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Basic Concept in Assessment


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Chapter I

Published in: Education
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Basic Concept in Assessment

  2. 2. According to Linn and Miller (2005) define assessment as any of a variety of procedures used to obtain information about student performance. Assessment refers to the full range of information gathered and synthesized by teachers about their students and their classrooms (Arends, 1994) Assessment is a method for analyzing and evaluating student achievement or program success.
  3. 3. Assessment for Learning Is practiced, students are encouraged to be more active in their learning and associated assessment. The ultimate purpose of assessment for learning is to create self-regulated learners who can leave school able and confident to continue learning throughout their lives. Teachers need to know at the outset of a unit of study where their students are in terms of their learning and then continually check on how they are progressing through strengthening the feedback they get from their learners.
  4. 4. Measurement, Evaluation and Assessment Measurement as used in education refers to the process of quantifying an individual’s achievement, personality, and attitudes among others by means of appropriate measuring instruments. Educational Measurement The first step towards elevating a field of study into a science is to take measurements of the quantities and qualities of interest in the field.
  5. 5. Basic concepts in Assessment As teachers, we are continually faced with the challenge of assessing the progress of our students as well as our own effectiveness as teachers. Educational Measurement The first step towards elevating a field of study into a science is to take measurements of the quantities and qualities of interest in the field. Types of Measurement Objective measurements- are measurements that do not depend on the person or individual taking the measurements. Subjective measurements- often differ from one assessor to the next even if the same quantity or quality is being measured.
  6. 6. The underlying principle in educational measurement is summarized by the following formula: Measurement of quantity or quality of interest = true value plus random error.
  7. 7. Evaluation is the process of systematic collection and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data for the purpose of making some decision and judgments. Assessment, Test, and Measurement Test: An instrument or systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behavior by posing a set of questions in a uniform manner. Measurement: The process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic. Measurement answers the question “How much?”
  8. 8. Test, Non- test, Examination, Test item and Quiz A test in the educational setting is a question or a series of question which aims to determine how well a student learned from a subject or topic taught. A non- test is a question or activity which determines the interests, attitude and other student’s characteristics whose answer or answers is/are not judged wrong or incorrect. Examples: Personality inventory,” What is your favorite sports?”, “Why do you prefer green vegetables?” An examination is a long test which may or may be composed of one or more test formats. Examples: Mid- term examination, Licensure Examination for Teachers, comprehensive examination. A test item is any question included in a test or examination. Examples: Who was the President of the Philippines when World War 2 broke out? Is “Little Red Riding Hood” a short story? A quiz is a short test usually given at the beginning or at the end of a discussion period.
  9. 9. Indicators, variables and Factors An educational variable (denoted by an English alphabet, like X) is a measurable characteristic of a student. Variables may be directly measurable as in X= age or X= height of a student. An indicator, I, denotes the presence or absence of a measured characteristics. Thus: I= 1, if the characteristics is present = O, if the characteristic is absent
  10. 10. Various Roles of Assessment Assessment plays a number of roles in making instructional decisions. Summative Role- An assessment may be done for summative purposes as in the illustration given above for grade VI mathematics achievement. Diagnostic Role- Assessment may be done for diagnostic purposes. In the case, we are interested in determining the gaps in learning or learning processes, hopefully, to be able to bridge these gaps. Formative Assessment- Another purpose of assessment is formative. In this role, assessment guides the teachers on his/ her day- to- day teaching activity. Placement- The final role of assessment in curricular decisions concerns placement. Assessment plays a vital role in determining the appropriate placement of a student both in terms of achievements and aptitude. Aptitude- refers to the area or discipline where a student would most likely excel or do well.
  11. 11. A Systems Model for Evaluation Evaluation provides a tool for determining the extent to which an educational process or program is effective and all the same time indicates directions foe remediating processes of the curriculum that do not contribute to successful student performance.( Jason , 2003) CONTEX INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOME
  12. 12. Evaluation Is the process of gathering and interpreting evidence regarding the problems and progress of individuals in achieving desirable educational goals. Chief Purposes of Evaluation The improvement of the individual learner Other Purposes of Evaluation  To maintain standard  To select students  To motivate learning  To guide learning  To furnish instruction  To appraise educational instrumentalities
  13. 13. Function of Evaluation  Prediction  Diagnosis  Research Areas of Educational Evaluation  Achievement  Aptitude  Interest  Personality A well defined system of evaluation:  Enable one to clarify goals  Check upon each phase of development  Diagnose learning difficulties  Plan carefully for remediation
  14. 14. Principles of Educational Evaluation • Evaluation must be based on previously accepted educational objectives. • Evaluation should be continuous comprehensive and cumulative process. • Evaluation should recognize that the total individual personality is involved in learning. • Evaluation should be democratic and cooperative. • Evaluation should be positive and action-directed • Evaluation should give opportunity to the pupil to become increasingly independent in self- appraisal and self- direction. • Evaluation should include all significant evidence from every possible source. • Evaluation should take into consideration the limitations of the particular educational situations.
