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Sociocultural and political evolution


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the development of societies from the hunting and gathering to the agricultural, from industrial and post-industrial stages

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Sociocultural and political evolution

  1. 1. Lesson 2 Sociocultural and Political Evolution: The Development of Societies from the Hunting and Gathering to the Agricultural, Industrial, and Post-Industrial Stages
  2. 2. Gerhard Lenski- an American Sociologist argued that human society undergoes transformation and evolution and in the process develops technological advancement. “the more technology a society has, the faster it changes”
  3. 3. Hunting and Gathering Societies • The oldest and most basic way of economic subsistence.
  4. 4.  making use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food  depend on the family to do many things  although women and men perform different tasks, most hunters and gatherers probably see the sexes as having about the same social importance (Leacock, 1978)  people come close to being socially equal
  5. 5. `  large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources  money as a common standard of exchange, and the old barter system was abandoned  extreme social inequality, typically more than modern societies such as our own  agriculture raises men to a position of social dominance  religion reinforces the power of elites Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
  6. 6. Agricultural Societies and the Neolithic Revolution
  7. 7. • Human began to farm and domesticate animals. • Animal domestication provided important contributions to the Neolithic people. • The development of agriculture also led to an increase in social inequality
  8. 8. • the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery • water power and then steam boilers to operate mills and factories filled with large machines • change was so rapid that it sparked the birth of sociology itself • weakening of close working relationships, strong family ties, and many of the traditional Industrial Societies
  9. 9.  the production of information using computer technology  less and less labour force  the postindustrial society is at the heart of globalization  technology has improved life and brought the world's people closer but establishing peace, ensuring justice, and protecting the environment are problems that technology alone cannot solve Post-Industrial Societies
  10. 10. Characteristics: • Transfer of labor workforce from manufacturing to service • A significant increase in the number of professional and technical employment and a decline in the number of skilled and semiskilled workers • Education as the basis of social mobility • Human capital
  11. 11. • Application of “intellectual technology” • Focus on communication infrastructure • Knowledge as source of invention and innovation
  12. 12. Political Evolution and the Development of Early Civilization
  13. 13. Four Major Civilizations • Sumerian • Indus Valley • Shang • Egyptian
  14. 14. • Developed and highly advanced cities • Well-defined city centers • Complex and systematic institutions • Organized and centralized system of government • Formalized and complex form of religion • Job specialization • Development of Social classes • Advance technology • System of writing and recording
  15. 15. As a Political leader…. • Craft laws • Implement laws • Impose justice and punishment • Collect taxes • Sometimes act as religious leaders as well
  16. 16. Social and PoliticalSystems