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Approaches to Christology, Gospels, Fulfillment of Prophecy, Jewish province, Groups & Factions of Judaism, Temptation of Jesus, elements of Discipleship, 12 Apostles in Last supper, Parables, Beatitudes, Heresy of Divinity of Jesus, Christological councils, Titles of Jesus.

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  1. 1. Christology -Comes from Greek word “Christos” means “Messiah or the Anointed one” and “logos” means study. - Study of Jesus viewed as the Messiah, which focus in his nature, teachings and actions of Christ who is considered as both fully human and divine.
  2. 2. Approaches to Christology Ontological Christology- “onto” means “being”; Jesus is fully human and divine in person.] Functional Christology- study of work of Jesus achieved in plan of salvation. Historical Christology- investigates facts & evidences of historical human Jesus. It also includes the words (teachings) and works (miracles). Dogmatic Christology- according to teachings, doctrines, dogma of Catholic Church. Christology from Below ( Ascending Christology) Starting from the point of human experience and associates with Church doctrine. Christology from Above ( Descending Christology) Starting with the study of Jesus divinity and preached by church.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1 * Roman writers Cornelius Tacitus Pliny the Younger Suetonius Lucian of Samosata * Jewish writers Flavius Josephus Mishnah
  4. 4. CHAPTER 2 Gospel - “ godspell” which literally means good news. It is a religious message & source of faith. 3 stages in formation of the gospels 1. Jesus and his disciples Foundational stage- gospels are deeply rooted to their meaning and purpose. 2. Disciples and early Christians Kerygma- proclamation of their faith to the risen Christ.Stage of preaching and oral tradition. 3. Early Christians and its Evangelists Evangelist- are the one who announces good news and also are Gospel writers. Reasons: Cathechism for the members of the Christian Communities Preservation and Preparation for the future generation Christians.
  5. 5. 4 Gospels (canonical gospels) Mark -talks about the identity of Jesus as Messiah Matthew -interpretation of Law -( Messiah in word and deed) Luke -Suffering servant Messiah John - talks about the Love of God for us
  6. 6. CHAPTER 3 Christmas- person-centered celebration; Birth of Jesus Fulfillment of the Prophecy 1. Mary and Joseph are Jesus’ legitimate parents. 2. Mary’s Virginity- divine maternity ( holy spirit) 3. Yeshua- means “ Yahweh helps and God saves”
  7. 7. CHAPTER 4 The Jewish Province Galilee- center of agriculture and trade. 1. Tiberias- capital city of Galilee. 2. Caesarea Philippi - northernmost town in Palestine. 3. Nazareth - simple guard post of the Romans. 4. Capernaum - village of Nahum 5. Bethsaida - house of fishing 6. Cana - wedding feast 7. Sepphoris - capital province of Galilee.
  8. 8. Samaria - highly discriminated groups in Palestine (unclean) * Mt. Gerizim- sacred place. Judea -return of the Exiles from Babylon. 1. Jerusalem ( economic strength) -most important city in Palestine 2. Emmaus - apparition of the risen Christ. 3. Arimathea 4. Bethany 5. Jericho 6. Qumran 7. Bethlehem The Non-Jewish Province * Idumea * Decapolis
  9. 9. CHAPTER 5 The Contemporaries of Jesus: Groups and Factions Internal to Judaism *Sanhedrin- it is the highest jewish council; religious in nature not political. *Highest priest -it is the head of the powerful Sanhedrin. *Sadducees -comes from “ Zadok, Solomon’s priest *Pharisees- the laymen * Scribes- they are persons who acquire professional ability I reading and writing.
  10. 10. External to Judaism Essenes -group who looked at the corrupt priests. Baptists - are those who baptized people. Political Factions Roman Empire Zealots Herodians The leasts, outcasts and sick The poor, Women, Public sinners
  11. 11. Temple - is central to the conduct Jewish faith because it is a place of prayer, worship and offering. Synagogue - place of meeting; it is intended for education and instruction.
  12. 12. CHAPTER 6 The 3 Temptations of Jesus The 1st temptation: “If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.” He said: “It is written, ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.’” quoting Deuteronomy 8:1-3. The 2nd Temptation: “If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down. For it is written: ‘He shall give His angels charge over you,’ and, ‘In their hands they shall bear you up, lest you dash your foot against a stone.’” He said: “It is written again, ‘You shall not tempt the Lord your God.’” The 3rd Temptation: “All these things I will give you, if you will fall down and worship me.” He said: Be gone Satan! For it is written that you shall worship your God and him only you shall serve.
  13. 13. Elements of Discipleship 1. Initiative or invitation 2. Voluntary consent 3. Low qualifications 4. Fellowship
  15. 15. 12 Apostles of Jesus 1. Simon Peter- son of John 2. James, Son of Zebedee- son of thunder 3. John, Brother of James- beloved disciple 4. Andrew- founder of 1st bishop of the Church (fisher folk) 5. Philip- lover of horses 6. Bartholomew-witness of ascension 7. Matthew, tax collector- witness resurrection and ascension 8. Thomas- Doubting, disbelieving Jesus. 9. James, Son of Alphaeus- James the less 10. Thaddeus- Jude of James 11. Simon the Cananaean- Simon the Zealot 12. Judas Iscariot- the one who betray Jesus, Kiss of Judas 13. Matthatias- replacement of Judas
  16. 16. CHAPTER 7 Parables -“parabole” means putting two things side by side to compare them. Beatitudes -exclaimation of congratulations and state of happiness
  17. 17. THE EIGHT BEATITUDES OF JESUS Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness,for they shall be satisfied. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure of heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God. Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.“ Gospel of St. Matthew 5:3-10
  18. 18. CHAPTER 8 Variety of Jesus Miracles Healing Miracles Exorcisms Restoration of Life Nature miracles Conflicts of Religious activities Healing of the Paralytic man Forgiveness of sins The call of Levi Question about fasting Work on Sabbath Healing on Sabbath 3 types of poverty Poverty of Destitution Poverty of Spirit Evangelical Poverty
  19. 19. CHAPTER 9 FINAL DAYS OF JESUS Last supper Agony in the Garden Accusations against Jesus Religious Accusations Violation of Sabbath law Intending to destroy the temple Granting forgiveness of sins Claiming as the son of God Political Accusations Refusal to pay tribute to Caesar Claiming to be the King Inciting People to Revolt (sedition) Crucifixion- great fear & horror ( Mt. Golgotha) God’s unconditional Love ( Suffering Servant Messiah)
  20. 20. Chapter 10 Heresies on the Divinity of Jesus Apollinarian- human body & soul but not in mind. Arianism -denial of divinity & subsequently the Holy Spirit. Nestorianism -Jesus is divine, but Mry is not his Mother. Adoptionists -Jesus is adopted son. Cerithians- God is the creator of the World. Gnosticism - special knowledge necessary for salvation. Docetism- Jesus have no real body.
  21. 21. Christological Councils Council of Jerusalem - first council made by apostles Council of Chalcedon - Jesus is human and divine in nature. Council of Epheus - Mary was the Mother of Jesus. Council of Nicaea - first general council of Christianity Council of Constantinople - denied the divinity of Jesus.
  22. 22. Titles of Jesus: Christ( Messiah) -the anointed one. Lord ( Kyrios) -Jesus is Divine; he is God. Son of Man -suffering servant Son of God -unique son who is divine. Prophet, Priest, King - testifier of the truth.