Flores, Denzel Lewis A.
Lapidario, Cristina Marie A.
Oseo, Vencent C.
• Spanish colonization of the Philippines started
in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de
Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in
the Philippines. Literature started to flourish
during his time. The spurt continued unabated
until the Cavite Revolt in 1872.
1. Spanish language became the literary
language this time
2. European legends and traditions
3. Ancient literature was collected and
translated to Tagalog
4. Grammar books were printed in Filipino
5. Religious tone
Doctrina Christiana (Christian
• The Doctrina Christiana was an early book of Roman
Catholic Catechism, written in 1593 by Fray Juan de
Plasencia, and is believed to be one of the earliest books
printed in the Philippines.
• The Doctrina Christiana is remarkable not only for
having been printed at such an early period in an
elaborated blackletter of the Spanish language, but also
for having copies made in Tagalog, both in Latin
script and the commonly used Baybayinscript of the
natives at the time, plus another translation in
• Spanish language frontal text:
“Doctrina Christiana en Lengua Espanola Y Tagala
corregida Reglos por Los Religiosos de las Ordenes
Impressa con Licencia en (San) Gabriel de las Orden
de (Santo) Domingo. En Manila, 1593.”In English:
“Christian Doctrine in Spanish and Tagalog Language,
with correct rules for the Religious Order. Printed
with Licence (Imprimatur) in Saint Gabriel of the
Holy Dominican Order. In Manila, 1593.
Nuestra Señora Del Rosario
• Book which contains the story of different
saints, novena and various questions about
Ang Barlaan at Josaphat
• The first nover to be printed in the Philippines.
Translated by Padre Antonio de Borja in 1712.
This literary work contains religious teachings
that will guide the people in the holy works
through the acts of the main character Barlaan
Urbana at Feliza
• Written by Padre Modest De Castro from
Binan, Laguna. He was called as the Father of
Classical Prose in the Tagalog region.
• The story is all about two sisters exchanging
letters to each other. Urbana as the eldest sister
always gives an advice to her younger sister
Feliza who’s studying in Manila.
Ang Mga Dalit Kay Maria
• Collection of songs praising the Virgin Mary.
Fr. Mariano Sevilla wrote this in 1865.
• This became popular during “Flores de Mayo”
• National Hero Jose Rizal (1861 - 1896) chose the realistic novel as his
medium. Choosing Spanish over Tagalog meant challenging the
oppressors on the latter’s own turf. By writing in prose, Rizal also cut
his ties with the Balagtas tradition of the figurative indirection which
veiled the supposed subversiveness of many writings at that time.
• Rizal’s two novels, the Noli Me Tangere and its sequel El
Filibusterismo, chronicle the life and ultimate death of Ibarra, a Filipino
educated abroad, who attempts to reform his country through education.
At the conclusion of the Noli, his efforts end in near-death and exile
from his country. In the Filibusterismo, he returns after reinventing
himself as Simoun, the wealthy jeweler, and hastens social decay by
further corrupting the social fabric till the oppressed react violently to
overthrow the system. But the insurrection is foiled and Simoun suffers
a violent death.
• In a sense, Rizal’s novels and patriotic poems were the inevitable
conclusion to the campaign for liberal reforms known as the Propaganda
Movement, waged by Graciano Lopez Jaena, and M.H. del Pilar. The
two novels so vividly portrayed corruption and oppression that despite
the lack of any clear advocacy, they served to instill the conviction that
there could be no solution to the social ills but a violent one.
Noli Me Tangere
• Noli Me Tángere (Touch me Not) is a novel written by José Rizal, considered as
one of the national heroes of thePhilippines, during the colonization of the
country by Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the
ruling government. The title, in Latin meaning Touch me not, refers to John
20:17 in the Bible (King James Version) as Mary Magdalene tried to touch the
newly risen Jesus, He said "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my
Father.“ Early English translations of the novel used titles like An Eagle
Flight (1900) and The Social Cancer(1912), disregarding the symbolism of the
title, but the more recent translations were published using the original
Latintitle. It has also been noted by French writer D. Blumentritt that “Noli me
tangere” was a name used by ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids. That as
an ophthalmologist himself Rizal was influenced by this fact is suggested in his
dedication, “To My Country”.
• Originally written in Spanish, the book is more commonly published and read
in the Philippines in either Filipino orEnglish. Together with its sequel, El
Filibusterismo, the reading of Noli is obligatory for high school
students throughout the archipelago.