  15. 15. Measurements Is the part of the educational evaluation process whereby some tools or instruments are use to provide a quantitative description of the progress of students towards desirable educational goals. Test or Testing Is a systematic procedure to determine the presence or absence of certain characteristics of qualities in a learner. Types of Evaluation • Placement • Formative • Diagnostic • Summative
  16. 16. Educational Assessment serves three important functions (Bernardo, 2003): 1. Student selection and certification -To make decisions, about which students get admitted, retained, promoted, and certified for graduation. 2. Instructional monitoring - To provide information about student learning and teaching performance to help teachers monitor manage, and make decisions about the instructional system. 3. For - Public accountability and program evaluation - Making decisions about the different aspects of the educational process - Helping make GOOD decisions, if they provide accurate, authentic, reliable and valid information about educational: LEARNING GOALS.
  17. 17. Principles of Educational Assessment • Educational assessment always begins with educational values and standards. • Assessment is not an end in itself but a vehicle for attaining educational goals and for improving on these educational goals. • These educational goals (values and standards) should be made explicit to all concerned from the very beginning. • Desired learning competencies (skills, knowledge, values, ways of thinking and learning) determine what we choose to assess. • Educational values and standards should also characterize how we assess. • Assessment systems should lead educators to help students attain the educational goals, values, and standards.
  18. 18. Characteristics of Assessment • Assessment is not a single event but a continue cycle. • Assessment must be an open process. • Assessment must promote valid inferences. • Assessment that matters should always employ multiple measures of performance. • Assessment should measures what is worth learning, not just what is easy to measure. • Assessment should support every student’s opportunity to learn important mathematics.
  19. 19. Elements of the Assessment Process -assessment should center on the learner and the learning process. Huba and Freed (2000) explained the four elements of learner centered assessment. 1. Formulating statements of intended learning outcomes 2. Developing or Selecting Assessment Measures 3. Creating Experiences Leading to Outcomes 4. Discussing and Using Assessment Results to Improve Learning
  20. 20. The Three Types of Learning Believing that there were more than one (1) type of learning, Benjamin Bloom and a committee of colleagues in 1956, identified three domains of educational activities: the cognitive, referring to mental skills; affective referring to growth in feeling or emotion; and psychomotor, referring to manual or physical skills.
  21. 21. The Three Types of Learning Believing that there were more than one (1) type of learning, Benjamin Bloom and a committee of colleagues in 1956, identified three domains of educational activities: the cognitive, referring to mental skills; affective referring to growth in feeling or emotion; and psychomotor, referring to manual or physical skills.
  22. 22. DOMAIN II: Psychomotor (Skills) In the early seventies, E Simpson, Dave and A, S, Harrow recommended categories for the psychomotor domain which included physical coordination, movement and use of the skills body parts. DOMAIN III: Affective (Attitude) -the affective domain refers to the way in which in which we deal with the situation emotionally such as feelings, appreciation, enthusiasm, motivation, value, and attitude. The taxonomy is ordered into 5 levels as the person progresses towards internalization in which the attitude or feeling consistently guides or controls a person’s behavior.
  23. 23. Principles of Good Practice in Assessing Learning Outcomes 1. The assessment of student learning starts with the institutions mission and core values. 2. Assessment works best when the program has clear statement of objectives aligned with the institutional missions and core values. 3. Outcomes- based assessment focuses on the student activities that will be relevant after schooling concludes. 4. Assessment requires attention not only to outcomes but also and equally to the activities and experiences that lead to the attainment of learning outcomes. 6. Assessment works best when it is continuous, ongoing and not episodic. 7. Assessment should be cumulative because improvement is best achieved through a linked series of activities done over time in
  24. 24. Kinds of Assessment Formative assessment Formative assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning. It does not contribute to the final mark given for the module; instead it contributes to learning through providing feedback. It should indicate what is good about a piece of work and why this is good; it should also indicate what is not so good and how the work could be improved. Effective formative feedback will affect what the student and the teacher does next. Summative assessment Summative assessment demonstrates the extent of a learner's success in meeting the assessment criteria used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of a module or program, and which contributes to the final mark given for the module. It is normally, though not always, used at the end of a unit of teaching. Summative assessment is used to quantify achievement, to reward achievement, to provide data for selection (to the next stage in education or to employment).
