The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and
offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.for more details please visit
In Orthodontics all the devices which projects
horizontally to support the archwire and are
open on one end usually vertical or horizontal
plane are called brackets.
Raymond C. Thurow has defined bracket as
an orthodontic attachment secured to a tooth
for the purpose of engaging on arch wire
RIBBON ARCH APPLIANCE BY
Curved Base Twin Bracket
Labio Lingual Appliance2
John Mershon developed this system in 1926
Universal appliance brackets 2
Spencer Atkinson in 1935
Twin wire brackets2
Joseph Johnson 1934
Modified Ribbon Arch Brackets
1928, P. R. Begg of Adelaide, South Australia,
a former student at the Angle School of
Observed that many of the patients he had
treated with expansion using edgewise
appliance experienced collapse of their
occlusions at the end of retention and/or had
unacceptable soft-tissue profiles
Begg’s appliance developed by Dr P.R.Begg
Begg’s adaptation took 3 forms
Replacement of precious metal ribbon arch
with high strength 16 mil SS wire which
became available in 1930s
Retained the original bracket but turned it
Added auxiliary springs for control of root
Base of the bracket
Welding tab ,solder or a bonding mesh
Curved to conform tooth structure
Mode of retention of bracket bases may be:
Mechanical and chemical retention
Bracket base types
The sizes of the wire mesh used in the
manufacturing of the various single mesh type
bases were 40, 60, 80, and 100 meshes
Non mesh type
PARTS OF A DIRECT-BONDING METAL BRACKET12
MESH TYPE BASES
FOIL MESH BASE
DYNA BOND MESH BASE
SUPER MESH BASE (GAC)ORMESH BASE (100 gauge foil mesh)
Nominal area of bracket base is measured by
a method called Planimetry where enlarged
photographs of bracket base are examined
and mesh size is also calculated by counting
wires per linear inch (Dickinson 1980).
NON-MESH TYPE BASES
MICRO ETCH BASE
DYNA-LOCK INTEGRAL BASE
LASER STRUCTURED BASE
STAINLESS STEEL BRACKETS
WITH DIFFERENT BASE TYPES
James Lopez (1980) studied retentive shear strength
of sixteen commercially available stainless steel
The solid bases with perforations around the periphery
had lowest mean shear strengths and are probably due
to the lack of mechanical retention in the center of the
The solid base with perforations throughout the base
slightly increased the mean shear strength values.
Solid base with circular indents that serve for retention
was generally ranked in the intermediate bond strengths.
The foil mesh designs proved to range from the most
inferior to the most superior shear strengths.
Smaller foil mesh bases could be used without sacrificing
Brackets can be grouped into various types
based on :
Their width and size
Type of rotation control wings
Mode of ligation (ligation capabilities)
Materials used in Orthodontic
The original brackets as designed by Angle
were made of gold.
Gold at least 75%
Platinum, iridium and silver alloys
Lacked flexibility and tensile strength.
German silver (a brass)
Copper 65 %, Nickel 14 %, and zinc 21%
J.N.Farrar condemned the use of the new alloy,
showing that it discolored in the mouth
Stainless steel entered dentistry in 1919
introduced at Krupp’s Dental Polyclinic in
Germany by the company’s dentist F Hauptmeyer.
He first used it to make a prosthesis and called it
WIPLA ( like platinum in German), the designation
which is still used in Europe.12
Brackets made of stainless steel are alloys
formulated according to the American Iron and
Steel Institute (AISI)
SAF 2205 has 22% Cr, 5.5% Ni, 3% Mn, and 0.03% C
The 2205 stainless steel alloy has a duplex microstructure
consisting of austenitic and delta-ferritic phases and is harder
and demonstrated less crevice corrosion than 316L alloy.
(Oshida & Moore)
Excess of carbon + Cr depleted Austenitic
Film of chromium carbide interferes with
grain coherence and leads to intergranular
Other additives are,
Silicon (Si) if kept at lower concentration, improves
resistance to oxidation at & to corrosion
Sulfur (S) sulfur content allows easy machining of
Phosphorus (P) allows use of a lower temperature for
Manganese (Mn) used as a replacement for nickel to
CLASSIFICATION OF STAINLESS STEELS
Stainless steels are classified according to the American Iron and Steel
Institute (AISI) system.
