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12/20 Moskou Keynote Digital Literacy


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On December 11, 2020, I held a Keynote at the 6th International Conference in Moskou. Reading and Literacy in Education and Culture: Letters in Digits, organized by The Reading Association of Russia.

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12/20 Moskou Keynote Digital Literacy

  1. 1.; @jeroencl Digital Literacy Rethinking literacy and learning A big challenge for education and culture Jeroen Clemens The Netherlands Международная научно-практическая конференция «Чтение и грамотность в образовании и культуре» November 2020 Moscow
  2. 2. Background & Focus Language Teacher Teacher trainer Consultant/ trainer/ speaker Focus on Digital Literacy Head Language department EduBlogger More Info:
  3. 3. Aims of this talk • New Literacy in Digital Times • Digital Literacy and Language Teaching • Teaching digital literacy in classroom and school • Professional development and redesign of curriculum
  4. 4.; @jeroenclPrint Literacy Digital Literacy Literacy
  5. 5. Internet Useful & Nice • Information at your fingertips • Collaborate and co-learn online • Communicate with friends, school, government and work everywhere • Share and receive information, views and thoughts • Buy everything online
  6. 6.; @jeroencl Complex, Unknown and Scary
  7. 7. Digital literacy needed • As a lifelong learner • As a reader, writer, communicator • To be part of communities, to collaborate • To be a competent civilian in society • To enjoy new cultural activities
  8. 8. Digital Literacy Working Definition
  9. 9. Confusing Definitions
  10. 10.; @jeroencl Definitions & Frameworks EU DigComp 2.0: Digital Competence Framework for Citizens In Information literacy Computational thinking Media literacy ICT basic skills Digital literacy Dutch Framework for Education
  11. 11.; @jeroencl In Information literacy Computational thinking Media literacy ICT basic skills Digital literacy KISS Digital = in a Digital Information Environment Literacy = Reading and Writing, Communicating using Text Focus of the Teacher
  12. 12. Digital Literacy Definition “understanding, using, evaluating, reflecting on and engaging with digital texts & tools in a digital environment to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential and to participate in society” “Process of constructing meaning through critical accessing, comprehending, and using texts” OECD/ PISA 2018 Cho, B.-Y., Afflerbach, P., & Han, H. (2018).
  13. 13. Are Digital Natives competent (online) readers & writers?
  14. 14. Myth of the Digital Native Kirschner, P. A., & De Bruyckere, P. (2017) Prensky, M. (2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Persistent idea Digital natives, born after 1984 in an age of digital media • have a natural aptitude to use networked technologies, • possess new and exciting skills such as the ability to multitask • hold sophisticated knowledge and information literacy because of the contemporary web culture in which they live. Research shows • the digital native does not exist • people, regardless of their age, can not multitask • not capable of dealing with modern technologies in the way which is often ascribed to them • may actually suffer if education plays to these alleged abilities to relate to, work with, and control their own learning with multimedia in digitally environments
  15. 15.; @jeroencl Prior Knowledge Traditional Reading Skills Digital Reading Skills (20%) Coiro, J. (2011). Predicting Reading Comprehension on the Internet: Contributions of Offline Reading Skills, Online Reading Skills, and Prior Knowledge. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(4), Another Myth: Traditional literacy competences are sufficient A good Print Reader is a Good Online Reader
  16. 16. PISA 2018 The framework integrates reading in a traditional sense together with the new forms of reading (…) that continue to emerge due to the spread of digital devices and digital texts. The framework incorporates basic reading processes. (fluent reading, literal interpretation, inter-sentence integration, extraction of the central themes and drawing inferences) The framework (..) incorporate[s] [new, online] reading processes such as evaluating the veracity of texts, seeking information, reading from multiple sources and integrating/synthesising information across sources. The revision considers how new technology options and the use of scenarios involving print and digital text can be harnessed to achieve a more authentic assessment of reading, consistent with the current use of texts around the world.
  17. 17.; @jeroencl Performance In Russia, 78% of students attained at least Level 2 proficiency in reading (OECD average: 77%). At a minimum, these students can identify the main idea in a text of moderate length, find information based on explicit, though sometimes complex criteria, and can reflect on the purpose and form of texts when explicitly directed to do so. Level 2 proficiency has been identified as the “minimum level of proficiency” that all children should acquire by the end of secondary education Functional Illiterate Russia 22% Netherlands 24%
  18. 18.; @jeroencl Average Test Score Netherlands Pisa 2003 – Pisa 2018
  19. 19. New literacies needed • New: new skills, strategies and dispositions are required • Need: are central to full participation in a global community • Not definite: Continue to change as their defining technologies change Coiro, J. (2020).
