M.Sc Pakistan Studies
Resource Person: Jamal Shah
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN
Geography: It is the study of …..
• physical structure, features and inhabitants of the
• focuses over general structure and features of earth,
studies the inter-dependency/ impacts of earth and its
Physiography: The subfield of geography ….
• about physical patterns and processes of the Earth.
• Effects of forces to produce/ modify rocks, oceans,
weather and global flora & fauna patterns.
• An arrangement of an artificial and natural physical
features of an area
• An area of the earth’s surface between two parallels of
• The long-term explanation of weather and other
atmospheric conditions in a given area or country.
• The short-term state of the atmosphere at a specific time
• Includes temperature, humidity, cloud, cover,
precipitation, wind, etc.
• A part of the year during which the behaviors of the
atmosphere usually remain the same.
• Each of the four divisions of a year.
• Varying Climatic Zones or Regions
• The diversified terrain has divided
Pakistan's climate into 4 major regions:
• Diversity of temperature in various
regions is due to the following:
–Large spread of latitude from 24 N to
–Diversity of relief ranging from K-2 to
low lying coasts of Makran
• Hot summer and mild winter:
– 32o C or more in summer and 10 to 21o C in winter.
• Warm summer and mild winter:
– 21 - 32oC in summer and 10 to 21oC in winter.
• Warm summer and cool winter:
– 21 - 32oC in summer and 0 - 10oC in winter.
• Mild summer and cool/cold winter:
– Summer temperature between 10 and 21oC
– Winter temperature between 0 and 10oC.
Usually Arid and Dry Temperature
o Humid in a small area in North
o Rainfall of about 625mm in Highlands
o Rainfall of about 740mm in Plains, e.g.
o Two main Sources:
o Western Depression
o Arid in Southeast and Southwest areas
• Cool, dehydrated winter
December / February
• Dry coil from Demo through May
The summer raining season
• Southwest downpour period
June / September
• The losing ground monsoon epoch
October / November
The start and length of these periods vary rather
according to location