1) Austenitic steels (300 series)
2) Martensitic steels (400 series)
3) Ferritic steels
4) Duplex steels
5) Precipitation-hardenable (PH) steels
6) Cobalt containing alloys
7) Manganese containing steels
MANUFACTURING METHODS FOR
From thin metal strip that is stamped to shape
Milling one-piece attachment is milled on the lathe
Casting where one-piece brackets are made by casting
Sintering the partial welding together of metal particles
below their melting point
Metal injection molding (MIM) This technique requires the
use of computer-aided design, along with computer-
numerical controlled machines tools.
Morton Cohen and Silverman introduced
the first commercially available plastic
brackets (IPB brackets), manufactured by
GAC in 1963.
They are made of acrylics, nylons, expoxy
Less irritation to soft tissues
no odor or bad taste (Newman, 1969)
Staining and discoloration, (particularly in
patients who smoke or drink coffee)
Poor dimensional stability (lack strength to resist
distortion and breakage)
Wire slot wear (which leads to loss of tooth
Undue friction between the surface of the plastic
bracket and metal arch wires that makes it very
difficult to slide teeth into a new position.
Uptake of water (Newman 1973).
Various reinforced polycarbonate brackets were,
1) Fiberglass reinforced polycarbonate brackets
2) Ceramic reinforced polycarbonate brackets
3) Metal slot reinforced polycarbonate brackets
4) Metal slot and ceramic reinforced polycarbonate brackets
PLASTIC WITH STAINLESS STEEL
Available in .018 x .022, .022 x .028 slots by
Have unbreakable and distortion free slot
Wide tie wings for easy ligation
Rounded edges for patient comfort
Rough surface of bracket pad to facilitate retention of
Suitable for all bonding systems
But added bulk is required to provide adequate strength of
the tie wings www.indiandentalacademy.com
Commercially available :
Extra wide for maxillary incisors
Medium width for maxillary laterals
Narrow width for mandibular centrals and
Medium width for all canines and bicuspids
POLYCARBONATES WITH FIBERGLASS
Currently available include (American
orthodontics) as the name SILKON and
Available in .018 x .022, .022 x .028 slots
Poor dimensional stability and reduced
resistance to fracture. (Newman 1969)
PLASTIC WITH CERAMIC
Enhanced strength without steel
Super smooth surface
Mechanical lock base
Available in .018 and .022 slot sizes in Roth
prescription, Standard Edgewise appliance.
Ceramic orthodontic brackets were
introduced in late 1980s
Ceramics used for the manufacturing of
ceramic brackets were Alumina and
Various ceramic brackets
on the market
Four different types of ceramic brackets currently available are
Material Manufacturer, name
Polycrystalline alumina American, dentarum, rockey mountain,
unitek, transund and many others.
Poly crystalline alumina with
Monocrystalline alumina A co, starfire.
Polycrystalline zirconia Yumaura, toray.
INTERATOMIC BONDING OF
combination of covalent
and ionic bonding
This strong interatomic bonding accounts
for the advantageous chemical inertness
of dental ceramics.
MANUFACTURING METHODS FOR
rod or bar form
treated to remove
by the milling
particles + binder
1800C to burn
out the binder and
of the particles
treated to remove
by the milling
Bonding of ceramic brackets
Ceramic brackets bond to enamel by
Mechanical retention via indentations and / or
under cuts in the base.
Chemical bonding by means of silane coupling
agents. (both chemically and light cured
adhesives are available).
Micromechanical retention through the utilization
of a number of configurations, including
protruding crystals, grooves, a porous surface,
and spherical glass particles.
The coupling agent:
MPTS) has been used for promoting chemical
adhesion between surfaces.
The optical esthetic properties of ceramics provide
the only main advantage over stainless steel
A very important physical property of ceramic
brackets is the extremely high hardness of
aluminium oxide, so that both monocrystalline and
polycrystalline alumina have a significant
advantage over stainless steel (Birnie 1990).
Swartz (1988) stated that ceramic brackets are
nine times harder than stainless steel brackets and
Reported bond strengths for ceramic
brackets are in the range of 123 to 288
kg/cm2 compared with 50 to 170 kg/cm2
for stainless steel brackets
Drawbacks of ceramic brackets
1. The frictional resistance between orthodontic
wire and ceramic brackets is greater and less
predictable than it is with steel brackets.
This makes determining optimal force levels
and anchorage control difficult.
Pratten, Popli & Germane (1990) studied
frictional resistance between ceramic and
stainless steel brackets using Nitinol and
stainless steel wires.
