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Clasps in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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Clasps in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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  3. 3. DEFINITION • The name clasp is derived from a French word “UYPTAN” which means “to embrace”. • Clasps are the retentive components of the orthodontic appliances.This unit of removable orthodontic appliance holds the appliancein position and is called clasp.
  4. 4. There are many types of clasps. 1.’ C ’ clasp 2.Full clasp or Jackson’s clasp 3.Triangular clasp 4.Adam’s clasp and their modifications 5.Schwarz clasp 6.South end clasp 7.Duyzing clasp 8.Ball end clasp 9.Crozat clasp 10.Delta clasp 11.Eyelet clasp
  5. 5. Retention --”Holding of teeth inideal aesthetic andfunctional positions” BY RIEDEL
  6. 6. IDEAL REQUIREMENTS• Unobtrusive.• Not impinge.• Close contact to the tooth.• Usable in both deciduous and permanent dentition.• Adequate retention.
  7. 7. • No active force on the anchor tooth.• Rigid• Easy to fabricate and also replace if needed.• Not interfere in the growth of jaws and eruption of teeth.
  8. 8. USESTo secure the appliance inpositionTo prevent rolling of appliancesTo resist forces of displacementTo provide retention & anchorageFor engaging elastics
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATIONA. Hand Made Machine Made.B. Single tag arm Double tag arm
  10. 10. MODE OF ACTION OF CLASPSClasp engage onto the undercuts(constricted areas on the teeth.)Two types of undercuts. Buccal / Lingual Cervical undercuts. Mesial / Distal Proximal undercuts.
  11. 11. ANGLE’SLine of occlusionIt is a smooth (catenary)curve passingthrough the central fossa of each uppermolar and across the cingulum of the uppercanine and incisor teeth.The same line runs along the buccal cuspsand incisal edges in the mandibular arch.
  12. 12. L I N E OF O C C L U S I N
  14. 14. • Circumferential clasp / C-Clasp / 3/4th Clasp.• It uses the bucco-cervical undercut.• 2nd molars and canines.• Single retention arm.• 1mm wire used in molars.
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  16. 16. Advantages• Good retention.• Easy to fabricate.• Single occlusal crossover wire.• Easy to replace.
  17. 17. Disadvantages• Not on semi-erupted tooth.• Decalcification of cervical margin.• Gingival irritation.• Plaque accumulation enhanced.• Easily distort.
  19. 19. • V.H. Jackson 1906• Jacksons Clasp / Full Clasp / U Clasp.• Both bucco-cervical and proximal undercuts.• 0.7mm to 1mm.
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  21. 21. Advantages• Simple design• Adequate retention.
  22. 22. Disadvantages• Not useful in partially erupted teeth.• Difficult to adjust.• Not on unfavorably inclined tooth.
  24. 24. • Most common for anterior anchorage.• Single arrowhead between Central Incisors with wire following the gingival margin..Stephen’s-1979
  26. 26. • Also called as MODIFIED ZIMMER CLASP.• Excellent retention by the single arrowhead in the interproximal area.• Free end towards distal to facilitate the engagement of elastics.• 0.7mm wire
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Advantages• Easy to fabricate.• Excellent retention.• Pre fabricated available.• Elastics can be engaged.
  29. 29. Disadvantages• Not useful if adjacent tooth is absent.• Used as secondary / additional retention.
  30. 30. BALL END CLASP
  31. 31. • Action and location similar to triangular clasp.• Pre fabricated available. Can be made by adding solder to end of a wire.
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Advantages• Easy to fabricate.• Single occlusal interference.• Less gingival irritation.• Easy to replace.
  34. 34. Disadvantages• Short arm makes adjustment difficult.• Cannot be used for primary retention.• Cannot be used in absence of adjacent tooth.
  36. 36. • Also called as ARROWHEAD CLASP.• A.M. Schwarz 1935.• Mesial and distal undercuts of the teeth.
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Advantages• Reliable retention.• Does not interfere in posterior occlusion.• More length of wire hence more flexible.• More easy to adjust.• Enhances eruption.
  39. 39. Disadvantages• Difficult to fabricate.• Needs special plier.• Irritates soft tissue.• Tends to separate teeth.• Is bulky hence less patient compliance.
  40. 40. CROZAT CLASP
  41. 41. • Crozat in 1920• Along with the u clasp another curved wire is soldered on the base (Crescent).• Strong retention is possible
  42. 42.
  43. 43. DUYZING CLASPDUYZING,S J.A.C. –1969 0.7m.m WIRE USED.This clasp is used to engage the buccal undercutsof molars.This clasp is constructed in two halves .
  44. 44. ADAMSCLASP
  45. 45. • Adams clasp / modified arrowhead clasp / liverpool clasp / universal clasp.• C. PHILIPS ADAMS in May 1950.• Most widely used clasp.• Distobuccal and mesiobuccal undercuts.• Does not separate teeth like a arrowhead clasp.• 0.7mm posteriors 0.6mm anteriors.
  47. 47. BRIDGE• Is 2/3rd the mesio-distal width of the tooth, or slightly less then the distance between mesiobuccal and distobuccal undercuts, or length should be equal to the intercuspal distance.• Is 1-2mm away from the buccal surface of the tooth.• Is at 45o to the buccal surface of the tooth.• Should be straight.
  48. 48. Arrowheads• They should lie in the disto and mesio buccal undercuts.• Shaped according to the curve of the gum margins into the interdental papilla.• Long enough to keep the bridge at a proper distance.• Should not touch the adjacent teeth
  49. 49. Tag arms• Closely fitted to the contact points, down to the interdental embrassure.• Space between the tag arms and palate for flow of acrylic.• No sharp bends.
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Advantages• Small,neat and unobtrusive.• Any tooth.• Both deciduous and permanent dentition.• Even on semi erupted tooth.• No specialized pliers required.• Can be modified as needed.• No. of modifications are available.
  57. 57. Disadvantages• Unwanted palatal tipping if gets activated.• May lead to elongation of tooth if is fitting tightly.• Can be repaired only if fractured through the arrowheads.• Cannot be given on proclined anteriors.
  59. 59. Anterior Adams• 0.6mm• Also called double clasp.
  60. 60.
  61. 61.
  62. 62. With distal extension/ traction hook • To engage elastics • Not given if sulcus is shallow.
  63. 63. With
  64. 64. With a soldered hook
  65. 65. With a soldered tube
  66. 66. With a single arrowhead
  67. 67. With accessory arrowhead
  68. 68. Smart
  69. 69. • It is used in magnetic activator devices• Wire used 0.7mm• Bend 2mm loop on each side along with arrow head• It can be modified to double clasp on premolars and molars for extraoral traction
  70. 70. ADVANTAGES• Coils of the smart clasp increases spring back property.• Reduces frequent tightening.• Can be used with any type of removable appliances like bite blocks, palatal expanders.
  71. 71. Delta
  72. 72. TWIN BLOCK• William J. Clark• Used in twin block appliances• Retentive loops were triangular in shape hence the name “Delta”• Retains the basic elements of Adams clasp like retentive loops and a buccal bridge
  73. 73. ADVANTAGES• Design of the closed loop does not open up with repeated removal.• Less subject to breakage.• Provides excellent retention on lower premolars.• Suitable for use on most posterior teeth.
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  80. 80.