  25. 25. Diagnostic assessment Like formative assessment, diagnostic assessment is intended to improve the learner’s experience and their level of achievement. However, diagnostic assessment looks backwards rather than forwards. It assesses what the learner already knows and/or the nature of difficulties that the learner might have, which, if undiagnosed, might limit their engagement in new learning. It is often used before teaching or when a problem arises. Dynamic assessment Dynamic assessment measures what the student achieves when given some teaching in an unfamiliar topic or field. An example might be assessment of how much Swedish is learnt in a short block of teaching to students who have no prior knowledge of the language. It can be useful to assess potential for specific learning in the absence of relevant prior attainment, or to assess general learning potential for students who have a particularly disadvantaged background. It is often used in advance of the main body of teaching.
  26. 26. Synoptic assessment Synoptic assessment encourages students to combine elements of their learning from different parts of a program and to show their accumulated knowledge and understanding of a topic or subject area. A synoptic assessment normally enables students to show their ability to integrate and apply their skills, knowledge and understanding with breadth and depth in the subject. It can help to test a student's capability of applying the knowledge and understanding gained in one part of a program to increase their understanding in other parts of the program, or across the program as a whole. Synoptic assessment can be part of other forms of assessment. Criterion referenced assessment Each student’s achievement is judged against specific criteria. In principle no account is taken of how other students have performed. In practice, normative thinking can affect judgments of whether or not a specific criterion has been met. Reliability and validity should be assured through processes such as moderation, trial marking, and the collation of exemplars. Ipsative assessment This is assessment against the student’s own previous standards. It can measure how well a particular task has been undertaken against the student’s average attainment, against their best work, or against their most recent piece of work. Ipsative assessment tends to correlate with effort, to promote effort-based attributions of success, and to enhance motivation to learn.
  27. 27. Evaluative assessment provides instructors with curricular feedback (e.g., the value of a field trip or oral presentation technique) Educative assessment Integrated within learning activities themselves, educative assessment builds student (and faculty) insight and understandings about their own learning and teaching. In short, assessment is a form of learning.
  28. 28. The Effective Assessment Enhancing learning by enhancing assessment Assessment is a central element in the overall quality of teaching and learning in higher education. Well designed assessment sets clear expectations, establishes a reasonable workload (one that does not push students into rote reproductive approaches to study), and provides opportunities for students to self-monitor, rehearse, practice and receive feedback. Assessment is an integral component of a coherent educational experience. Three objectives for higher education assessment • Assessment that guides and encourages effective approaches to learning; • Assessment that validly and reliably measures expected learning outcomes, in particular the higher-order learning that characterizes higher education • Assessment and grading that defines and protects academic standards.
  29. 29. 16 indicators of effective assessment in higher education A checklist for quality in student assessment 1. Assessment is treated by staff and students as an integral and prominent component of the entire teaching and learning process rather than a final adjunct to it. 2. The multiple roles of assessment are recognized. The powerful motivating effect of assessment requirements on students is understood and assessment tasks are designed to foster valued study habits. 3.There is a faculty/departmental policy that guide individuals’ assessment practices. Subject assessment is integrated into an overall plan for course assessment. 4. There is a clear alignment between expected learning outcomes, what is taught and learnt, and the knowledge and skills assessed — there is a closed and coherent ‘curriculum loop’. 5. Assessment tasks assess the capacity to analyze and synthesis new information and concepts rather than simply recall information previously presented.
  30. 30. 6. A variety of assessment methods is employed so that the limitations of particular methods are minimized. 7. Assessment tasks are designed to assess relevant generic skills as well as subject- specific knowledge and skills. 8. There is a steady progression in the complexity and demands of assessment requirements in the later years of courses. 9. There is provision for student choice in assessment tasks and weighting at certain times. 10. Student and staff workloads are considered in the scheduling and design of assessment tasks. 11. Excessive assessment is avoided. Assessment tasks are designed to sample student learning.
  31. 31. 12. Assessment tasks are weighted to balance the developmental (‘formative’) and judgmental (‘summative’) roles of assessment. Early low-stakes, low-weight assessment is used to provide students with feedback. 13. Grades are calculated and reported on the basis of clearly articulated learning outcomes and criteria for levels of achievement. 14. Students receive explanatory and diagnostic feedback as well as grades. 15. Assessment tasks are checked to ensure there are no inherent biases that may disadvantage particular student groups. 16. Plagiarism is minimized through careful task design, explicit education and appropriate monitoring of academic honesty.
  32. 32. The Assessment Cycle Good assessment follows an intentional and reflective process of design, implementation, evaluation, and revision. The Assessment Cycle relies on four simple but dynamic words to represent this process.
  33. 33.  What do I want students to learn?  How do I teach effectively?  Are my outcomes being met?  How do I use what I've learned?