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  2. 2. VRIKSHAYURVEDA • Vrikshayurveda was mentioned for the first time in Kautilya's Arthaśāstra • Vrikshayurveda” means ‘vrikshasya ayurveda’ ie, taruchikitsadi shasthra or the science of plants • Details regarding use of plants or plant parts as medicine, their properties, their morphological descriptions, etc., have been mentioned in ancient texts such as the Ṛigveda, Atharvaveda, Charaka Samhita, Suśruta Samhita, Mahābhārata etc. • Vrikshayurveda deals an ancient science of plant life. It means Ayurveda of plants and dealing with every aspect related to the life of plants.
  3. 3. ANTI-MICROBIAL: Any substance of natural or synthetic origin that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms ANTIFUNGAL: Substance that kills fungi or inhibits their growth or reproduction. WOUND HEALING: Tissue reconstitution process by which the body replenishes cells that are being lost. DISINFECTANT: That kills all microorganisms but not necessarily their spores. FEW SELECTED PROPERTIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS DESCRIBED IN VRIKSHAYURVEDA
  4. 4. • ANTHELMINTIC: An agent destructive to worms • PESTICIDES: Chemical or biological substance to kill or retard the growth of pests that causes damage • CARBON SEQUESTRATION: Using plants to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and then storing it as carbon in the stems and roots of the plants as well as in the soil.
  5. 5. • WHO listed out 30,000 plant species used in different traditional systems of medicine. • Medicinal plants used in Indian systems of medicine • Local Health Tradition (including folk/tribal medicine)- 8000 • Modern Medicine at Global level – 90 (S.Rajasekharan, 2002) MEDICINAL PLANTS Sl. N o . Name of the system Total number of plants mentioned 1 *Ayurveda 900 2 *Siddha 800 3 *Unani 700 4 *Amchi 300 5 Folk medicine / Tribal medicine 8000 6 Modern medicine 90
  6. 6. Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda * Roughly about 50% of medicinal plants mentioned in this system of medicine are common to all four systems. Atharva Veda More than 289 plants Samhithas (Charaka, Susrutha & Astangahridaya) 1900- out of which 670 are common Arthasasthra/Kautilya 330 Nighandus (based on 17 lexicographic works) 150-400 new additions Hortus Malabaricus 784 Regional text books 100-150 new additions Dravyaguna vignana (P.V.Sharma) 35
  7. 7. Medicinal plants are one of the important components of biodiversity
  8. 8. • Bhoomi niroopanam (identification and classification of soil conservation technique) • Beejopti vidhi (sowing techniques) • Padapa vipaksha (method of propagation) • Ropana vidhanam (plantation technique) • Nishechana vidhi (irrigation technique) • Poshana vidhi (special nutritional care and management of plants with various biotechnological means) • Druma reksha (conservation practices ) • Taru chikitsa (treatment with biomedicine) • Nivasa sanna tharu subha- asubha lakshanam (selection of plants for planting near the residence based on their good/bad qualities.) • Tarumahima (glory of trees – awareness programme) • Upavanakriya (landscaping and gardening ) • Chithreekaranam (research on plant biotechnology) Major subjects brought under Vrikshayurveda include
  9. 9. •Several attempts have been made by Vrikshayurvedic experts in the field of plant biotechnology and they have developed number of new techniques related to :- 1. Aroma inducing techniques – in which they demonstrated how to introduce scent in unscented flowers 2. Colour inducing techniques – in which they demonstrated how to change the colour in cotton plants 3. Floral techniques – in which they demonstrated the methods of inducing flowering of a plant throughout the year/out of season 4. Production techniques – seedless fruit production technology 5. Fruits preservation techniques 6. Fast propagation techniques 7. Biotechnological application for the conservation of the plant species 8. Plant altering/hybridization techniques 9. Improved fruit production techniques 10.Taste altering techniques of fruits VRIKSHAYURVEDAAND ENVIRONMENT
  10. 10. Anti fungal  Embelia ribes Burm.f.  Azadirachta indica A.Juss.  Terminalia chebula Retz.  Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa  Gmelia arborea Roxb.  Acorus calamus L.  Alstonia scholaris (L.)R.Br  Cassia fistula L.  Mimusops elengi L.  Vitex negundo L.  Alpinia calcarata (Haw.) Roscoe  Santalum album L.  Pongamia pinnata(L.)Pierre SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS DESCRIBED IN VRIKSHAYURVEDA
  11. 11. Anti microbial  Calotropis gigantea R.Br.  Cyperus rotundus L.  Embelia ribes Burm.f  Asparagus racemosus Willd.  Terminalia chebula Retz.  Phyllanthus emblica L.  Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn) Roxb  Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa  Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f.  Mesua ferrea L.  Piper logum L.  Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent.  Sterospermum chalanoides (L.f.) Dc.  Sessamum indicum L.  Acorus calamus L.  Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br  Cassia fistula L.  Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels  Mimusopes elengi L.  Santalum album L.  Alangium salviifolium (L.f). Wang.
