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Bone physiology/endodontic courses

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Bone physiology/endodontic courses

  1. 1. BONE PHYSIOLOGYBONE PHYSIOLOGY INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYINDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing Dental EducationLeader in continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ContentsContents  IntroductionIntroduction  BiochemistryBiochemistry  OsteologyOsteology  Types of bone tissueTypes of bone tissue  Bone metabolismBone metabolism  Calcium conservation and dietCalcium conservation and diet  Osteoblast histogenesis and boneOsteoblast histogenesis and bone formationformation  Osteoclast recruitment and boneOsteoclast recruitment and bone resorptionresorption www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3.  Skeletal adaptation: modeling andSkeletal adaptation: modeling and remodelingremodeling  Cortical bone growth and maturationCortical bone growth and maturation  Markers and physiologic indexes of boneMarkers and physiologic indexes of bone cell functioncell function  Clinical co-relationClinical co-relation www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com Indian Dental academy • www.indiandentalacademy.com • Leader continuing dental education • Offer both online and offline dental courses
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. BIOCHEMISTRYBIOCHEMISTRY www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. OsteologyOsteology www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Differential osteology of the maxillaDifferential osteology of the maxilla and the mandibleand the mandible www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. BONE GROWTHBONE GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Structure ofStructure of typical long bonetypical long bone before and afterbefore and after epiphysial closureepiphysial closure www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Types of bone tissueTypes of bone tissue  Lamellar bone (99%)Lamellar bone (99%) COMPACTCOMPACT OROR CORTICAL BONE (80%)CORTICAL BONE (80%) TRABECULARTRABECULAR OROR SPONGY BONE (20%)SPONGY BONE (20%)  Woven boneWoven bone  Composite boneComposite bone  Bundle boneBundle bone www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. StructureStructure ofof CompactCompact andand TrabecularTrabecular BoneBone www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Bone Metabolism www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Calcium ConservationCalcium Conservation www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Osteoblast histogenesis and boneOsteoblast histogenesis and bone formationformation www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Osteoblasts are derivd from paraOsteoblasts are derivd from para www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. PHOSPHATE ESTERSPHOSPHATE ESTERS HYDROLYSED BY THE ALKALINEHYDROLYSED BY THE ALKALINE↓↓PHOSPHATASE FROM OSTEOBLASTSPHOSPHATASE FROM OSTEOBLASTS PHOSPHATESPHOSPHATES INCREASED CONCENTRATION IN THE VICINITY OF THE OSTEOBLASTSINCREASED CONCENTRATION IN THE VICINITY OF THE OSTEOBLASTS ↓↓ CALCIUM PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATECALCIUM PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Bone ProteinsBone Proteins  CollagenCollagen  Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP’s)Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP’s) Matrix G1a Protein (MGP)Matrix G1a Protein (MGP) Bone G1a Protein (BGP, osteocalcin)Bone G1a Protein (BGP, osteocalcin)  OsteonectinOsteonectin  OsteopontinOsteopontin G1a =G1a = γγ carboxylated glutamic acid residues whichcarboxylated glutamic acid residues which bind calcium ionsbind calcium ions www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Osteoclast recruitment and boneOsteoclast recruitment and bone resorptionresorption www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. OsteoclastOsteoclast resorbingresorbing bonebone www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. FACTORS AFFECTING OSTEOBLASTS ANDFACTORS AFFECTING OSTEOBLASTS AND OSTEOCLASTSOSTEOCLASTS STIMULATE OSTEOBLASTSSTIMULATE OSTEOBLASTS PTHPTH 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol IL-1IL-1 T3, T4T3, T4 Hgh, IGF-1Hgh, IGF-1 PGE2PGE2 TNFTNF ESTROGENS (?)ESTROGENS (?) INHIBIT OSTEOBLASTSINHIBIT OSTEOBLASTS CORICOSTEROIDSCORICOSTEROIDS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. STIMULATE OSTEOCLASTSSTIMULATE OSTEOCLASTS PTHPTH 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol IL-6, IL-11IL-6, IL-11 INHIBIT OSTEOCLASTSINHIBIT OSTEOCLASTS CALCITONINCALCITONIN ESTROGENSESTROGENS TGF-TGF-ββ INF-INF-αα PGE2PGE2 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. SKELETAL ADAPTATION:SKELETAL ADAPTATION: MODELING AND REMODELINGMODELING AND REMODELING www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. CORTICAL BONE GROWTH ANDCORTICAL BONE GROWTH AND MATURATIONMATURATION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. The cutting cone has a head of osteoclasts that cut through the bone and a tail of osteoblasts that form a new secondary osteon. The velocity is measured by two tetracycline labels 1 and 2 administered 1 week apart. