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Ancient civilizations


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Ancient civilizations

  1. 1. Arlie, Anne, Nitika, Mamta<br />Ancient Civilizations<br />
  2. 2. Paintings found in Chauvet Cave in Southeastern France.<br /> -discovered in 1994<br /> -minimal use of yellow the paintings and engravings in Chauvet Cave were created using red ochre and black charcoal <br /> -they depict animals such as horses rhinoceros, lions buffalos and mammoths<br /> -created as a part of hunting ceremonies or other ritual behaviors.<br /> small stone female figures that have exaggerated bellies, breasts, and pubic areas… Venus (or woman)of Willendorf 4 1/8 in high. <br />Old Stone Age<br />
  3. 3. These paintings have minimal use of yellow; majority use of red ochre and black charcoal. They depict animals and no human figures. Often used as hunting ceremonies. They were discovered in 1994.<br />Chauvet Cave Paintings<br />
  4. 4. Facial features are unedifying, the arms barely visible and the feet are missing. <br />Small stone female figures that have exaggerated bellies, breasts, and pubic areas.<br />Venus (or woman) of Willendorf.<br />
  5. 5. aka Mesolithic Period<br /> - the climate warmed and a culture developed that produced are similar in some ways to the cave paintings of the Paleolithic Period.<br /> - cave dwellers moved out of caves and began using rock as shelters<br /> the difference between cave paintings and rock shelter paintings was that rock shelter paintings portrayed human beings, both alone and in groups and there seems to be an emphasis on scenes in which human beings dominate animals. <br />Middle Stone Age<br />
  6. 6. Portrayed human beings<br />Showed humans dominating animals<br />Rock Shelter Paintings<br />
  7. 7. stone megaliths; “great stones”<br />Culture that created these works is termed “megalithic”<br /> -Ex: The Stonehenge; Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire England<br /> -features concentric rings made with sarsen (from of sandstone) stones and smaller “blue stones”- rock native to the region..<br /> -outermost ring is comprised of huge sarsen stones on post and lintel construction – two upright pieces topped with a cross piece or lintel.<br />New Stone Age<br />
  8. 8. Sarsen Stones <br />
  9. 9. “Blue Stones”<br />
  10. 10. Stonehenge<br />Two upright pieces with a cross piece or lintel.<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. The next ring is composed of 5 lintel- topped sarsen stone (weighing up to 50 tons each)<br />To the northeast is the vertically placed “heel-stone’.<br />If you stand in the center of the ring and look outward this “heel-stone” marks the point at which the sun rises on the mid summer solstice. <br />Cont. The New Stone Age: Understanding the Stonehenge<br />
  13. 13. To the northeast is the vertically placed “heel-stone.<br />If you stand in the center and look outward, this “heel-stone marks the point at which the sun rises on the mid summer solstice. <br />Stonehenge<br />
  14. 14. Existing artifacts have come from burial chambers, caves and tombs where they have been protected by being naturally concealed. <br />Cont. New Stone Age<br />
  15. 15. Mesopotamian Civilization / Art<br />Cont. from section one<br />
  16. 16. Arose between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers <br />Developed writing and art in a similar style with Egypt<br />Lacked natural barriers which left them vulnerable to invasion<br />Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization<br />
  17. 17. They created impressive sculptures and buildings. Religion was a central aspect of Sumerians life and they built temples (stepped pyramids calle ziggurats at the centers of their cities.<br />Sumerians<br />
  18. 18. In 2334 B.C.E. the cities of Sumer came under rule of Akkad ( although they spoke a different language from Sumerians the assimilated Sumerian culture. Akkadian rulers depicted in freestanding and relief sculptures. In 2150 B.C.E. Akkadian rule came to end as Guti ( barbarous mountaineers) invaded and took control.<br />50 years later the cities of Sumer reasserted control and a Neo-Sumerian ruler was established in the King of Ur.<br />Akkads<br />
  19. 19. Akkadian rulers depicted in freestanding and relief sculptures.<br />Akkads<br />
  20. 20. Built at city centers<br />Functioned primarly as temples but also served as administrative and economic centers.<br />Ziggurats<br />
  21. 21. Hammurabi- king of the city state of Babylonian law<br /> -Code of Hammurabi; oldest legal code known in its entirety<br />Best known art work in Louver Museum is related to this code of law: stone stele onto Hammurabi’s code is carved with a sculpture in high relief at the top that depicts the sun god: Shamasha.<br />Babylonians Civilization<br />
  22. 22. carved with a sculpture in high relief at the top that depicts the sun god: Shamasha.<br />Code of Hammurabi<br />
  23. 23. 900 B.C.E. - 600 B.C.E. most powerful civilizations in the near East<br />Dominated the north<br />artworks are relief carvings: often depicted battles, sieges, hunts, and other important events<br />7th century B.C.E. their hold on power weakened, and from 612- 538 B.C.E. Babylonia becomes dominant.<br />Assyrians<br />
  24. 24. artworks are relief carvings: often depicted battles, sieges, hunts, and other important events<br />Assyrian Artworks<br />