  12. 12. Disinfectant  Asparagus racemosus Willd.  Magnolia champaka (L.) n Baill.ex Pierre Wound healing  Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br  Hordeum vulgare L.  Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang  Magnolia champaka (L.) Baill. ex Pierre  Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) engl  Cyperus rotundus L.  Ficus benghalensis L.
  13. 13. Anthelmintic  Embelia ribes Burm.f.  Terminalia chebula Retz.  Clerodendrum phlomoides L.f. Pesticides  Acorus calamus L.  Azadirachta indica A.Juss.  Nerium indicum Mill.
  14. 14. Carbon Sequestration Potential  Terminalia chebula Retz.  Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn) Roxb  Azadirachta indica A.Juss  Embelia ribes Burm.f.  Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa  Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent.
  15. 15. Sanskrit name -Vidanga Local name - Vizhal Botanical name - Embelia ribes Important Phytochemicals- Embelin 3, embelinol, embeliaribyl ester, embeliol4 , Vilangin Pharmacological Properties Embelia ribes Burm. F. Analgesic Antitumor Anticancer Antiproliferative Antidiabetic Antifungal Antimicrobial Anthelmintic Antidepressant Cardioprotective Neuroprotective Antifertility
  16. 16. Sanskrit name - Nimbi Local name - Veppu Botanical name - Azadirachta indica Important Phytochemicals Nimbidin, Nimbin, Nimbolide, Gedunin, Azadirachtin, Gallic acid (–) epicatechin, and catechin etc Pharmacological activities Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Anti-inflammatory Bio-pesticide Anticancer Antiarthritic Antimicrobial Hepatoprotective Antipyretic Antiviral activity Analgesic Antigastric ulcer Antimalarial Antioxidant
  17. 17. Sanskrit name - Sathavari Local name - Sathavari Botanical name - Asparagus racemosus Important Phytochemicals Saponins (Shatavarins I-IV), Isoflavones, Racemosol, Polysaccharides, mucilage, kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin etc. Pharmacological activities Asparagus racemosus Willd. Aphrodisiac Bronchitis Stomachic Antiinflammatory Antimicrobial Hepatoprotective Neuropathy Hyperacidity Antiseptic Rejuvenating Dyspepsia Infectious diseases
  18. 18. Sanskrit name - Hareetaki Local name - Kadukka Botanical name - Terminalia chebula Important phytochemicals Chebulic acid, Chebulinic acid, Chebulagic acid, Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, anthraquinones, Terpinenols etc. Pharmacological activies Terminalia chebula Retz. Antibacterial Anthelmintic Anti-ulcerogenic Antifungal Antimicrobial Hepatoprotective immunomodulatory Antiviral Cardioprotective Anticarcinogenic Antidiabetic Carbon Sequestration
  19. 19. Sanskrit name - Amalaki Local name - Nellika Botanical name - Phyllanthus emblica Important Phytochemicals Quercetin, zeatin, zeatin nucleotide, chebulic acid, gallic acid, gluco-gallin, ethyl gallate, ellagic acid, Giberellin, leucodelphinidin, rutin, b-sitosterol etc. Pharmacologial activity Phyllanthus emblica L. Anti-inflammatory Immunomodulatory Antipyretic Analgesic Antimicrobial Antioxidative Antiviral Carbon Sequestration Cardioprotective Antibacterial Antiplasmodic Antispermatogenic
  20. 20. Sanskrit name - Vibhitaki Local name - Thanni Botanical name - Terminalia bellirica Properties Chemical ß- sitosterol, Gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose and chebulaginic acid. Pharmacological Acivities Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Antimicrobial Antibacterial Anticancer Carbon Sequestration Analgesic Antioxidative Antidiabetic Hepatoprotective Antihypertensive Antioxidant Antidiarrheal
  21. 21. Sanskrit name - Vilvam Local name - Koovalam Botanical name -Aegle marmelos Important Phytochemical Alkaloids, Cardiac glycosides, Terpenoids, Saponins, Tannins, Flavonoids and Steroids Phenolic etc. Pharmacological Activities Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Cardioprotective Antidiabetic Antidiarrhoeal Antifungal Anti dysenteric Antiproliferative Hepatoprotective Anticancer Antimicrobial Analgesic Antiarthritis Radioprotective
