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charles correa's contribution and Radburn


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charles correa's contribution and Radburn

  2. 2. Contents: 1. • • • • • • • • • 2. • • • • • • • Charles Correa and his contribution Introduction to Charles Correa Case study of Navi Mumbai Navi mumbai – need for a new city Navi Mumbai – Creation Navi Mumbai – Design Principal Navi Mumbai – Land Use pattern Features of Navi Mumbai Transportation Conclusion Radburn Introduction Objectives of Radburn EMERGENCE OF RADBURN PLANNING Innovations of Radburn Planning of Radburn Layout of housing units Failure of Radburn planning
  3. 3. Introduction to Charles Correa • Charles Correa (born September 1, 1930) is a noted Indian architect, urban planner and activist. • He is noted for his sensitivity to the needs of the urban poor and for his use of traditional methods and materials. • Over the last four decades, Correa has done pioneering work on urban issues and low-cost shelter in the Third World. From 1970-75, he was Chief Architect for 'New Bombay’.
  4. 4. Education: • 1946-1948 inter-science. St. Xavier's college, university of Bombay • 1949-1955 B.Arch., University of Michigan. • 1953-1955 M.Arch., Massachusetts institute of technology Professional Experience 1955-1958 partner with G.M. BHUTA associate to date in private practice. 1964-1965 prepared master plan proposing twin city across the harbor from Bombay. 1969-1971 invited by the govt. of Peru 1971-1975 chief architect to CIDCO 1975-1976 consultant to UN secretary-general for HABITAT 1975-1983 Chairman Housing Urban Renewal & Ecology Board 1985 chairman dharavavi planning commission
  5. 5. Projects of Charles Correa: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The first important order of Correa is the memorial place for Mahatma Gandhi in Sangrahalaya with Ahmadabad (1958-63), an accumulation of buildings, grouped loosely around a central water yard, which integrate Gandhi’s house Meeting buildings (1951-58) in Chandigarh . Administration building (1958-60) and the philosophical faculty (1959-60) The Vallabh Vidyanagar university in Anand. Twin houses in Bhavnagar (1959) The Hindustan Lever Pavillion (1961) on the exhibition sites of Delhi reveals all constructional possibilities of the concrete building method Tube house in Ahmadabad (1962) Cablenger township in Kota(1967) Patwardhan houses in Pune (1967) Kanchanjunga apartments in Bombay(1970) Navi Mumbai(1971) Suatter housing in Bombay (1973) Malbar cement in Kerala (1973) Tapa house in Delhi (19775) JNIDB in Hyderabad(1986) CCMB in Hyderabad (1986) JNC at IISC in Bangalore(1990)
  6. 6. AWARDS 1961 Prize for low-income housing early 1972 Correa was awarded the PadmaShri by the President of India 1980 Correa was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Michigan 1984 He was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects 1985 Prize for the Improvement in the Quality of Human Settlements from the International Union of Architects. 1986 Chicago Architecture Award. 1987 the Gold Medal of the Indian Institute of Architects 1990 the Gold Medal of the UIA (International Union of Architects) 1994 the Premium Imperial from Japan society of art. 1999 Aga khan award for vidhan sabha, bhopal
  7. 7. Case study of Navi Mumbai:
  8. 8. Navi mumbai – need for a new city • To reduce the growth of population in mumbai city by creating attractive urban centre which will absorb the immigrants who will otherwise go to mumbai • Attract some of the mumbai’s present population so that overall population of greater mumbai can be contained in manageable limit. • Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. • To provide physical & social services, raising the living standard & reducing the disparities in the amenities available to the population
  9. 9. Navi Mumbai - Creation • The prominent author of “Twin City Concept” are Charles Correa(Chief Architect), Shirish Patel and Pravina Mehta who presented the government a proposal for constructing new growth centre across mumbai harbour on the mainland • The implementation occurred through political & bureaucratic channel in 1969. • The site was finally choosen across the harbour from mumbai island. • City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was formed on 17 March 1971 to plan & develpo navi mumbai.
