Filibusterismo (lit. Spanish for "The Filibustering"[1]), also known by its English alternate title The Reign of Greed,[2]is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli Me Tángere and, like the first book, was written in Spanish. It was first published in 1891 in Ghent, Belgium. • The novel's dark theme departs dramatically from the previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere, signifying the character Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through violent means, after his previous attempt at reforming the country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with the attitudes of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos. The novel along with its predecessor were banned in some parts of the Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish government's abuse and corruption. These novels along with Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizal's exile to Dapitan and eventual execution. Both the novel and its predecessor, along with Rizal's last poem, are now considered Rizal's literary masterpieces.
  14. 14. Mi Ultimo Adios • Mi Último Adiós (Spanish, “My Last Farewell”) is a poem written by Philippine national hero Dr.José Rizal on the eve of his execution on 30 December 1896. The piece was one of the last notes he wrote before he was killed through Firing Squad; another that he had written was found in his shoe but because the text was illegible, its contents remain a mystery.
  15. 15. Sa Aking Mga Kabata • "Sa Aking Mga Kabatà" (English: To my Fellow Youth) is a poem about the love of one's native language written inTagalog. It is widely attributed to the Filipino national hero José Rizal, who supposedly wrote it in 1869 at the age of eight. There is no evidence, however, to support authorship by Rizal and several historians now believe it to be ahoax. The actual author of the poem is suspected to have been the poets Gabriel Beato Francisco or Herminigildo Cruz.
  16. 16. Other works of Rizal • Alin Mang Lahi” (“Whate’er the Race”), a Kundiman attributed to Dr. José Rizal[43] • The Friars and the Filipinos (Unfinished) • Toast to Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo (Speech, 1884), given at Restaurante Ingles, Madrid • The Diaries of José Rizal • Rizal's Letters is a compendium of Dr. Jose Rizal's letters to his family members, Blumentritt, Fr. Pablo Pastells and other reformers • "Come se gobiernan las Filipinas" (Governing the Philippine islands) • Filipinas dentro de cien años essay, 1889-90 (The Philippines a Century Hence) • La Indolencia de los Filipinos, essay, 1890 (The indolence of Filipinos) • Makamisa unfinished novel • Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos, essay, 1889, To the Young Women of Malolos • Annotations to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (essay, 1889, Events in the Philippine Islands)
  17. 17. Poetry • A La Juventud Filipina • El Canto Del Viajero • Briayle Crismarl • Canto Del Viajero • Canto de María Clara • Dalit sa Paggawa • Felictación • Kundiman (Tagalog) • Me Piden Versos • Mi primera inspiracion • Mi Retiro • Mi Ultimo Adiós • Por La Educación (Recibe Lustre La Patria) • Sa Sanggol na si Jesus • To My Muse (A Mi Musa) • Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo • A Man in Dapitan Plays • El Consejo de los Dioses (The council of Gods) • Junto Al Pasig (Along the Pasig)[ • San Euistaquio, Mártyr (Saint Eustache, the martyr)
  18. 18. Ibong Adarna • Ibong Adarna is an epic written in the 18th Century about an eponymous magical bird. The title's longer form during theSpanish Era was "Corrido at Buhay na Pinagdaanan nang Tatlóng Principeng anac nang Haring Fernando at nang Reina Valeriana sa Cahariang Berbania" (Filipino for "Corrido and Life Lived by the Three Princes, children of King Fernando and Queen Valeriana in the Kingdom of Berbania"). The author of the largely known epic was claimed to be José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw", but until now the real author was never known.
  19. 19. Florante at Laura • Florante at Laura (full title: Pinagdaanang Buhay nina Florante at Laura sa Kahariang Albanya: Kinuha sa madlang “cuadro histórico” o pinturang nagsasabi sa mga nangyayari nang unang panahon sa Imperyo ng Gresya, at tinula ng isang matuwain sa bersong Tagalog; English “The History of Florante and Laura in the Kingdom of Albania: Adapted from some ‘historical pictures’ or paintings that tell of what happened in early times in the Greek Empire, and were set to rhyme by one delighting in Tagalog verse”) by Francisco Balagtas is considered as one of the masterpieces ofPhilippine literature. Balagtas wrote the epic during his imprisonment. He dedicated to his sweetheart María Asuncion Rivera, whom he nicknamed "M. A. R." and is referenced to as "Selya" in the dedication "Kay Selya" ("For Celia").This is being taught in High School students of Grade 8
  20. 20. Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa • It is a poem written by Andres Bonifacio to encourage his fellow Filipinos to be more nationalistic and patriotic.