  22. 22. Sanskrit name - Shyonaka Local name -Palakappayani Botanical name - Oroxylum indicum Important Phytochemicals Chrysin-7-O-glucuronide, Chrysin-7-O- Glucuronide, Chrysin-diglucoside, Baicalein, Anthraquinone, Aloe-emodine. Tannic acid, Sitosterol etc. Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. Pharmacological activities Antioxidant Antibacterial Antiproliferative Antiinflammatory Antiarthritic Antioxidative Antiulcer Anti-microbial Antimutagenic Antimicrobial Anticancer Immunostimulant
  23. 23. Sanskrit name - Ghambhari Local name - Kumbil Botanical name - Gmelina arborea Important Phytochemicals 1,8-cineole , Butyl butyrate , Ethyl hexanoate,(E)-b-ocimene, 2-methylbutyl Butyrate, hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-octenal,ethyl octanoate tricosane , 1-tricosene , octadecanal , tetracosane ,tetracosene , 9-tetracosene , nonadecanal and heptadecano. Pharmacological Activities Gmelina arborea Roxb. Anti-inflammatory Antinociceptive Antioxidant Anti-hyperlipidemic Antifungal Antipyretic analgesic Cardio protective Diuretic
  24. 24. Sanskrit name - Sarshapa Local name - Kduku Botanical name - Brassica juncea Important Phytochemicals β-Sitosterol, glucosinolates, flavonoids, vitamins, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, indoles, glucosinolates, ascorbate, etc. Pharmacological activities Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Hepatoprotectivity Antimicrobial Activity Aperitif Diuretic Emetic Rubefacient Stimulant Arthritic Wound Healing Rheumatism Antisyphilitic Stomach Disorders
  25. 25. Sanskrit name - Tila Local name - Ellu Botanical name - Sessamum indicum Important Phytochemicals Cystine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan,tyrosine, valine, a- and J.3-globulins, p-aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, biotin,choline etc Sesamum indicum L. Radical Scavenging Activity Antioxidant activity Antimicrobial Antibacterial Antimicrobial Wound Healing Pharmacological Activities
  26. 26. Sanskrit name - Vacha Local name -Vayambu Botanical name - Acorus calamus Important Phytochemicals Calamenone, α-pinene, Calamine and Calamol, Azulene, Isoeugenol and camphor, Palmitic and, Eugenol, Calamenol, a-Ursolic acid, Asarone, Acorgaermacrone, Elemene, Caryophyllene, Cadalene , Calamenene, Acolamone and Isoacolamone. Pharmacological Activities Acorus calamus L. Antibacterial Antifungal Antispasmodic Antimicrobial Pesticide anti-inflammatory Nematicide activities Insecticide Hepatoprotective Antiarthiritic Sedative Anticonvulsant
  27. 27. Sanskrit name - Saptaparna Local name - Ezhilampala Botanical name - Alstonia scholaris Important Phytochemicals Echitamine, Echitamine chloride, Rhazine, Nareline, Pseudo Akuammigine, Scholarine, Scholaricine, Picrinine, Alschomine and Isoalschomine Pharmacological Activities Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br Anticancerous Anti-asthmatic Anti-ulcerogenic hepatoprotective hypoglycaemic Antidiarrhoeal Wound healing Antiarthritic Antifungal Antimycobacterial Antiplasmodial Antiparasitic Antibacterial Neuropharmacological Piscicidal Antimicrobial Antihyperlipidemic Antinociceptive
  28. 28. Sanskrit name - Swarnabhooshana Local name - kanikkonna Botanical name - Cassia fistula Important Phytochemicals Fistulic Acids, Sennosides A B, Anthraquinones, Kaempferol, Fistulin, linoleic, oleic, Stearic and Palmitic acids Lupeol, ß-sitosterol etc. Pharmacological Activities Cassia fistula L. Wound healing Antifungal Antibacteria Anthelmintic Antimicrobial Antipyretic Larvicidal Anti-leishmaniatic, Antitumor Antiparasitic Antifeedant Anti-anxiety Sedative Antifertility