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. FACTORFACTOR PEAK LOAD INPEAK LOAD IN MICROSTRAIN (MICROSTRAIN (µµεε)) MECHANICALMECHANICAL DISUSE ATROPHYDISUSE ATROPHY <200<200 BONE MAINTAINENCEBONE MAINTAINENCE 200 - 2500200 - 2500 PHYSIOLOGIC HYPERTROPHYPHYSIOLOGIC HYPERTROPHY 2500 - 40002500 - 4000 PATHOLOGIC OVERLOADPATHOLOGIC OVERLOAD >4000>4000 ENDOCRINEENDOCRINE BONE METABOLIC HORMONES:BONE METABOLIC HORMONES: PTH, VIT D,PTH, VIT D, CALCITONINCALCITONIN GROWTH HORMONES:GROWTH HORMONES: SOMATOTROPIN, IGF-I,SOMATOTROPIN, IGF-I, IGF-IIIGF-II SEX STEROIDS:SEX STEROIDS: TESTOSTERONE ANDTESTOSTERONE AND ESTROGENESTROGEN PARACRINE AND AUTOCRINEPARACRINE AND AUTOCRINE WIDE VARIETY OF AGENTSWIDE VARIETY OF AGENTS CONTROL FACTORS OF BONE MODELING www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. CONTROL FACTORS OF BONE REMODELINGCONTROL FACTORS OF BONE REMODELING METABOLICMETABOLIC PARATHYROID HORMONE:PARATHYROID HORMONE: ACTIVATION FREQUENCYACTIVATION FREQUENCY ESTROGEN:ESTROGEN: ↓ACTIVATION FREQUENCY↓ACTIVATION FREQUENCY MECHANICALMECHANICAL <1000<1000µµεε: MORE REMODELLING: MORE REMODELLING >2000>2000µµεε: LESS REMODELLING: LESS REMODELLING www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Markers and physiologic indexes ofMarkers and physiologic indexes of bone cell functionbone cell function  Mineralized sectionsMineralized sections  Polarized light birefringencePolarized light birefringence  Fluorescent labelsFluorescent labels  MicroradiographyMicroradiography  Backscatter emission imagingBackscatter emission imaging  Micro-computed tomographyMicro-computed tomography  AutoradiographyAutoradiography  Nuclear volume morphometryNuclear volume morphometry  Finite element modelingFinite element modeling  MicroelectrodesMicroelectrodeswww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Mineralized sectionMineralized section Radiolucent areas are the young osteons and the radiodense areas are the oldest and most mineralised portions of the bone.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Polarized light microscopyPolarized light microscopy Collagen orientation in the bone matrix, “C” is the lamellae with longitudinally oriented matrix is strong in tension and the darker horizontally oriented matrix has most strength in compression.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Multiple fluorochrome labelsMultiple fluorochrome labels Multiple fluorochrome labels at 2 week interval show incidence and rate of bone formationwww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. MicroradiographMicroradiograph An array of concentric secondary osteons characteristic of rapidly remodelling Cortical Bone.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Mandibular condyle: young rabbitMandibular condyle: young rabbit www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Mandibular condyle: adult rabbitMandibular condyle: adult rabbit www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Backscatter emission imagingBackscatter emission imaging www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Micro-computed tomographyMicro-computed tomography www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. 3D microcomputed tomographic3D microcomputed tomographic view of periimplant radiolucentview of periimplant radiolucent areasareas www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. AutoradiographyAutoradiography www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. R=root; B=bone; intermediate area is the periodontal ligament (PDL) inR=root; B=bone; intermediate area is the periodontal ligament (PDL) in which the nuclei are synthesizing DNA. Thick line is the eventual bonewhich the nuclei are synthesizing DNA. Thick line is the eventual bone formation.formation. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Nuclear volume morphometryNuclear volume morphometry www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Finite element modelingFinite element modeling The mesh for a two dimensional finite element mode of a rat maxillary first molar with adjacent periodontiumwww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. MicroelectrodesMicroelectrodes www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Metabolic bone diseaseMetabolic bone disease  OsteoporosisOsteoporosis  Rickets / OsteomalaciaRickets / Osteomalacia  Real osteodystrophyReal osteodystrophy www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. ReferencesReferences  William F. Ganong: Review of medicalWilliam F. Ganong: Review of medical physiology 20physiology 20thth Ed. 2001, McGraw-HillEd. 2001, McGraw-Hill  Guyton and Hall: Textbook of medicalGuyton and Hall: Textbook of medical Physiology 10Physiology 10thth Ed. 2001 W.B. SaundersEd. 2001 W.B. Saunders  Orban’s: Oral Histology and embryology 11Orban’s: Oral Histology and embryology 11thth ed.ed. 1997 Mosby1997 Mosby  Graber, Vanarsdall, Vig: Orthodontics: currentGraber, Vanarsdall, Vig: Orthodontics: current principles and techniques 4principles and techniques 4thth ed. 2005, Elseviered. 2005, Elsevier MosbyMosby  Atkinson SR: Balance, the magic word, AJO-DOAtkinson SR: Balance, the magic word, AJO-DO 50:189, 196450:189, 1964 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com

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