• El Filibusterismo (lit. Spanish for "The Filibustering"), also known by its
English alternate title The Reign of Greed,is the second novel written by
Philippine national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli Me Tángere and, like
the first book, was written in Spanish. It was first published in 1891 in Ghent,
• The novel's dark theme departs dramatically from the previous novel's hopeful
and romantic atmosphere, signifying the character Ibarra's resort to solving his
country's issues through violent means, after his previous attempt at reforming
the country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with the
attitudes of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos. The novel along with its
predecessor were banned in some parts of the Philippines as a result of their
portrayals of the Spanish government's abuse and corruption. These novels
along with Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform
the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizal's exile to Dapitan and
eventual execution. Both the novel and its predecessor, along with Rizal's last
poem, are now considered Rizal's literary masterpieces.
Mi Ultimo Adios
• Mi Último Adiós (Spanish, “My Last
Farewell”) is a poem written
by Philippine national hero Dr.José Rizal on
the eve of his execution on 30 December 1896.
The piece was one of the last notes he wrote
before he was killed through Firing Squad;
another that he had written was found in his
shoe but because the text was illegible, its
contents remain a mystery.
Sa Aking Mga Kabata
• "Sa Aking Mga Kabatà" (English: To my Fellow
Youth) is a poem about the love of one's native
language written inTagalog. It is widely attributed
to the Filipino national hero José Rizal, who
supposedly wrote it in 1869 at the age of eight.
There is no evidence, however, to support
authorship by Rizal and several historians now
believe it to be ahoax. The actual author of the
poem is suspected to have been the poets Gabriel
Beato Francisco or Herminigildo Cruz.
Other works of Rizal
• Alin Mang Lahi” (“Whate’er the Race”), a Kundiman attributed to Dr. José
• The Friars and the Filipinos (Unfinished)
• Toast to Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo (Speech, 1884), given at Restaurante
• The Diaries of José Rizal
• Rizal's Letters is a compendium of Dr. Jose Rizal's letters to his family members,
Blumentritt, Fr. Pablo Pastells and other reformers
• "Come se gobiernan las Filipinas" (Governing the Philippine islands)
• Filipinas dentro de cien años essay, 1889-90 (The Philippines a Century Hence)
• La Indolencia de los Filipinos, essay, 1890 (The indolence of Filipinos)
• Makamisa unfinished novel
• Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos, essay, 1889, To the Young Women of
• Annotations to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (essay, 1889,
Events in the Philippine Islands)
• A La Juventud Filipina
• El Canto Del Viajero
• Briayle Crismarl
• Canto Del Viajero
• Canto de María Clara
• Dalit sa Paggawa
• Kundiman (Tagalog)
• Me Piden Versos
• Mi primera inspiracion
• Mi Retiro
• Mi Ultimo Adiós
• Por La Educación (Recibe
Lustre La Patria)
• Sa Sanggol na si Jesus
• To My Muse (A Mi Musa)
• Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo
• A Man in Dapitan
• El Consejo de los Dioses (The
council of Gods)
• Junto Al Pasig (Along the
• San Euistaquio, Mártyr (Saint
Eustache, the martyr)
• Ibong Adarna is an epic written in the 18th
Century about an eponymous magical bird. The
title's longer form during theSpanish Era was
"Corrido at Buhay na Pinagdaanan nang Tatlóng
Principeng anac nang Haring Fernando at nang
Reina Valeriana sa Cahariang Berbania"
(Filipino for "Corrido and Life Lived by the Three
Princes, children of King Fernando and Queen
Valeriana in the Kingdom of Berbania"). The
author of the largely known epic was claimed to
be José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw", but until
now the real author was never known.
Florante at Laura
• Florante at Laura (full title: Pinagdaanang Buhay nina Florante
at Laura sa Kahariang Albanya: Kinuha sa madlang “cuadro
histórico” o pinturang nagsasabi sa mga nangyayari nang unang
panahon sa Imperyo ng Gresya, at tinula ng isang matuwain sa
bersong Tagalog; English “The History of Florante and Laura in
the Kingdom of Albania: Adapted from some ‘historical
pictures’ or paintings that tell of what happened in early times
in the Greek Empire, and were set to rhyme by one delighting
in Tagalog verse”) by Francisco Balagtas is considered as one
of the masterpieces ofPhilippine literature. Balagtas wrote
the epic during his imprisonment. He dedicated to his
sweetheart María Asuncion Rivera, whom he nicknamed "M. A.