  29. 29. Sanskrit name - Brihati Local name - Chunda Botanical name - Solanum indicum Properties Important Phytochemicals Flavonoids, Steroid, Saponins, Anthraquinones, Reducing sugars, Tannins, Glycosides Pharmacological Activity Solanum indicum L. Analgesic Anti-inflammatory CNS depressant antipyretic Antimicrobial Antifungal
  30. 30. Sanskrit name - Jambu Local name - Njaval Botanical name -Syzygium cumini Important Phytochemicals Vitamins, Choline, Folic acid, Malic acid, Gallic acid, Jamboline, Oleanolic acid, Ellagic acid Betulinic acid, Tannins, Myricetine etc. Pharmacological Activities Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. Gastroprotective Anti- ulcerogenic Anti-bacterial Anti-infective Anti malarial Anti anaemic Antibacterial Hypolipidaemic Antioxidant Anti-diabetic Anti-asthmatic Anti-inflammatory Hypoglycaemic Radio-protective
  31. 31. Sanskrit name - Ankolam Local name - Ankolam Botanical name - Alangium salviifolium Important Phytochemical Alkaloids, Tannins, Triterpene, and Steroids, Phenolic compounds and Flavinoids, Terpenoids, Saponin, Phenolic glycosides, Kaempferol, Glycosides etc Pharmacological Activities Alangium salviifolium (L.f.) Wang. Analgesic anti-inflammatory Anti Epileptic Antioxidant anti microbial Hypoglycemic Antidiabetic Wound healing Anti arthritic Antifertility Antibacterial Cardiac activity Anthelmintic Antifungal Diuretic, activity
  32. 32. Sanskrit name - Bakul Local name - Elanji Botanical name - Mimusops elenji Important Phytochemicals Quercitol, β-sitosterol, Quercetin. β-amyrin , taraxerol, α-Spinasterol, Sodium ursolate and Betulinic acid, Taraxerol , Ursolic acid Pharmacological Activities Antinociceptive Diuretic effects Gastroprotective Antibacterial Antifungal anticariogenic free radical scavenging antihyperglycemic Antihemorrhoidal Gastroprotective & diuretic effects Antiviral Cytotoxic activities Mimusops elenji L.
  33. 33. Sanskrit name - Dadima Local name -Mathalam Botanical name - Punica granatum Important Phytochemicals Cardiac glycosides, Tannins, Anthraquinones, Saponins,, Cyanogenic glycosides, Sterols, Glucosinolates, Coumarins, Triterpene, Ellagic acid, Ellagitannins, Punicic acid, Flavonoids, Anthocyanins, etc Pharmacological Activities Punica granatum L. Anticarcinogenic Antioxidant Anti-cancer Antiglycemic Anti-inflammatory Neuroprotective Reproductive Function Hypoglycemic Antiatherogenic effect Antibacterial Antifungal Antimicrobial
  34. 34. Sanskrit name - Chembaka Local name -Chembaka Botanical name - Magnolia champaka Important Phytochemicals Alkaloids, Saponins, Tannins, Sterols, Flavonoids, Triterpenoids, Stigmasterol etc. Pharmacological Magnolia champaka (L.) Baill. Ex Pierre anti-inflammatory Anti-hyperglycemic leishmanicidal Cytotoxic Anti-infective Radical scavenging Antiulcer Antihelmintic Cardioprotective antibacterial wound healing antifertility
  35. 35. Sanskrit name - Pippali Local name - Thippali Botanical name - Piper longum Important Phytochemicals Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piplatin, Piperlonguminine Piperolactum A, Pipercide etc. Pharmacological Activities Piper longum L. Hepatoprotective Hypocholesterolaemic Antiinflammatory Antiamoebic Anti-bacterial
  36. 36. Sanskrit name - Nirgundi Local name - Karinochi Botanical name - Vitex nigundo Important Phytochemicals β-caryophyllene; Sabinene; gamma-terpinene; Caryophyllene oxide; β-sitosterol; p-Hydroxybenzoic acid; Protocatechuic acid; oleanolic acid; casticin; Vitamin-C; nishindine; Gluco-nonitol; Vitexin; Isovitexin, Negundin-A; Viridiflorol Pharmacological Activities Vitex nigundo L. Antinociceptive Hepatoprotective Larvicidal Anti-inflammatory Immunomodultory anti-venomous CNS depressant Anti-bacterial Anti-viral Antifungal Anti-filarial Mosquito repellent Anti-larval Insecticidal Anti-feedant
