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Basic First Aid (Bleeding)

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Basic First Aid (Bleeding)

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Basic First Aid (Bleeding)

  1. 1. BASIC FIRST AID: BLEEDING By : Agbuya , Zarah Yvonne Alarcio , Janmaverick Alvarez, Adrian Joseph Aquino, Trisha Mae Aracan, Deniel Kendrick University of Santo Tomas
  2. 2. • is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury commonly done in the absence of a certified health professional. • 3 AIMS OF FIRST AID : - Preserve life - Prevent further injury - Promote recovery FIRST AID (OVERVIEW)
  3. 3. TWO UNCONVENTIONAL TYPES OF First AID 1. Military FIRST AID - Military first aid is taught within the cadet forces and should only be used in a military or law enforcement scenario. It takes into account the dangers of combat and a combat zone, PHILIPPINE SETTING :
  4. 4. 2. Civilian FIRST AID - the usual first aid method employed by civilian emergency medical responders. - It implements a careful step by step procedure in the performance of first aid unlike the drastic measures TWO UNCONVENTIONAL TYPES OF First AID • PHILIPPINE SETTING:
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AID TO A PHARMACIST • Pharmacists have expanded their healthcare roles to not just being compounders of drugs, but to being drug experts as well. They now provide clinical services such as drug intervention and management, ambulatory care, etc. so it is imperative that all pharmacists must know these basic first aid skills to affirm their roles as health professionals and as health care providers.
  6. 6. WHAT IS BLEEDING?
  7. 7. I-DEFINITION • Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging ,is the loss of blood escaping from the circulatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina, or anus, or through a break in the skin.
  8. 8. Classification of bleeding Capillary Bleeding Venous Bleeding Arterial Bleeding
  9. 9. Capillary Bleeding • Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in your body; they are about as thin as the hairs on
  10. 10. Capillary Bleeding • When a minor scrape or cut opens some capillaries, the bleeding is almost always very slow and small in quantity. Your body's natural clotting mechanism is able to stop most cases of capillary bleeding within seconds to minutes. • Blood oozes from the wound
  11. 11. Venous Bleeding • Deep cuts have the potential to cut open veins. A cut vein typically results in a steady but relatively slow flow of dark red blood. • The best way to stop most cases of venous bleeding is
  12. 12. Arterial Bleeding • This is the least common and most dangerous type of bleeding. It involves bright red blood that comes out in large volume, and in spurts that
  13. 13. Arterial Bleeding • In most cases of arterial bleeding, direct and extremely firm pressure on the wound is the best way of stopping it. If direct pressure is not applied, a severe arterial wound can cause you to bleed to death within a few minutes.
  14. 14. Comparison
  15. 15. COMMON CAUSES OF BLEEDING Traumatic Bleeding Medical Conditions Medicines
  16. 16. Traumatic Bleeding • Caused by an injury (can vary in severity) but most will cause bleeding to some degree TYPES: • Abrasions that don’t penetrate below the skin • Hematoma or bruises - collection of blood outside of a blood vessel giving the skin a spongy, rubbery, lumpy feel • Crushing injuries • Lacerations or incisions • Puncture wounds (needles or knives) • Gunshot wounds
  17. 17. Medical Conditions • Generally rarer than traumatic bleeding Includes: • Hemophilia- bleeding disorder in which blood doesn’t clot normally • Leukemia- abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells • Liver Disease • Menorrhagia- abnormal profuse menstrual flow • Von Willebrand’s disease- deficiency of blood clotting protein • Thrombocytopenia-abnormally low amount of platelets • Vit. K Deficiency • Brain trauma - also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force
  18. 18. Medical Conditions • Bowel obstruction-mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion • Congestive heart failure- occurs when the heart isn't able to pump blood normally • Lung Cancer • Acute Bronchitis
  19. 19. Medicines • Some medicines can increase your chances of bleeding or even causes bleeding • You will be WARNED about this and ADVISED WHAT TO DO when you are first prescribed the medication Medicines that may be responsible for bleeding: • Blood-thinning medications- reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke by reducing the formation of blood clots in your arteries and veins. • Antibiotics (used in long term basis) • Radiation therapy
  20. 20. TREATMENT OF BLEEDING
  21. 21. How to address severe bleeding • Sanitize your hands if you can. If you have them, put on surgical gloves. This will help to prevent infection to the injured person.
  22. 22. How to address severe bleeding • Lay the injured person down flat and elevate the legs or place a pillow under the body so that the trunk is just slightly higher than the head. If the wound is in a limb, elevate the limb.
  23. 23. How to address severe bleeding • Cover the victim with a blanket, if possible, to keep body heat in.
  24. 24. How to address severe bleeding • Remove any debris or dirt from the bleeding area without removing any large chunks that may have caused the damage.
  25. 25. How to address severe bleeding • Apply pressure on the bleeding area to stop severe bleeding. If you have a clean cloth or bandage, use it. Otherwise, use whatever you have, including your hands. Hold the pressure for 20
  26. 26. How to address severe bleeding • Place a pad over the wound tightly with the edges of the wound held together for a gaping wound. Wrap the wound with a bandage if you have one. If not, use a clean cloth or whatever else you have. Bind it with adhesive tape.
  27. 27. How to address severe bleeding • Add cloths or any other absorbent material you might have if the bleeding does not stop and is coming through the
  28. 28. How to address severe bleeding • Place an ice pack on the wounded area. This will help to constrict blood vessels, which will
  29. 29. How to address severe bleeding • Locate the artery nearest to the wound and apply pressure to it, keeping your fingers flat and against the bone if the bleeding does not stop. –In the arm, the pressure points are located slightly below the inside of the armpit and slightly above the elbow. You can also find a pressure point at the wrist. –In the leg, the pressure points are in the
  30. 30. How to address severe bleeding
  31. 31. How to address severe bleeding • Get the injured person to the emergency room as quickly as you can when the bleeding has stopped or continue to wait for help
  32. 32. Classificationof Bleeding • Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat • Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream • Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound
  33. 33. God Bless STAY HEALTHY, STAY HAPPY!

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