Ceramic brackets provide significantly greater
frictional resistance than stainless steel
brackets when they are used in combination
with either stainless steel or nitinol arch wires.
Under all conditions, the stainless steel
brackets had lower coefficients of friction than
the ceramic brackets.
Omana and Moore (1992) compared static
frictional properties of metal and ceramic
brackets and concluded that,
Smoother, injection-molded ceramic brackets
appear to create less friction than other
Wider metal or ceramic brackets create less
friction than narrower brackets of the same
CERAMIC BRACKETS WITH METAL SLOTS
CLARITY (3M UNITEK)
2. The surface is rougher or more porous than
that of steel brackets and hence can lead to
oral hygiene problems.
3. The added bulk required to provide adequate
strength makes oral hygiene still more difficult
4. They are less durable and are brittle in nature.
The limiting physical property of ceramic
brackets is fracture toughness.
An alumina ceramic bracket has a fracture
toughness of 3.0 to 5.3 Mpa
Stainless steel bracket has a fracture toughness
of 80 to 90 MPa
5. They can induce wearing of enamel of
6. Difficult to debond than steel brackets
and wing fracture may easily occur during
A Example of fracture of the Starfire bracket.
B Example of fracture of the Allure bracket.
C Example of fracture of the Transcend bracket.
Bishara and Trulove1990 AJO-DO
bond failure at the bracket-adhesive interface
bond failure at the enamel-
combination bond failure.
Part of the adhesive
remains on the tooth
surface and part is
removed with the bracket.www.indiandentalacademy.com
Photoelastic studies and finite-element
analyses have shown that tie-wings are
generally the locations of concentrated
stresses when forces are applied to the
Tie-wing fractures have been much more
common for the single-crystal alumina
brackets because of their lower resistance to
Clinical precautions when using
The blades of the pliers should be
placed at the enamel-bracket
Electrothermic debracketing (ETD)
Sheridan, Brawley and Hastings (1986)
introduced an alternative to conventional
bracket removal. The technique is called
Electrothermic debrackAJeting (ETD).
ETD is the technique of removing bonded
brackets from enamel surfaces with a
cordless battery device that generates
Dentaurum thermodebonding unit inserted into
The disadvantages of
electrothermal bonding :
A potential for pulpal damage that still needs to
be definitively assessed.
An increase in the temperature of the cone
part of the handpiece, which has the potential
to cause patient discomfort or mucosal
irritation if carelessly used.
The still-bulky handpiece design, which makes
its intraoral use difficult in the premolar region.
CO-CR ALLOY BRACKETS 5
Cast surface is
providing lower friction
forces between wire
It also undergoes less
corrosion as compared
to stainless steel.
TITANIUM BRACKETS 8,5
• Pure titanium bracket
(DENTAURUM) in 1995.
• Its one-piece construction
requires no brazing layer, and
thus it is a solder- and nickel-free
• Titanium brackets were grayer in
color and rougher in texture than
the stainless steel brackets
• Imparts none of the metallic
taste as seen in stainless
• Titanium also has low
The chemical composition is 99+% Ti
less than 0.30% iron
The marking and the structuring of the retentive
base pads were done by a computer-aided laser
(CAL) cutting process, which generates micro-
Role of TiO2
Inhibits adsorption or absorption of foreign
metal ions or additional oxygen atoms.
Its passivity over a broad pH range
Ti exhibits the minimum tissue response of all
commonly used metals.
Researchers have suggested that brackets
constructed from zirconia have low friction in
clinical use. (Springate 1991).
Low frictional coefficients, good wear resistance,
high fracture toughness, and biocompatibility
[Keith, Kusy, and Whitley(1994 AJO DO)]
Commercially available as:
Harmony – Hudson ltd. Sheffield U.K.
Toray – Yamura corp. Tokyo Japan
BRACKETS PART II
By Dr. Neha Chowdhry
Evolution of brackets
Ribbon Arch bracket
Curved base twin
Modified Ribbon Arch
Brackets used in
Parts of bracket
Materials used in
Bracket and Type of
rotation control wings
Lewis bracket and its
Mode of ligation
BASED ON ROTATION CONTROL
Inter bracket distance is
Resiliency in the arch wire is
Difficulty in employing closing
loop arch wires and second
Interferes with the amount of
closing action that can be
obtained by activating closing
loops. But the narrower
bracket allowed more
activation of these arch wires.