  20. 20.; @jeroencl Context Factors Task Factors Text Factors Reader Factors Digital Literacy Competence
  21. 21. (1) Context Factors Information Environment • Overwhelming and changing everyday • No clear Structure • Not always clear author • Reliability & Usefulness information • need sophisticated metacognitive skills for navigating • Internet and Deep internet
  22. 22. (2) Task Factors • Learning Tasks = often a research and problem-solving task in an online environment • Process of constructing meaning through critical accessing, comprehending, and using texts • Far more complex than reading & writing single, linear texts
  23. 23. (3) Text factors Print • Linear texts • Single text • Letters Pictures • Static • Writer to Reader • Editors / Mostly Reliable Digital • Non-Linear Hypertexts • New Texts Types: blogs, websites, podcasts, infographics, vlogs • Multidocument: Cluster texts • Multimodal: text, video, audio.. • Changing • Interactive, collaborative • No Editors / Less Reliable
  24. 24. Reader factors
  25. 25. (1) (Meta)cognitive capabilities • Attent & Remember information • Navigate, Monitor and Self-regulate • Critical Evaluate • Integrate and Synthesize
  26. 26. (2) Dispositions & Motivations • About reading (interesting, difficult) • About themselves as readers (motivation, self- confidence) • About Internet (useful, valuable, engaging, difficult)
  27. 27. Knowledge Internet and Disposition • What’s the structure of Internet? • What can I find on internet? • Is all information reliable and useful? • Were are the resources? • Superficial / Deep Internet • If it’s on Internet, it’s true • First resource is reliable and useful • Synthesis = Copy and Paste
  28. 28. (3) Language Competencies • Knowledge of & Using varied types of texts • Strategies for Online Literacy • Vocabulary & Syntax: Search & Critical questions • Critical Reading: New criteria and use of source characteristics for evaluation • Knowledge of disciplinary good resources
  29. 29. (4) Reading to Learn: Core Skills & Strategies • Searching & Locating information with a search engine • Evaluating/ Questioning credibility of online information [& usability] • Identifying main ideas from a single online resource • Synthesizing information across multiple online resources • Communicating a justified, source-based position Kiili, C., Leu, D. J., Utriainen, J., Coiro, J., Kanniainen, L., Tolvanen, A., et al. (2018). Reading to Learn From Online Information. Modeling the Factor Structure
  30. 30. Digital Literacy Education
  31. 31. offline Multiple-document literacy: analysis & synthesis (Print & Screen Texts) Digital Literacy (online) Locate, Evaluate, Synthesize & Communicate New, Inclusive Definition of Literacy Cho & Afflerbach, 2010 Traditional Print literacy fluency, vocabulary, comprehension single text (Print & Screen texts) Re-definition of Teaching Literacy
  32. 32. The Real Stuff Teaching Practice Redefine goals 1 Motivate students 2 Change/ Add New Content 3 Integrate always 4 Teaching Update 5
  33. 33. New attainment goals Examples • Search strategies • Can determine which sources can provide information to answer the question • Can determine whether the required information is actually available and where • Can create an effective and efficient search strategy • Can adjust the search strategy, if necessary • Acquisition and selection of information • Can acquire the information needed to answer a question or problem and make a selection from it • Can assess the information on usability, reliability and representativeness
  34. 34. Motivate • Show: Discuss and model your/ their experiences & meaningfulness • Make it count: Relate to Learning tasks across the curriculum & Cross curriculum projects • Make it fun: not only boring papers and articles. Use their creativity ( Use blogs, make a website (with video) as learning outcome) • Make it interesting: use projects in which they really can wonder & discover • Make it count (2) explicit part of grading (in all subjects/ domains • Scaffold. Most motivating is to succeed, and they need some help
  35. 35. Add / Supplement • New definition Literacy & New attainment goals • New Strategies: Searching, Locating, Evaluating & Communicating online • Search engines: Smart Use & Understand • New text formats (Reading & Writing): Hypertexts, Text Search Results, Blogs, Vlogs, Podcast, • Internet: New Information Environment • Information Management (categorize, Save, Retrieve) • Synthesis: Writing a justified, source-based text