  21. 21. Leron-Leron Sinta Leron, Leron, sinta Buko ng papaya Dala dala’y buslo Sisidlan ng sinta Pagdating sa dulo’y Nabali ang sanga, Kapos kapalaran Humanap ng iba. Halika na Neneng, tayo’y manampalok Dalhin mo ang buslo, sisidlan ng hinog Pagdating sa dulo’y uunda-undayog Kumapit ka Neneng, baka ka mahulog. Halika na Neneng at tayo’y magsimba At iyong isuot ang baro mo’t saya Ang baro mo’t sayang pagkaganda-ganda Kay ganda ng kulay — berde, puti, pula. Ako’y ibigin mo, lalaking matapang Ang baril ko’y pito, ang sundang ko’y siyam Ang lalakarin ko’y parte ng dinulang Isang pinggang pansit ang aking kalaban.
  22. 22. Pamulinawen Pamulinawen Pusok imdengam man Toy umas-asug Agrayo ita sadiam. Panunotem man Dika pagintultulngan Toy agayat, agruknoy ita emmam. Itdem ta diak kalipatan Ta nasudi unay a nagan, Uray sadin' ti ayan, Lugar sadino man, Aw-awagak a di agsarday Ta naganmo a kasam-itan No malagipka, pusok ti mabang-aran!
  23. 23. Dandansoy Dandansoy, bayaan ta ikaw Pauli ako sa Payaw Ugaling kon ikaw hidlawon, Ang Payaw imo lang lantawon. Dandansoy, kon imo apason Bisan tubig dì ka magbalon Ugaling kon ikaw uhawon Sa dalan magbubon-bubon. Konbento, sa diin ang cura? Munisipyo, sa diin hustisya? Yari si Dansoy makiha, Makiha sa paghigugma. Panyo mo kag ini'ng panyo ko, Gisi-gisi-a kay tambihon ko, Ugaling kon magkasilo, Bana ta ikaw, asawa mo ako.
  24. 24. Sarung banggi Sarung banggi, sa higdaan Nakadangog ako nin huni nin sarong gamgam Sa loba ko katurogan Bako kundi simong boses iyo palan Dagos ako bangon Si sakuyang mata iminuklat Kaidtong kadikluman ako nangalagkalag Si sakong paghiling pasiring sa itaas Simong lawog nahiling ko maliwanag
  25. 25. Atin Cu Pung Singsing Atin cu pung singsing Metung yang timpucan Amana que iti Quing indung ibatan Sancan queng sininup Queng metung a caban Mewala ya iti E cu camalayan. Ing sucal ning lub cu Susucdul king banua Picurus cung gamat Babo ning lamesa Ninu mang manaquit Quing singsing cung mana Calulung pusu cu Manginu ya caya.
  26. 26. Cenakulo • Dramatic performance of the passion and death of Christ
  27. 27. Zarzuela • The father of drama, a musical comedy or melodrama three acts which death with men’s passion and emotions like love, hate, revenge, cruelty , avarice or some political problem.
  28. 28. Lagaylay • A special occasion for the pilareños of sorsogon during maytime to get together
  29. 29. Salubong • Dramatizes the reunion of the risen Christ and his mother.
  30. 30. Carillo • A form of dramatic entertainment perform on a moonless night during a town fiesta or on darknights after a harvest.
  31. 31. Sainete • A short musical comedy popular during the 18th century. They were exaggerated comedy shown between acts plays and were mostly performed by characters from the lower class.
  32. 32. Moro-Moro Like the Cenaculo, the Moro-Moro is presented also on a special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to entertain the people and to remind them of their Christian religion. Example: “Prinsipe Rodante”
  33. 33. Karagatan This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person.
  34. 34. Duplo The Duplo replaced the Karagatan. This is a poetic joust in speaking and reasoning.
  35. 35. Balagtasan This is a poetic joust or a contest of skills in debate on a particular topic or issue.
  36. 36. Dung-aw This is a chant in free verse by a bereaved person or his representative beside the corpse of the dead.
  37. 37. Awit • is in dodecasyllabic verse. • are fabricated stories from writers’ imagination although the setting and characters are European. • refers to chanting. • Example: • Florante at Laura • by Francisco Balagtas
  38. 38. Corrido • is in octosyllabic verse. • were usually on legends or stories from European countries like France, Spain, Italy and Greece. • refers to narration. • Example: • Ibong Adarna • by Jose de la Cruz
  39. 39. That’s all. Thank you!