Dr. Howard Lang
The single bracket
allows for easy ligation
The wing can easily be
activated for rotational
1. 100% desired tooth rotation .
3. They do not interfere with activation of
4. Second order bends and other archwire
bends slide freely past the rotation wings
Lewis bracket by Dr. Paul D Lewis,
Curved Lewis bracket
Vertical slot lewis bracket
further refinement was done
by incorporating a .020
x.020 vertical slot
uprighting spring to correct
Steiner bracket by Cecil Steiner
The original SWA was introduced by
Andrews in 1972
He recommended a wide range of
- For extraction cases, anti-tip,anti-rotation,
and power arms for control space
-Three sets of incisor brackets with varying
degrees of torque for different clinical
Roth Bracket system
To avoid inventory difficulties or multiple
bracket system, ROTH recommended a single
appliance system to manage both extraction
and non-extraction cases.
Purpose of the ‘Roth setup’
To provide idealized tooth position prior to
Allow the teeth to settle to Andrews non
with overcorrection in
all planes of space
"Six Keys to Normal
0.018 and 0.022 slot brackets available
0.018 – too restrictive in wire size selection
0.022 slot preferred – in terms of :
Wire size selection
Stabilizing arches as anchor units
Control of torque in buccal segment
Single wing bracket with rotation
arms versus twin bracket
Range of brackets
- Standard size metal brackets.
- Mid-size metal brackets.
Improved i.d system
Laser numbering of standard size metal
Reduces bulk and assists accuracy of bracket
Drawing of original
Dots (upper) and
dashes (lower) were
used for i.d
Drawing of MBT
brackets have a
bracket may be
offset on specially
strength and reduce
the risk of bond
bases on lower
help in plaque
control in this
The MBT prescription
Disadvantages of additional anterior tip
Significant drain on A/P anchorage.
Increased the tendency to bite deepening
during alignment stage.
Brought upper canine root apex too close to
the first premolar root in some cases.
Reduced anterior tip was incorporated into
the appliance to conform to Andrews original
research, and to dramatically reduce the
anchorage needs of each case.
Incisor Tip Cuspid Tip
4.0 8.0 0 0 8.0 3.0
5.0 9.0 2.0 2.0 11.0 5.0
Bicuspid Tip Molar Tip
Upper First Upper
Upper First Upper
MBT Versatile+ 0 0 0 0
Original SWA 2.0 2.0 5.0 5.0
Lower Bicuspid Tip Lower Molar Tip
Lower First Lower
Lower First Lower
MBT Versatile+ 2.0 2.0 0 0
Original SWA 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
•Upper incisor brackets are provided with additional
palatal root torque; while lower incisor brackets are
provided with additional labial root torque.
•This adjustment aids in the correction of the most
common torque problems occurring in the incisor
Upper central incisor torque
torque for upper
Incisor Torque Incisor Torque
MBT Versatile+ 17.0 10.0 -6.0 -6.0
Original SWA 7.0 3.0 -1.0 -1.0
UPPER CUSPID ,BICUSPID
AND MOLAR TORQUE.
•Upper cuspid and bicuspid brackets are provided
with the normal -70 of torque.
•Upper molar brackets are provided with an additional
50 of buccal root torque (-90 to -140 ) to reduce palatal
cusp interferences with these teeth.
Upper canine torque.
Available in –70 ,00 ,
+70 , torque.
The 00 and +70
options are for cases
with narrow maxillary
bone form andor
roots,and are often
used with archwires in
the tapered form.
There was a tendency for upper
first molar palatal cusps to
A bracket with – 140 of buccal
torque gives extra control.
AND MOLAR TORQUE.
•Progressive buccal crown torque is provided in
the brackets of the lower posterior segments.
•This allows for buccal uprighting of these
teeth,which is beneficial in most cases.
Lower canine torque
available in –60 ,00
The 00 and +60
options are for cases
form or prominent
canine roots,or deep
bites at start of
Lower Cuspid, Bicuspid and Molar Torque
-6.0 -12.0 -17.0 -20.0 -10.0
-11.0 -17.0 -22.0 -30.0 -35.0
TIP EDGE BRACKET SYSTEM
by Dr. Peter C. Kesling (1988).
Tip edge bracket
(A)Narrow metal tip edge bracket
(B)Twin metal tip edge bracket
(C)Narrow ceramic tip edge bracket
Dr. Kraven Kurz of California in
* The first Kurz lingual
appliance in 1976
has flat maxillary
occlusal bite plane
from canine to
* Lower incisor
brackets are ½
rounded and these
had no hooks on
any brackets. www.indiandentalacademy.com
Generation 2 in 1980
* Hooks were added
to all canine bracket
Generation 3, 1981.