  10. 10. Navi Mumbai – Design Principal • The conceptual design of Navi mumbai was developed at a height of a modernism • The principal:  decentralization by the design of self sufficient townships  Residential neighbourhood  Single use zoning as opposed to traditional multiple zoning Each node was planned to accommodate range of some income group Ponds were created to accumulate excess runoff
  11. 11. Navi Mumbai – Land Use pattern • Total area of 344 km² and 163 km² is under the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. • CIDCO provided services for both private & government ownership • Houses has been constructed For EWS,LIG,MIG,HIG
  12. 12. Migration to Navi Mumbai Migration to Navi Mumbai Island city (%) 54.6 Western Suburbs (%) 15.9 Eastern Suburbs (%) 5.9 Other districts of Maharashtra (%) 7.1 Outside Maharashtra (%) • Migration to Navi Mumbai 0.7 The above table presents that 30% of households shifted from Island city, 5% from western suburbs around 6% each from Eastern suburbs, 2% from other Metro Region.
  13. 13. Features of Navi Mumbai:  14 well-planned nodes, strung along mass transport corridors, effectively serving civic needs (Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, Kalamboli, New Panvel, Ulwe, Dronagiri and Pushpak.  45% land reserved for green zones and open-to-sky activities.  World-class infrastructure with excellent healthcare facilities in every node.  Quality housing for every stratum of society.  World-class education institutes in every node.  Reasonably priced commercial and residential real estate.  Direct access to any part of the country through road and rail.  Quick access to Central Business District located in the head of the city.  In close proximity to the most modern seaport - Jawaharlal Nehru Port.  International airport and Special Economic Zone in the offing.  Only Indian city to have commercial complex above railway stations.  Asia's biggest wholesale market, APMC, is located here.
  14. 14. Transportation : • The Mumbai suburban railway network covers most of the populated region of the city. The most important suburban stations are Vashi, Nerul, Belapur & Panvel. The stations are planned as major railway junctions. Panvel is the only mainline station and also the busiest railway station of Navi Mumbai. • International Airport : The Navi Mumbai International Airport will be built in the Panvel area, It will be built through Public Private Partnership (PPP), with private sector partners having 74% equity and the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Government of Maharashtra (through CIDCO) each holding 13%. Commerce: Many large institutions have their offices here. Reliance, DAKC, CORE Projects & Technologies Ltd, Hexaware Technologies, Mastek, Enser Communications, Patni Computer Systems, Intellenet, Hewitt Associates,TCS, Digit magazine, V2Solutions, IRIS Business Services Private Limited, Indiagames,RectifyCredit, Webele, K-Dimensions andCarwale.
  15. 15. Conclusion • In Charles Correa's public housing projects, it is possible to see the effect of his design language. Correa, parallel to the rapid population growth in Third World Countries, designed settlements which are low-rise and quickly built as well as have the potential of expansion. • In addition to this, each house is designed with its open spaces and house groups which its public spaces. In short, Correa designed low-rise housing with its open-space relations. • Correa stated that “In this, the old architecture – especially from vernacular – has much to teach us, as it always develops a typology of fundamental sense.”
  16. 16. Introduction • C.A. PERRY was the first one to specify the physical form of the neighbourhood unit (1872-1944). C.A. Perry described the neighbourhood unit & its Product is Radburn . • He Suggests that the maximum radius for walking distance from the home to the community center should be only 1/4 mile (400m). • Shopping areas are situated at intersecting traffic streets on the outside corners rather than at the center of the unit.