R." and is referenced to as "Selya" in the dedication "Kay
Selya" ("For Celia").This is being taught in High School
students of Grade 8
Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa
• It is a poem written by Andres Bonifacio to
encourage his fellow Filipinos to be more
nationalistic and patriotic.
Leron, Leron, sinta
Buko ng papaya
Dala dala’y buslo
Sisidlan ng sinta
Pagdating sa dulo’y
Nabali ang sanga,
Humanap ng iba.
Halika na Neneng, tayo’y manampalok
Dalhin mo ang buslo, sisidlan ng hinog
Pagdating sa dulo’y uunda-undayog
Kumapit ka Neneng, baka ka mahulog.
Halika na Neneng at tayo’y magsimba
At iyong isuot ang baro mo’t saya
Ang baro mo’t sayang pagkaganda-ganda
Kay ganda ng kulay — berde, puti, pula.
Ako’y ibigin mo, lalaking matapang
Ang baril ko’y pito, ang sundang ko’y siyam
Ang lalakarin ko’y parte ng dinulang
Isang pinggang pansit ang aking kalaban.
Pusok imdengam man
Agrayo ita sadiam.
Toy agayat, agruknoy ita emmam.
Itdem ta diak kalipatan
Ta nasudi unay a nagan,
Uray sadin' ti ayan,
Lugar sadino man,
Aw-awagak a di agsarday
Ta naganmo a kasam-itan
No malagipka, pusok ti mabang-aran!
Dandansoy, bayaan ta ikaw
Pauli ako sa Payaw
Ugaling kon ikaw hidlawon,
Ang Payaw imo lang lantawon.
Dandansoy, kon imo apason
Bisan tubig dì ka magbalon
Ugaling kon ikaw uhawon
Sa dalan magbubon-bubon.
Konbento, sa diin ang cura?
Munisipyo, sa diin hustisya?
Yari si Dansoy makiha,
Makiha sa paghigugma.
Panyo mo kag ini'ng panyo ko,
Gisi-gisi-a kay tambihon ko,
Ugaling kon magkasilo,
Bana ta ikaw, asawa mo ako.
Sarung banggi, sa higdaan
Nakadangog ako nin huni nin sarong gamgam
Sa loba ko katurogan
Bako kundi simong boses iyo palan
Dagos ako bangon
Si sakuyang mata iminuklat
Kaidtong kadikluman ako nangalagkalag
Si sakong paghiling pasiring sa itaas
Simong lawog nahiling ko maliwanag
Atin Cu Pung Singsing
Atin cu pung singsing
Metung yang timpucan
Amana que iti
Quing indung ibatan
Sancan queng sininup
Queng metung a caban
Mewala ya iti
E cu camalayan.
Ing sucal ning lub cu
Susucdul king banua
Picurus cung gamat
Babo ning lamesa
Ninu mang manaquit
Quing singsing cung mana
Calulung pusu cu
Manginu ya caya.
• Dramatic performance of the passion and
death of Christ
• The father of drama, a musical comedy or
melodrama three acts which death with men’s
passion and emotions like love, hate, revenge,
cruelty , avarice or some political problem.
• A special occasion for the pilareños of
sorsogon during maytime to get together
• Dramatizes the reunion of the risen Christ and
• A form of dramatic entertainment perform on
a moonless night during a town fiesta or on
darknights after a harvest.
• A short musical comedy popular during the
18th century. They were exaggerated comedy
shown between acts plays and were mostly
performed by characters from the lower class.
Like the Cenaculo, the Moro-Moro is
presented also on a special stage. This is
performed during town fiestas to entertain
the people and to remind them of their
Example: “Prinsipe Rodante”
This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-religious
nature celebrated during the
death of a person.
The Duplo replaced the Karagatan.
This is a poetic joust in speaking and
This is a poetic joust or a contest of
skills in debate on a particular topic or
This is a chant in free verse by a bereaved
person or his representative beside the corpse
of the dead.
• is in dodecasyllabic verse.
• are fabricated stories from writers’ imagination
although the setting and characters are European.
• refers to chanting.
• Florante at Laura
• by Francisco Balagtas
• is in octosyllabic verse.
• were usually on legends or stories from European
countries like France, Spain, Italy and Greece.
• refers to narration.
• Ibong Adarna
• by Jose de la Cruz