• Hooks were added to
• The first molar had
bracket with an
• Second molar had a
without hook but had
terminal recess for
Generation 4, 1982-84
Addition of low profile
anterior inclined plane
on the central and
Bracket hooks are
optional based upon
Generation 5, 1985-86
• Anterior inclination plane became more
• In the maxillary anterior region the canine also
had an inclined plane.
• Hooks are optional.
Generation 6, 1987-90
• Inclined plane on
square in shape.
• Hooks of anterior
and premolars were
elongated hooks are
available on all
Generation at 7, 1990 to
Maxillary anterior inclined
plane is now heart shaped
with short hooks.
The lower anterior brackets
have larger inclined plane
with short hooks.
The premolar brackets were
widened mesiodistally and
the hooks shortened
The increased width of
premolar bracket allows
better angulation and rotation
The molar brackets now
came with either a huge cap
or a terminal sheath. www.indiandentalacademy.com
Self ligating brackets12,14
Self ligating brackets it is defined as “a bracket
which utilizes a permanently installed
moveable component to entrap the arch wire”.
The passive brackets use a rigid, movebale
component to entrap the arch wire.
Tooth control is solely determined by the fit
between the arch wire and the slot.
The slot becomes a tube and hence tooth
control is often compromised when undersized
arch wires are used.
Damon SL, EdgeLock
Active self ligating brackets
The first self-ligating bracket, the Russell
attachment, was developed by a New York
orthodontic pioneer, Dr. Jacob Stolzenberg, in
the early 1930s
The Edgelok bracket by Dr. Jim
Wildman of Eugene, Oregon(1971)
Developed during the 1980s and introduced by
The name is derived from the descriptive term
spring-loaded, precision, edge-wise, energy
Herbert Hanson (1986): Speed bracket.
JCO, 20, No.3, 183-189www.indiandentalacademy.com
Time bracket by Wolfgang Heiser
of Innsbruck, Austria
1. William R.Proffit, ‘Contemporary Orthodontics’,Third Edition Year
2004 Elsevier , 2-4,386 – 392
2. T.M. Graber,’Orthodontics Principles and Practice,Third Edition
year 1996 ,1 -5
3. Milton b.Asbell,A Brief History Of Orthodontics American Journal
of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics Year 1990: Volume 98
(2);176 – 189
4. Andrews L.F. (1990): JCO interviews, JCO 24, 493-508
5. Brantley Orthodontic materials scientific and clinical aspects.
First edition 143-160
6. Andreas Karamouzos, DDS, Athanasios... Clinical characteristics
and properties of ceramic brackets: A comprehensive review
Source AJO-DO Volume 1997 Jul (34 - 40)
7. Bordeaux, Moore and Bagby Ceramic bracket base design AJO-
DO Volume 1994 Jun (552 - 560)
8. R. P. Kusy Evaluation of titanium brackets for
orthodontic treatment: Part I The passive configuration
. AJO-DO Volume 1998 Nov (558 - 572)
9. Keith, Kusy, and Whitley Evaluation of zirconia brackets -AJO-
DO Volume 1994 Dec (605 - 614)
10. Bishara and Trulove Different debonding techniques for
ceramic AJO-DO Volume 1990 Sep (263 - 273): brackets
11. Samir E. Bishara, Ceramic Brackets:A Clinical Perspective
World J Orthod 2003;4:61–66.
12. Graber T, Vanarsdall L. Current Principles and Techniques
Mosby publications third edition 314-350
13. Thomas Graber, Swain Orthodontics current principles and
techniques Jaypee brothers 572-579
14. Herbert Hanson Speed bracket. JCO, 1986: 20, No.3, 183-
15. Tip Edge Othodontics.R Parkhousewww.indiandentalacademy.com
16. Straight Wire,the Concept & Appliance,
Lawrence F Andrews
17. The Alexander Discipline, Contemporary
Concepts & Philosophies, R G Alexander.
18. Systemized Orthodontics Treatment
Mechanics, Mclaughlin, benett,trevesi.
19. Roth R H The Straight Wire Appliance 17
Years Later, Jco 21,632-642.
20. Treatment Mechanics For The Straight Wire
Appliance;Roth R H