  25. 25. Famous hanging gardens of Babylon we constructed<br />Gate way to the great ziggurats of the temple of Bel, called the Ishtar Gate, which is considered one of the greatest works of architecture in which figures-in this case animals figures- are super imposed on a walled surface.<br />Neo-Babylonia Period<br />
  26. 26. Ishtar Gate<br />
  27. 27. Persian Art<br />Persian Empire (538-330 B.C.E) flourished in what is now present day Iran. The Persians were notable for their impressive architectural achievements, the most important of which was the palace at Persepolis, which was constructed of stone brick and wood and reflects the influence of Egyptian architecture. <br />
  28. 28. Generally dated from 3500B.C.E., beginning with the predynastic period through 332B.C.E when Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great<br />Great monuments of Ancient Egypt include: the Sphinx, the great pyramids at Giza, the larger-than-life-sized statues of the pharaohs, and the portrait head of queen Nefertiti<br />Much of this art emphasizes Hierarchical Scale (which uses the status of figures or objects to determinate their relative sizes within and artwork) as exemplified in the Palette of King Narmer (3150-3125 B.C.E.), a relic from the Old Kingdom (Dynasties III-VI)<br />Burial customs: dcreeded mummification and entombment with lavish furnishings, symbolic servants, and jewelry, resulted in rich stones of objects and images. Most famous Egyptian tomb: boy king, Tutankamen<br />Ancient Egyptian Art<br />
  29. 29. Sphinx<br />
  30. 30. Great Pyramids at Giza <br />
  31. 31. Larger-than-life-sized statues of the pharaohs<br />
  32. 32. Portrait head of Queen Nefertiti<br />
  33. 33. This slab of stone , which may have been used as a ceremonial palette for mixing cosmetics, presents King Narmer centrally and is depicted larger than the other figures. Narmer is seen holding the hair of a fallen enemy, with his arm raised in preparation to give a death blow. The figures are represented in “fraction representation” <br />Palette of King Narmer<br />
  34. 34. This mask found in the inner most layer of the king’s Sarcophagus, rested on the mummy’s face and shoulders. It is made of gold and is decorated with blue glass and semi-precious stones. The mask presents an idealized portrait of the young king.<br />Tutankhamen<br />
  35. 35. Kingdom of Nubia lay to the south of Egypt and covered a large area of Africa.<br />There was a period in history of Egypt when Nubia ruled the area and the Pharaohs of that ear were Nubian.<br />Nubian Art<br />
  36. 36. 3200-2000 B.C.E.<br />Cyclades, a group of islands in the Aegean <br />Simplified, geometric nude figures from this area are highly appealing to modern sensibilities<br />Cycladic culture produced decorated pieces of pottery as well as marble bowls and jars.<br />Cycladic Art<br />
  37. 37. Nubian Art<br />3200-2000 B.C.E.<br />
  38. 38. Centered around the city of Knossos on Crete<br />The legend of the Minotaur-the creature believed to be half man and half bull who devoured those who entered his maze -the maze was actually the royal palace, a sprawling complex that has since been excavated and includes statues of a female snake goddess.<br />Minoans art created artworks that were characterizes by a naturalistic pictorial style . Their paintings took 2 major forms; frescoes painted on palace walls and pottery designs.<br />Minoan Culture<br />
  39. 39. Built four major palaces, all completely unfortified and designed in a light flexible and organic style.<br />Collapse of the Minoan civilization coincided with the pinnacle of Mycenaean, culture was centered around the city of Mycenae on the Greek mainland. <br />Built elaborate tombs, and their tombs and their burial practices allowed for a large number of objects to be preserved<br />Objects best known are made of gold and show astonishing levels of mastery in goldsmithing<br />Skillful in relief sculpture also <br />Mycenaean Art<br />
  40. 40. Mycenaean Tomb<br />
  41. 41. Other Civilizations<br />
  42. 42. Early Roman art reflected the influence of Etruscan art<br />2nd century B.C.E many roman artworks were variations of Greek works<br />Made pioneering advancements in engineering and architecture<br />Discovery of concrete = major contributions to architecture (constructed huge domed building; and the use of the curved arch to build bridges and aqueducts)<br />Created relief sculpture primarily for funerary purposes <br />Roman Art<br />
  43. 43. <ul><li>Seen as a transitions from the ideals of Greece to the realistic concerns of the Romans
  44. 44. Civilization arose in what is now Italy
  45. 45. Largely know for tomb decoration
  46. 46. Nothing remains of the buildings because they were made of brick and wood
  47. 47. Ceramic models depict temples with tilled gabled roofs supported by columns in the fashion of Greeks
  48. 48. Artifacts include: sarcophagus lids and other art forms of baked clay, and bronze
  49. 49. Artworks done on bright, flat colors and they show figures playing music and dancing as part of funeral celebrations.</li></ul>Etruscan Art<br />
  50. 50. Best know art: mosaic work in which small ceramic tiles, pieces of stone, or glass were set into a ground material to create large murals<br />Largely Christian in content<br />Can best be studied in the glimmering, shining mosaic walls of the great churches of Ravenna (in present day Italy)<br />Built Hagia Sophia (532-537 C.E)<br />Byzantine and Medieval Art<br />