  17. 17. • Radburn means Saddle River in Old English • Size of 149 acres, includes 430 single family homes, 90 row houses, 54 semi-attached houses and a 93 apartment unit, as well as a shopping center, parks and amenities. • One of the most publicized, long-lived and influential models of rational planning • A partially built, planned settlement in northern New Jersey Represents the influence of the English Garden City rational, scientific planning • Represented many of the basic principles of planning theory from 1930s to 1960s
  18. 18. Objectives of Radburn: • Decentralized, self-contained settlements, organized to promote environmental considerations by conserving open space, harnessing the auto and promoting community life; key features:  hierarchical transportation systems  cul-de-sacs  footpath systems  underpasses  shopping center  ideal size of 30,000 ppl  homogeneity  large-scale development  clustered superblock  mixed-use  Interior park
  19. 19. EMERGENCE OF RADBURN PLANNING.  Inspired by the garden city idea, the city housing corporation of New York acquired a vacant site in new jersey within commuting distance of New York city for the community of Radburn.  The industrialization of the United States after World War I led to a dramatic growth of the cities during the 1920's.  Population shift led to a severe housing shortage.  In answer to the needs of "modern society", Radburn, the "Town for the Motor Age" was created in 1929.
  20. 20. Innovations of Radburn  Separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic:  This was accomplished by doing away with the traditional grid-iron street pattern and replacing it with an innovation called the superblock.  What is a superblock?  The superblock is a large block of land surrounded by main roads.  The houses are grouped around small cul-de-sacs, each of which has an access road coming from the main roads.  Finally, to further maintain the separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, a pedestrian underpass and an overpass, linking the superblocks, were provided.  The system was so devised that a pedestrian could start at any given point and proceed on foot to school, stores or church without crossing a street used by automobiles.
  21. 21. The parks were secured without additional cost to the residents.  The savings in expenditures for roads and public utilities at Radburn, as contrasted with the normal subdivision, paid for the parks.  The Radburn type of plan requires less area of street to secure the same amount of frontage.  In addition, for direct access to most houses, it used narrower roads of less expensive construction, as well as smaller utility lines.  In fact, the area in streets and length of utilities is 25% less than in the typical American street.  The savings in cost not only paid for 12 - 14% of the total area that went into internal parks, but also covered the cost of grading and landscaping the play spaces and green links connecting the central block commons.
  22. 22. Planning of radburn  The street plan formed a pattern of rectangular blocks divided into rectangular lots that were usually very narrow to conserve on utility lines and very deep to conserve on streets.  The curvilinear design was then revised to give some resemblance of character to the subdivision to subdue to deadly monotony of parallel streets stretching to infinity.  When parking is desired on each side of the street, the right of way is between 54-64 feet wide, pavement width 36 feet.  It suggests parking on one side only since the traffic lanes should not be less than 10 feet wide.
  23. 23.  Cul-de-sac and the loop street  The cul-de-sac, or dead-end street, came into use to eliminate through traffic in a positive manner.  Cul-de-sac terminate in a circular to retain their inherent advantages, they should be short-a maximum length of 450 feet is recommended.  Long cul-de-sacs, induce accelerated traffic speeds and render access for service and fire protection more complicated.  It eliminates the necessity for the turnaround and provides the continuous circulation that is required by some communities to assure no interference with the accessibility of fire protection and other services.
  24. 24. Layout of housing units  The houses were oriented in reverse of the conventional placement on the lot.  Kitchens and garages faced the road, living rooms and bedrooms turned toward the garden.  Pathways provided uninterrupted pedestrian access to a continuous park strip, which led to large common open spaces within the center of the superblock.
  25. 25. • The 2900 residents of Radburn share 23 acres of interior parks, which yield 345 square feet / person. • These parks provide small districts for the city. • The Plaza Building is Radburn’s only neighborhood shopping center, and its tall clock tower has been a neighborhood landmark since 1927. • Radburn works as a garden city and a wonderful example of a well designed community because every piece is integrated perfectly into one body.
  26. 26. Failure of Radburn planning  The design of Radburn believed that people would actively use the front of the houses facing the greenways.  In reality, people come and go and "live" from the back of the houses and the vehicular, not pedestrian, access.  More people and children walking and playing in the little driveways and cul-de-sacs than on the actual greenways.  Second, the market has repeatedly shown that homeowners prefer more personal land around their homes to living on tiny lots and sharing a large green space in common.  The Depression pushed the builder, City Housing Corporation, into bankruptcy.