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Respiration

respiration

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Respiration

  1. 1. RESPIRATION (RESPIRASI) Subtopic (Subtopik) : 1. The respiratory process in energy production (Proses respirasi dalam penghasilan tenaga) 2. The respiratory structure and breathing mechanisms in humans and animals (Struktur respirasi dan mekanisme pernafasan dalam manusia dan haiwan)
  2. 2. Do you know that your body is like a rechargeable battery? This is because when your body weak (uncharged battery), you need to eat (recharge battery) to get energy.
  3. 3. In this section, (Dalam bahagian ini) : 1. What is respiration? (Apakah respirasi ?) 2. What is the main substrate that involved in energy production? (Apakah substrat utama yang terlibat dalam penghasilan tenaga) 3. What is ATP? Why is it important? (Apakah ATP? Mengapa ATP penting?) 4. What are Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration? (Apakah respirasi aerob dan anaerob?) 1. The respiratory process in energy production (Proses respirasi dalam penghasilan tenaga)
  4. 4. The respiratory process in energy process (Proses respirasi dalam penghasilan tenaga)
  5. 5. What is respiration? (Apakah respirasi ?) RESPIRATION (Respirasi) is (ialah) Proses obtaining (Proses pemerolehan) O2 and (dan) O2 Delivers to (diangkut ke) CO2 and (dan) Remove from (disingkirkan dari)
  6. 6. RESPIRATION (Respirasi) occur in 2 stage (berlaku dalam 2 peringkat) EXTERNAL RESPIRATION (Respirasi luar) between (antara) INTERNAL RESPIRATION/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION (Respirasi luar) Process exchange of gases (Proses pertukaran gas) respiratory surface of organism (Permukaan respirasi organisma) with (dengan) Its environment continuously (persekitarannya secara berterusan) Process oxidation & breakdown of glucose (Proses pengoksidaan dan penguraian glukosa) for (untuk) produce energy (menghasilkan tenaga)
  7. 7. External respiration (Respirasil luar) Respiratory surface - SKIN O2 CO2 environment Lead to Internal respiration / Cellular respiration ( Respirasi dalam / Respirasi sel) O2 + GLUCOSE (get from food) To produce energy used for cell activities
  8. 8. Is energy required for the following processes? Muscle contraction for movement? Active transport of substances? Digestion of food? Impulses transmission for response? Cell division for growth? Keep body at constant temperature? Excretion of waste products? Meiosis for reproduction? Mitosis for cell division? Synthesis of proteins, hormones, lipids & enzymes? Inhalation & exhalation for breathing? All organisms require ENERGY to carry out all living processes!!!
  9. 9. Aerobic respiration (Respirasi aerob) MAIN SUBSTRATE SUBSTRAT UTAMA
  10. 10. Cellular respiration (Respirasi sel) Aerobic respiration (Respirasi aerob) Glucose Carbon dioxide ENERGY
  11. 11. WHAT NEED YOU KNOW ?
  12. 12. sfat Oxidation of glucose (Pengoksidaan glukosa) Adenosine triphosphate (Adenosina trifosfat) Phosphate bond which can easily broken (Ikatan fosfat yang boleh diputuskan dengan mudah) P
  13. 13. ATP in Action A P P P Process I NEED ENERGY PLEASE! Woohoo! I’m Energized! ATP, the energy “currency” of the cell ADP
  14. 14. P
  15. 15. WE CAN CONCLUDE THAT, Oxidation of glucose Uses of energy Syntesis of ATP
  16. 16. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION(Respirasi anaerob) LETS WE TAKE A LOOK WHAT HAPPEN WITH MUSCLE CELL AFTER PROLONGED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (Mari kita lihat apa yang berlaku kepada sel otot selepas aktiviti kecergasan) Anaerobic respiration (Respirasi anaerob) What is anaerobic respiration? (Apakah respirasi anaerob) Process of oxidation of glucose to produce energy in the absance of oxygen. (Proses pengoksidaan glukosa untuk menghasilkan tenaga dalam ketiadaan oksigen)
  17. 17. Rate of respiration increase (Kadar pernafasan meningkat) Rate of heartbeat increase (Kadar denyutan jantung meningkat)
  18. 18. 38 ATP 2 ATP Without using oxygen
  19. 19. Ethanol Carbon dioxide ENERGY
  20. 20. The respiratory structure and breathing mechanisms in humans and animals (Struktur respirasi dan mekanisme pernafasan dalam manusia dan haiwan)
  21. 21. 2. The respiratory structure and breathing mechanisms in humans and animals (Struktur respirasi dan mekanisme pernafasan dalam manusia dan haiwan) In this section, (Dalam bahagian ini) : 1. What is respiratory structure? (Apakah struktur respirasi ?) 2. What is the relationship between surface area per volume ratio of organism with their gas exchange? (Apakah perkaitan antara luas permukaan per isipadu dengan proses pertukaran gas) 3. What are respiratory structure and breathing mechanism of insects, amphibian, fish and human? (Apakah struktur respirasi dan mekanisma pernafasan dalam serangga, amfibia, ikan dan manusia)