  36. 36. Integrate • Do NOT add a new subject Digital Literacy in school curriculum, but integrate • Relate skills and strategies to traditional ones. • New Online vs Offline texts • Critical reading Offline vs Online texts • Search strategies for Print vs Online Texts • Locate in Print vs Online Texts • Relate it to Research tasks in your own classroom and cross curriculum
  37. 37. In the Classroom Teach • Always teach strategies related to learning tasks, not separately. Sometimes redesign. • Co-learning: Let students learn from each other: Collaborate, learn aloud, and discuss • Modelling: teacher and students • Integrate online texts and skills/ strategies in new assignments • Compare and contrast, and so make new skills meaningful. • Collaborative classroom: Share Best Strategies in Class, Build Criteria Lists collaboratively • (Digital) Scaffolds
  38. 38. Examples Project Scaffolding
  39. 39. Project: Research your Ancestors Find an ancestor you want to know more about/ do research and present Integration competences: Digital Literacy, Research skills, Collaborative learning, Writing/ Presentation skills Higher order skills: Analyse, Evaluate, Synthesize, Communicate Creative thinking Personality Development Across curriculum: Language, History, Philosophy
  40. 40. Research phase
  41. 41. (2) Sharing Research (3) Write and share
  42. 42. Media attention: Journals, Radio & Documentary on TV
  43. 43. Results • Motivated students • Digital Literacy in meaningful context • Collaboration cross curriculum • Improved writing skills and motivation for writing
  44. 44. Scaffolding
  45. 45. PDI Framework Online Inquiring Tool Coiro, J., Kiili, C., Hämäläinen, J., Deane, L. C., Naylor, R., OConnell, R., & Quinn, D. (2015)
  46. 46. Professional & Curriculum Development School Level and beyond
  47. 47. • Don’t wait for the textbooks. Redesign your own curriculum • Work in Teacher Design Teams (PD) • Subject team (Language teachers) or Mixed Team • Think, Design, Try-out, Reflect, Redesign • Collaborate • Use digital literacy as Research Skill in other subjects. • Assignments from other subjects as learning tasks • Collaborate and co-design across the curriculum • Collaborate with Library Experts • Discuss the role of Language Teacher (across the curriculum) • Use professional Networks like Русская Ассоциация Чтения or ELINET
  48. 48. One More Thing
  49. 49. The Bi-literate brain • Digital/ online processes are fast and well- suited for large volumes of information so will the reading brain adapt to new way of reading. • It reduces time allocated to deep reading processes: grasp complexity and to create thoughts of the reader’s own. • We need to cultivate a new kind of brain: a “bi- literate” reading brain capable of the deepest forms of thought in either digital or traditional mediums.
  50. 50. New Literacy Education Include Digital Literacy Don’t forget Deep & Slow Reading Teach The Bi-literate Curriculum
  51. 51. Jeroen Clemens @jeroencl
  52. 52. Resources • Coiro, J. (2011). Predicting Reading Comprehension on the Internet: Contributions of Offline Reading Skills, Online Reading Skills, and Prior Knowledge. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(4), 352–392. • Coiro, J. (2017). Advancing Reading Engagement and Achievement through Personal Digital Inquiry, Critical Literacy, and Skilful Argumentation. In C. Ng & B. Bartlett (Eds.), Improving Reading and Reading Engagement in the 21st Century: International Research and Innovation. Singapore: Springer. • Coiro, J. (2020). Toward a Multifaceted Heuristic of Digital Reading to Inform Assessment, Research, Practice, and Policy. Reading Research Quarterly, 23(2). • Cho, B.-Y., Woodward, L., Li, D., & Barlow, W. (2017). Examining Adolescents’ Strategic Processing During Online Reading With a Question-Generating Task. American Educational Research Journal, 54(4), 691–724. • Kervin, L., Mantei, J., & Leu, D. J. (2018). Repositioning Online Reading To A Central Location In The Language Arts. In D. Lapp & D. Fisher (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts 4th Edition. • Kiili, C., Leu, D. J., Utriainen, J., Coiro, J., Kanniainen, L., Tolvanen, A., et al. (2018). Reading to Learn From Online Information. Modeling the Factor Structure. Journal of Literacy Research, 50(3), 304–334. • Kirschner, P. A., & Stoyanov, S. (2018). Educating Youth for Nonexistent/Not Yet Existing Professions. Educational Policy, 34(3), 477–517. • OECD. (2019). PISA 2018 Assessment and Analytical Framework. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from • Voogt, J. M., Pieters, J. M., & Handelzalts, A. (2016). Teacher collaboration in curriculum design teams: effects, mechanisms, and conditions. Educational Research and Evaluation, 22(3-4), 1–20. •