  37. 37. Sanskrit name - Gugul Local name - Guggulu Botanical name - Commophora mukul Important Phytochemicals Guggulusteron Z and E . Guggulsterone, Gugulipid, Triterpene, Myrrhanol A Pharmacological Activities Commiphora mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks) Engl. Antioxidant Antidiabetic Anti-inflammatory Lipid lowering activity Wound Healing Myocardial Disease
  38. 38. Sanskrit name - rasna Local name - Chittaratha Botanical name - Alpinia calcarata Properties Important Phytochemcals Galangoflavonoid, resin, galangol, kaempferid, galangin and alpinin, Galangin Pharmacology Activities Alpinia calcarata (Haw.) Roscoe Antimicrobial Antiinflammatory Antiallergic Antibacterial Antifungal
  39. 39. Sanskrit name - Naga kesaram Local name - Nagachempakam Botanical name - Mesua ferrea Important Phytochemical Mesuol, Mammeuisin, Mammegin, bioflavonone called Mesuaferrone A Pharmacological Activity Mesua ferrea L. Urinary tract disorders Gout Oedema Anti inflammatory Skin diseases Immunomodulatory Hepatoprotective Antiacetylcholinesteras Larvicidal Antiproliferative
  40. 40. Sanskrit name - Swetachandan Local name - Chandanam Botanical name - Santalum album Important Phytochemicals Palmitic acid, oleic acids, Alpha- and Beta- santalol, cedrol, aldehydes, Phytosterols, Squalene etc. Pharmacological Activities Santalum album L. Antifungal activities Anti-ulcerogenic Antibacterial Antipyretic effect Antimicrobial activity
  41. 41. Sanskrit name - Karanjam Local name -Pongum Botanical name - Pongamia pinnata Pharmacological Properties Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Antifungal activity Antioxidant anti-inflammatory Anti-plasmodial Activity Anti-diarrhoeal Anti-hyperglycaemic Anti-hyperammonemic Anti-lipidperoxidative
  42. 42. Sanskrit name - Arka Local name - Erukku Botanical name - Calotropic gigantea Important Phytochemicals Gigantin, calcium oxalate, alpha and beta-calotropeol, beta-amyrin., fatty acids (both saturated andunsaturated), hydrocarbons, triterpene compounds, terols, Cardenolide calotropin , αamyrin, β-amyrin, taraxasterol, β- sitosterol, α-amyrin methylbutazone, etc. Pharmacological Activity Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. Anti-diarrheal Hepatoprotective Cytotoxic activity Anti-diabetic Antiinflammatory anti-fertility Antipyretic Analgesic Insecticidal activity Antimicrobial Anti-ulcer Wound healing larvicidal activity
  43. 43. Sanskrit name - Musta Local name - Muthanga Botanical name - Cyperus rotundus Important Phytochemical cyprotene, cyperene, aselinene, rotundene, valencene, cyperol, gurjunene, trans-calamenene, cadalene, cyperotundone, mustakone, isocyperol, acyperone Pharmacological Activities Cyperus rotundus L. Astringent Diaphoretic Analgesic Diuretic Antispasmodic Carminative Antimicrobial Sedative vermifuge Wound healing Antibacterial litholytic stomachic Antispasmodic antitussive
  44. 44. Sanskrit name - Vata Local name - Arayal Botanical name - Ficus benghalensis Important Phytochemicals Quercetin-3-galactoside, rutin, friedelin, taraxosterol, lupeol, β-amyrin , psoralen, bergapten and β-sisterol , meso-inositol βsitosterol-alpha-Dglucose Pharmacological Activities Ficus benghalensis L. Nervous disorders antidiabetic anti-tumor activity antidiabetic wound healing Antidysentery Piles Female sterility Leucorrhea Rheumatism Vomiting or nausea
  45. 45. CONCLUSION • Owing to generation of greater interest and increased demand towards the “natural and traditional holistic systems of healing” in recent times • The traditional methods have no adverse side effects on the environment. Moreover the raw materials are both locally available and also economical. • it is the juncture to develop appropriate methodology of cultivation and harvesting of medicinal plants by integrating the knowledge of traditional and contemporary sciences which consecutively aid in sustainable deliverance of quality assured plant drugs, moreover their conservation.
  46. 46. THANK YOU