  22. 22. What is gaseous exchange process? Where exchanges of respiratory gases occur? (Apakah proses pertukaran gas? Di manakah pertukaran gas respirasi berlaku) In respiratory surface (Dalam struktur respirasi)
  23. 23. Diffusion (Resapan) Thin surface layer of respiratory structure Large surface area for respiratory structure
  24. 24. Entire plasma membrane (Seluruh membran plasma) Large surface area compared to volume of their body Moist plasma membrane ( Membran plasma yang lembap)
  25. 25. Surface area available for gaseous exchange per unit volume of organisms. Before we learnt about surface area per volume ratio, lets we know what is surface area per volume ratio.
  26. 26. Relationship between surface area per volume (SA /V) ratio of organisms with their gas exchange process (Perkaitan antara luas permukaan per isipadu dengan proses pertukaran gas) large besar Small organisms have large surface area available for gaseous exchange per unit volume of organisms.
  27. 27. Large organisms have small surface area available for gaseous exchange per unit volume of organisms.
  28. 28. ACTIVITY 3 Small cube represent small organisms. Given that X = 1 cm. (Kiub kecil mewakili organisma kecil. Diberi X = 1 cm)
  29. 29. RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE AND BREATHING MECHANISM OF INSECTS (Sistem dan struktur respirasi serangga) Tracheae (Trakea) Finer tube, tracheoles (Cabang halus trakeol)
  30. 30. WHAT ARE RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE IN INSECTS ? (Apakah struktur respirasi bagi serangga) WHAT IS RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN INSECT? (Apakah sistem respirasi bagi serangga) TRACHEAL SYSTEM 1. SPIRACLE 2. TRACHEAE 3. TRACHEOLES
  31. 31. Characteristics of tracheoles ( Ciri – ciri trakeol) Finer tube, tracheoles (Cabang halus trakeol) Thin wall, permeable, moist and contains fluid
  32. 32. BREATHING MECHANISM OF INSECTS Spiracle valve open ( Injap spirakel terbuka) Abdominal muscle contract (Otot abdomen mengecut) Volume of abdomen decrease (Isipadu abdomen berkurang)
  33. 33. MUSCLE RELAX (OTOT MENGENDUR) MUSCLE CONTRACT (OTOT MENGECUT) 1. SPIRACLE OPEN 2. VOLUME 3. PRESSURE INSIDE 4. PRESSURE OUTSIDE 1. SPIRACLE CLOSE 2. VOLUME 3. PRESSURE INSIDE4. PRESSURE OUTSIDE
  34. 34. Water carry high amount of OXYGEN Blood carry high amount of carbon dioxide
  35. 35. Mouth Buccal cavity Operculum Volume and pressure
  36. 36. Gas exchange for frog occurs at (Pertukaran gas bagi katak berlaku di)
  37. 37. Gas exchange for frog occurs at (Pertukaran gas bagi katak berlaku di)
  38. 38. FIRST STAGE (PERINGKAT PERTAMA)
  39. 39. SECOND STAGE (PERINGKAT KEDUA)
  40. 40. THIRD STAGE (PERINGKAT KETIGA)
  41. 41. HUMAN RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE
  42. 42. LUNGS (Peparu) Mouth cavity (Rongga mulut) Trachea (Trakea) Bronchiole (Bronkiol) Intercostal muscle (Otot interkosta Diaphragm(Diafragma)
  43. 43. Location of external intercostal muscles and internal intercostal muscle
  44. 44. CHARACTERISTICS OF ALVEOLI Numerous of alveoli (Alveoli yang banyak) Moist epithelial cell of alveoli (Cell epithelial alveoli yang lembap)
  45. 45. HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM Rib cage move upwards and outwards. Diaphragm contracts and flatten. (Diafragma mengecut dan meleper)
  46. 46. HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM External intercostal muscle relax, internal intercostal muscle contract. Volume of thoracic cavity decrease and pressure increase.
  47. 47. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WITH THOSE OTHER ORGANISMS Protozoa Insects Fish Amphibian Human Habitat Water Dry land Water Water and dry land Dry land Respiratory system/ structure Entire plasma membrane Tracheal system Gill Skin and lungs Lungs Protozoa Insects Fish Amphibian Human High SA/V ratio achieved by…. Large surface area compares to volume Extensive network of tracheoles Have gill filament and numerous gill lamella Moist, thin and highly permeable skin. Numerous alveoli for efficient gas exchange.
  48. 48. Protozoa Insects Fish Amphibian Human Respiratory surface ( for gaseous exchange) Entire thin and moist plasma membrane Thin tracheoles with fluid at the ends. Gill filaments and gill lamella Thin and moist skin and lungs Numerous alveoli Respiratory mechanisms None Abdominal muscles compress and relax to ventilate the tracheal system. Movement of buccal cavity and operculum Inhalation and exhalation Inhalation and exhalation
  49. 49. Protozoa Insects Fish Amphibian Human Passage of respiratory gases Water Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Spiracle Tracheae Tracheoles Body cell Mouth Buccal cavity Gill filament Lamella Operculum Nostril Mouth cavity Glottis Lungs Nostril Nasal cavity Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveolus
  50. 50. THE END ~ THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION ~

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